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Xiao-Li Xie, Jie-Tao He, Zheng-Tao Wang, Huan-Qin Xiao, Wen-Tao Zhou, Si-Hao Du, Ye Xue, Qi Wang
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar, which effectively decreases METH-induced neurotoxicity in rat. However, the exact mechanisms need further investigation. In this study, 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats received METH (15 mg/kg, 8 intraperitoneal injections, 12-hour interval) or saline and received lactulose (5.3 g/kg, oral gavage, 12-hour interval) or vehicle 2 days prior to the METH administration. Compared to the control group, in the METH alone group, cytoplasmic vacuolar degeneration in hepatocytes, higher levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and ammonia, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase of superoxide dismutase activity in the blood were observed...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Dan Liu, Li Zhu, Tong Ni, Fang-Lin Guan, Yan-Jiong Chen, Dong-Liang Ma, Eyleen L K Goh, Teng Chen
microRNA (miRNA) play important roles in drug addiction and act as a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. We previously reported extensive downregulation of miRNAs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of methamphetamine (METH)-sensitized mice. However, the regulatory mechanism of this METH-induced downregulation of miRNAs has yet to be elucidated. Thus, we examined METH-induced changes in the expression of miRNAs and their precursors, as well as the expression levels of mRNA and the proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis such as Dicer1 and Ago2, in the nucleus accumbens of METH-induced locomotor sensitized mice...
March 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Hugo Cezar Nogueira Alvim, Laís Regiane da Silva-Concílio, José Renato Cavalcanti de Queiroz, Marina Amaral, Rafael Pino Vitti, Ana Christina Claro Neves
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic and a luting agent when submitted to plasma etching surface treatment before and after thermocycling (TC) with 3000 cycles of 5°C-55°C. The null hypothesis was that the surface treatments and thermocycling would not influence the bond strength. A total of 160 Y-TZP ceramic blocks in 2 sizes (10 size 1 and 10 size 2 blocks in each group) were distributed into 8 groups: group C (control), no surface treatment; group C-TC, TC without prior surface treatment; group SAO, sandblasting with aluminum oxide (Al2O3); group SAO-TC, sandblasting with Al2O3 followed by TC; group SAOS, sandblasting with silica-coated Al2O3; group SAOS-TC, sandblasting with silica-coated Al2O3 followed by TC; group PE, plasma etching; and group PE-TC, plasma etching followed by TC...
March 2018: General Dentistry
Muhammad Rouf Akram, Mahmood Ahmad, Asad Abrar, Rai Muhammad Sarfraz, Asif Mahmood
Background: The present work was conducted to prepare and evaluate transdermal patches with optimization of suitable polymeric blend of poly(meth) acrylates (Eudragit® ) (Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur) for sustained transdermal delivery of glimepiride. Method: Polymeric matrix transdermal films were prepared by using Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RL 100 and Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RS 100 as the film former, and dibutyl phthalate (30% w/w) as the plasticizer...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Yulai Shen, Lu Wu, Jun Wang, Xin Wu, Xuemei Zhang
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes significant physical, psychological, and social concerns. Therefore, in this study, we investigated its effects on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We found that METH dose-dependently affected MSCs viability. Upon osteogenic induction, the 3 and 30 µmol/l METH dosages without deleterious effects on MSCs viability resulted in the down-regulation of osteoblastic marker genes (Alp, Bglap, and Runx2), suppression of the protein expression of RUNX2, and decreased ALP activity and mineralization ability...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Rubén García-Cabrerizo, Cristian Bis-Humbert, M Julia García-Fuster
A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that binge methamphetamine induced hippocampal cell damage (i.e., impaired cell genesis) in rats when administered specifically during late adolescence (postnatal day, PND 54-57) and evaluated 24 h later (PND 58). The results also suggested a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulating cell genesis and survival. This subsequent study evaluated whether these effects persisted in time as measured following prolonged withdrawal. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated (i...
February 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Enquan Xu, Jianuo Liu, Han Liu, Xiaobei Wang, Huangui Xiong
Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant abused worldwide. Ample evidence indicate that chronic abuse of Meth induces neurotoxicity via microglia-associated neuroinflammation and the activated microglia present in both Meth-administered animals and human abusers. The development of anti-neuroinflammation as a therapeutic strategy against Meth dependence promotes research to identify inflammatory pathways that are specifically tied to Meth-induced neurotoxicity. Currently, the exact mechanisms for Meth-induced microglia activation are largely unknown...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Harriet Hunt, Alex Pollock, Pauline Campbell, Lise Estcourt, Ginny Brunton
BACKGROUND: Overviews of systematic reviews are a relatively new approach to synthesising evidence, and research methods and associated guidance are developing. Within this paper we aim to help readers understand key issues which are essential to consider when taking the first steps in planning an overview. These issues relate to the development of clear, relevant research questions and objectives prior to the development of an overview protocol. METHODS: Initial discussions and key concepts for this paper were formed during a workshop on overview methods at the 2016 UK Cochrane Symposium, at which all members of this author group presented work and contributed to wider discussions...
