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Liqun Liu, Jingyi Yu, Li Li, Bao Zhang, Lingjuan Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Jong, Ding-An Mao, Sheng-He Huang
One of the most challenging issues in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) caused by HIV-1 virotoxins and drug abuse is the lack of understanding the underlying mechanisms that are commonly associated with disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we hypothesized that Glycoprotein 120 (gp120), methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine (NT) can enhance amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in BMEC through Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wanida Tungkum, Pichaya Jumnongprakhon, Chainarong Tocharus, Piyarat Govitrapong, Jiraporn Tocharus
Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic drug that causes brain damage by inducing neuronal and glial cell death together with glial cell hyperactivity-mediated progressive neurodegeneration. Previous studies have shown that METH induced glial cell hyperactivity and death via oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) mechanisms, and melatonin could reverse these effects. However, the exact mechanism of the protective role of melatonin in METH-mediated ER stress has not been understood...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Katerina Kubova, Daniel Peček, Kristýna Hasserová, Petr Doležel, Miroslava Pavelková, Jakub Vyslouzil, Jan Muselík, David Vetchy
Hypromellose matrices exhibit extended burst effect immediately after contact with aqueous medium, especially when a water-soluble drug is incorporated. The objective of this study was to reduce burst effect and maintain complete dissolution of a very soluble levetiracetam over 12 h period from hypromellose K4M matrices to obtain zero-order kinetics. Desired changes were achieved by applying water dispersions of insoluble Eudragits(®) (NE, NM, RL, RS) as a granulation liquid to the drug/microcrystalline cellulose mixture during high-shear granulation (non-thermal treated set) and consequently by thermally treating granules or final tablets (TT), respectively...
January 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Kristen A Horner, Mary Caroline Logan, Trevor J Fisher, Jordan B Logue
The behavioral effects of methamphetamine (METH) are mediated by the striatum, which is divided into the patch compartment, which mediates limbic and reward functions, and the matrix compartment, which mediates sensorimotor tasks. METH treatment results in repetitive behavior that is related to enhanced relative activation of the patch versus the matrix compartment. The patch, but not the matrix compartment contains a high density of μ opioid receptors, and localized blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors attenuates METH-induced patch-enhanced activity and repetitive behaviors...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Lindsey B Kuiper, Karla S Frohmader, Lique M Coolen
The use of psychostimulants is often associated with hypersexuality, and psychostimulant users have identified the effects of drug on sexual behavior as a reason for further use. It was previously demonstrated that methamphetamine (Meth), when administered concurrently with sexual behavior show impairment of inhibition of sexual behavior in a conditioned sex aversion (CSA) paradigm where mating is paired with illness. This is indicative of maladaptive sex behavior following Meth and sex experience. The present study examined the neural pathways activated during inhibition of sexual behavior and the effects of concurrent Meth and sexual behavior on neural activity in these pathways, using ERK phosphorylation (pERK) as neural activity marker...
January 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Katrina M Williams, Jessica A Mong
Methamphetamine (Meth) is a psychomotor stimulant strongly associated with increases in sexual drive and impulse in both men and women. These changes in sexual motivation have a greater impact on women due to their likelihood of facing the greater burden of unplanned pregnancies, as well as increased risk for psychiatric co-morbidities such as depression. We have previously established a rodent model of Meth-induced increases in sexual motivation. Using this model, we have identified the posteriodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) via excitotoxic lesion studies as a necessary nucleus in Meth-facilitated female sexual motivation...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mansoor Salehi, Elahe Kamali, Mojgan Karahmadi, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi
OBJECTIVE: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty in verbal and non-verbal communication, impaired social interaction, and restricted and repetitive behavior. It has been recently introduced as a multigenic disorder with significant epigenetic effects on its pathology. Recently, epigenetic silencing of retinoic acid receptor- related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) gene (which has an essential role in neural tissue development) was shown to have occurred in autistic children due to methylation of its promoter region...
2017: Cell Journal
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Mephedrone (MEPH) is a β-ketoamphetamine stimulant drug of abuse that is often a constituent of illicit bath salts formulations. While MEPH bears remarkable similarities to methamphetamine (METH) in terms of chemical structure, as well as its neurochemical and behavioral effects, it has been shown to have a reduced neurotoxic profile compared to METH. The addition of a β-keto moiety and a 4-methyl ring substituent to METH yields MEPH, and a loss of direct neurotoxic potential. In the present study, 2 analogs of METH, methcathinone (MeCa) and 4-methylmethamphetamine (4MM), were assessed for their effects on mouse dopamine (DA) nerve endings to determine the relative contribution of each individual moiety to the loss of direct neurotoxicity in MEPH...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tatsunori Tanaka, Yukio Ago, Chiaki Umehara, Emina Imoto, Shigeru Hasebe, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Isolation-reared mice show social encounter-induced hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, but it is not known whether this stress response is observed in other pathological conditions. Here we examined whether the social encounter stimulation induces abnormal behavior during withdrawal in chronic methamphetamine (METH)-treated mice. METHODS: To induce METH-induced behavioral sensitization, male mice were injected with METH (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Richard Whitfield, Athina Anastasaki, Vasiliki Nikolaou, Glen R Jones, Nikolaos G Engelis, Emre H Discekici, Carolin Fleischmann, Johannes Willenbacher, Craig J Hawker, David M Haddleton
Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) typically requires various parameters to be optimized in order to achieve a high degree of control over molecular weight and dispersity (such as the type of initiator, transition metal, ligand, solvent, temperature, deactivator, added salts, and reducing agents). These components play a major role when switching monomers, e.g., from acrylic to methacrylic and/or styrenic monomers during the synthesis of homo- and block copolymers as the stability and reactivity of the carbon centered propagating radical dramatically changes...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Katherine R Heal, Wei Qin, Francois Ribalet, Anthony D Bertagnolli, Willow Coyote-Maestas, Laura R Hmelo, James W Moffett, Allan H Devol, E Virginia Armbrust, David A Stahl, Anitra E Ingalls
Organisms within all domains of life require the cofactor cobalamin (vitamin B12), which is produced only by a subset of bacteria and archaea. On the basis of genomic analyses, cobalamin biosynthesis in marine systems has been inferred in three main groups: select heterotrophic Proteobacteria, chemoautotrophic Thaumarchaeota, and photoautotrophic Cyanobacteria. Culture work demonstrates that many Cyanobacteria do not synthesize cobalamin but rather produce pseudocobalamin, challenging the connection between the occurrence of cobalamin biosynthesis genes and production of the compound in marine ecosystems...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Meir Cherniak, Lili Anglister, Aharon Lev-Tov
: The ability to improve motor function in spinal cord injury patients by reactivating spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) requires the elucidation of neurons and pathways involved in activation and modulation of spinal networks in accessible experimental models. Previously we reported on adrenoceptor-dependent sacral control of lumbar-flexor motoneuron firing in newborn rats. The current work focuses on clarification of the circuitry and connectivity involved in this unique modulation and its potential use...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Katarína Borská, Daniela Moravčíková, Jaroslav Mosnáček
Well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) are prepared via photochemically induced atom transfer radical polymerization (photoATRP) using ppm amounts of CuBr2 /tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and CuBr2 /tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine catalyst complexes, respectively, without degassing of polymerization mixture and with no need to introduce an external reducing agent to the system. The effect of ligand to CuBr2 ratio on kinetic and induction period during the polymerization of MMA and MA is investigated...
December 22, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Ayse Ozkan, Hande Parlak, Gamze Tanriover, Sayra Dilmac, Seher Nasircilar Ulker, Llknur Birsen, Aysel Agar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra (SN). Its major clinical symptoms are tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid for neural functions that resides within the neural membrane. A decline in fatty acid concentration is observed in case of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. The present study aimed to explore the role of the heme oxygenase (HO) enzyme in protective effects of DHA administration in an experimental model of PD by using the neurotoxin 1-Methly-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
October 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Siqingaowa, Takehiro Tsumuki, Kazuki Ogata, Noriyuki Yonezawa, Akiko Okamoto
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C27H20O3, contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B). The anthracene ring system is connected to the 2,7-di-meth-oxy-naphthalene core in a twisted manner, with dihedral angles of 86.38 (5) and 79.36 (8)°, respectively, for conformers A and B. In the crystal, face-to-face type dimeric mol-ecular aggregates of each conformer are observed. The dimer of conformer A is formed by two pairs of C-H⋯π inter-actions, and that of conformer B by a pair of (sp(2))C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Koji Kubono, Ryuma Kise, Yukiyasu Kashiwagi, Keita Tani, Kunihiko Yokoi
In the title compound, C15H18N2O3, the coumarin ring is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å. An intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond forms an S(6) ring motif. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates a C(4) chain motif running along the c axis. The chain structure is stabilized by a C-H⋯π inter-action. The chains are linked by π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance of 3.5745 (11) Å], forming a sheet structure parallel to the bc plane...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Rajeswari Gangadharan, P Narayanan, K Sethusankar, Velu Saravanan, Arasambattu K Mohanakrishnan
The three title compounds, C26H19NO3S, (1), C27H20N2O8S, (2), and C30H19NO3S, (3), are carbazole derivatives, where (1) and (3) are heterocycle-containing carbazoles with a benzo-furan moiety fused to a carbazole unit. In (2), a di-meth-oxy-nitro-phenyl ring is attached to the carbazole moiety. In the three derivatives, a phenyl-sulfonyl group is attached to the N atom of the carbazole unit. Compound (1) crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (A and B). The carbazole skeleton in the three compounds is essentially planar...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Augusto Rivera, Ingrid Miranda-Carvajal, Jaime Ríos-Motta, Michael Bolte
The title Schiff base, C19H22N2O3, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of 1,3-di-amino-propan-2-ol with 4-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde using water as solvent. The mol-ecule exists in an E,E conformation with respect to the C=N imine bonds and the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 37.25 (15)°. In the crystal, O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into infinite C(5) chains propagating along the a-axis direction. The packing of these chains is consolidated by C-H⋯O inter-actions and C-H⋯π short contacts, forming a three-dimensional network...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Peizhen Zhao, Songyuan Tang, Cheng Wang, Ye Zhang, John Best, Shujie Huang, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Weiming Tang, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, recreational drug use has considerably increased among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). This increase has a great potential to worsen the scenario of the heavy burden of HIV among Chinese MSM. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use, and to explore the association between poppers use and testing history for HIV or STIs, gay app use, and other sexual behaviours. METHODS: We recruited MSM who were born male and were aged 16 years or older through a nation-wide online survey in 2014...
October 2016: Lancet
Siriluk Veerasakul, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Samur Thanoi, Gavin P Reynolds, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi
AIM: Association between polymorphisms in GAD genes and methamphetamine (METH) dependence was investigated in the Thai population. MATERIALS & METHODS: Genotypes of rs769404 and rs701492 in GAD1 and rs2236418 in GAD2 polymorphisms were determined in 100 METH-dependent male subjects and 102 matched controls. RESULTS: The genotype and allele frequencies of rs2236418 (GAD2) were associated with METH dependence and METH with psychosis, in which the G allele was related to increased risk...
January 2017: Pharmacogenomics
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