March 1, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Fan Huang, Jianli Tang, Lian He, Xuezhi Ding, Shaoya Huang, Youming Zhang, Yunjun Sun, Liqiu Xia
BACKGROUND: Syringolin, synthesized by a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) B728a, is a novel eukaryotic proteasome inhibitor. Meanwhile, directly modifying large fragments in the PKS/NRPS gene cluster through traditional DNA engineering techniques is very difficult. In this study, we directly cloned the syl gene cluster from Pss B301D-R via Red/ET recombineering to effectively express syringolin in heterologous hosts...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Shasha Xu, Shaoang Tu, Jinlong Gao, Jia Liu, Zhirui Guo, Jinming Zhang, Xingdang Liu, Jianhui Liang, Yiyun Huang, Mei Han
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant with high abuse liability that affects the monoamine neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system. Currently there are no effective medications for the treatment of METH abuse to restore METH-induced dopaminergic dysfunction. The Jitai tablet (JTT), a commercial traditional Chinese medicinal preparation, has been shown to modulate the dopaminergic function both in heroin addicts and in morphine-dependent rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a rodent model, whether JTT can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity, and/or restore METH-damaged dopaminergic function...
February 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Lihua Yang, Yinli Guo, Mengbin Huang, Xiaoli Wu, Xiang Li, Guobing Chen, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant abused around the world. Emerging evidence indicates that METH causes brain damage. However, there are very few reports on METH-induced demyelination. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays the roles in protecting neurons from various stresses. However, whether Trx-1 resists demyelination induced by METH has not been reported. In this study, we found that METH-induced thin myelin sheaths in spinal cord, whereas Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (TG) mice restored the myelin sheaths thickness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lilian T Nishimura, Adam Auckburally, Juliana Santilli, Beatriz H B Vieira, Debora O Garcia, Cristiane S Honsho, Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior
OBJECTIVE To evaluate cardiopulmonary, sedative, and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine combined with commonly administered opioids in dogs. ANIMALS 8 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated by IM administration of each of 7 treatments. Treatments comprised dexmedetomidine (0.01 mg/kg; Dex) and the same dose of dexmedetomidine plus butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg; Dex-But), meperidine (5 mg/kg; Dex-Mep), methadone (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Meth), morphine (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Mor), nalbuphine (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Nal), or tramadol (5 mg/kg; Dex-Tram)...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Bu, Yan Li, Xue Shao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Wei Guo, Jingwei Tian, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has become a major public health concern worldwide without approved pharmacotherapies. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of neuronal function as well as neurological disorders. Angiotensin II (Ang II), which interacts with Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 -R) in the brain, plays an important role as a neuromodulator in dopaminergic transmission. However, the role of brain RAS in METH-induced behavior is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that repeated METH administration significantly upregulated the expression of AT1 -R in the striatum of mice, but downregulated dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) expression...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Ashlea F Dassanayake, Juan J Canales
There are currently no approved medications to effectively counteract the effects of methamphetamine (METH), reduce its abuse and prolong abstinence from it. Data accumulated in recent years have shown that a range of N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogues possesses psychopharmacological features consistent with those of a potential replacement or "substitute" treatment for stimulant addiction. On the other hand, the evidence that antidepressant therapy may effectively prevent relapse to stimulant seeking is controversial...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Guofen Cao, Yongai Zhang, Li Zhu, Jie Zhu, Na Zhao, Nan Dong, Yonghui Dang, Yanjiong Chen, Teng Chen
Methamphetamine (METH) administration results in addiction and memory impairment. Previous studies have suggested that levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), an alkaloid purified from the Chinese herb Corydalis, attenuates the behavioral changes induced by METH. Therefore, in this study, we explored whether l-THP could also protect against the METH-induced memory impairment examined using the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that low dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg) treated for 20 consecutive days prior to the MWM experiment impaired spatial memory retention but not acquisition in mice...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Heiko Methe, Sinan Pehlivanli
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism is a hereditary form of primary hyperaldosteronism and the most common monogenic cause of hypertension. We present the case of a 24-year-old man with a family history of Conn's syndrome. Yet, in the index patient, classical characteristics of mineralocorticoid excess could be reversed by exogenous glucocorticoids.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Cansu Ergene, Edmund F Palermo
The rising incidence of antibiotic-resistant infections, combined with a declining number of new antibiotic drug approvals, has generated an alarming therapeutic gap that critically undermines public health. Host Defense Peptides (HDPs), sometimes referred to as "Nature's Antibiotics", are short chain, amphiphilic and cationic peptide sequences found in all multicellular organisms as part of their innate immunity. While there is a vast diversity in terms of HDP sequence and secondary structure, they all seem to share physiochemical characteristics that can be appropriated for macromolecular design by the synthetic polymer chemist...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Huihui Ji, Xuting Xu, Guili Liu, Huifen Liu, Qinwen Wang, Wenwen Shen, Longhui Li, Xiaohu Xie, Haochang Hu, Lei Xu, Wenhua Zhou, Shiwei Duan
Heroin and methylamphetamine (METH) are two addictive drugs that cause serious problems for society. Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), a key receptor in the dopaminergic system, may facilitate the development of drug addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the promoter methylation level of DRD4 gene and drug addiction. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to measure the methylation levels of DRD4 promoter in 60 drug addicts and 52 matched controls. Significantly higher levels of DRD4 CpG1 and CpG4 methylation were detected in METH and heroin drug addicts compared with controls (P<0...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Nobue Kitanaka, Junichi Kitanaka, F Scott Hall, Yoshiro Kubota, Yumi Mimura, Sayaka Ogura, Yukiya Okada, George R Uhl, Motohiko Takemura
A single administration of mice with memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane), a glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, induced stereotyped behaviors in dose- and time-dependent manners. The predominant behavioral component of the stereotypy was a continuous, exaggerated sniffing which was accompanied by persistent locomotion. In contrast, a psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) predominantly induced a stereotyped biting and other forms of intense stationary stereotypical behaviors...
April 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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