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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773208/childhood-sleep-and-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-cfs-me-evidence-of-associations-in-a-uk-birth-cohort
#1
Simon M Collin, Tom Norris, Paul Gringras, Peter S Blair, Kate Tilling, Esther Crawley
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Sleep abnormalities are characteristic of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also known as 'ME'), however it is unknown whether sleep might be a causal risk factor for CFS/ME. PATIENTS/METHODS: We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. We describe sleep patterns of children aged 6 months to 11 years, who were subsequently classified as having (or not having) 'chronic disabling fatigue' (CDF, a proxy for CFS/ME) between the ages 13 and 18 years, and we investigated the associations of sleep duration at age nine years with CDF at age 13 years, as well as sleep duration at age 11 years with CDF at age 16 years...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750675/maternal-pre-pregnancy-weight-status-and-adolescent-eating-disorder-behaviors-a-longitudinal-study-of-risk-pathways
#2
Nadia Micali, Rhian M Daniel, George B Ploubidis, Bianca L De Stavola
BACKGROUND: Maternal characteristics and childhood growth have been identified as risk factors for eating disorders. Most studies to date have been unable to investigate these factors prospectively while accounting for their interdependencies. We address this by investigating whether the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) with adolescent eating disorder behaviors can be explained by childhood growth and/or a concurrent environmental pathway captured by maternal eating habits...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725146/events-associated-with-stability-and-change-in-adult-locus-of-control-orientation-over-a-six-year-period
#3
Stephen Nowicki, Genette Ellis, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Jean Golding
Although locus of control (LOC) has been the focus of thousands of studies we know little about how or if it changes over time and what is associated with change. Our lack of knowledge stems in part from the past use of cross-sectional and not longitudinal methodologies to study small numbers of participants from non-representative populations. The purpose of the present study was to use a longitudinal design with a large representative population to provide relevant information concerning the stability and change of adult LOC...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723752/prenatal-lead-cadmium-and-mercury-exposure-and-associations-with-motor-skills-at-age-7-years-in-a-uk-observational-birth-cohort
#4
Caroline M Taylor, Alan M Emond, Raghu Lingam, Jean Golding
BACKGROUND: Lead and mercury are freely transferred across the placenta, while cadmium tends to accumulate in the placenta. Each contributes to adverse neurological outcomes for the child. Although prenatal heavy metal exposure has been linked with an array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, its association with the development of motor skills in children has not been robustly studied. AIMS/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury, measured as maternal blood concentrations during pregnancy, and motor skills, measured as subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) at age 7 years in a large sample of mother-child pairs enrolled in a UK observational birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC)...
April 30, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718110/tracking-the-epigenetic-clock-across-the-human-life-course-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-cohort-data
#5
Riccardo E Marioni, Matthew Suderman, Brian H Chen, Steve Horvath, Stefania Bandinelli, Tiffany Morris, Stephan Beck, Luigi Ferrucci, Nancy L Pedersen, Caroline L Relton, Ian J Deary, Sara Hägg
Background: Epigenetic clocks based on DNA methylation yield high correlations with chronological age in cross-sectional data. Due to a paucity of longitudinal data, it is not known how Δage (epigenetic age - chronological age) changes over time or if it remains constant from childhood to old age. Here, we investigate this using longitudinal DNA methylation data from five datasets, covering most of the human life course. Methods: Two measures of the epigenetic clock (Hannum and Horvath) are used to calculate Δage in the following cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) offspring (n = 986, total age-range 7-19 years, 2 waves), ALSPAC mothers (n = 982, 16-60 years, 2 waves), InCHIANTI (n = 460, 21-100 years, 2 waves), SATSA (n = 373, 48-99 years, 5 waves), Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,054, 70-76 years, 3 waves), and Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (n = 476, 79-90 years, 3 waves)...
March 20, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713443/prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-features-of-autism-a-prospective-population-study
#6
Jean Golding, Dheeraj Rai, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Alan Emond, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph Hibbeln, Caroline Taylor
Background: Mercury (Hg) has been suspected of causing autism in the past, especially a suspected link with vaccinations containing thiomersal, but a review of the literature shows that has been largely repudiated. Of more significant burden is the total quantity of Hg in the environment. Here, we have used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test whether prenatal exposure from total maternal blood Hg in the first half of pregnancy is associated with the risk of autism or of extreme levels of autistic traits...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706160/autistic-traits-and-suicidal-thoughts-plans-and-self-harm-in-late-adolescence-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Iryna Culpin, Becky Mars, Rebecca M Pearson, Jean Golding, Jon Heron, Isidora Bubak, Peter Carpenter, Cecilia Magnusson, David Gunnell, Dheeraj Rai
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and traits in childhood are associated with suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm at 16 years, and that any observed associations are explained by depression at 12 years. METHOD: We examined associations between ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized ASD traits (social communication, pragmatic language, repetitive behavior, and sociability) with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal plans at age 16 years in 5,031 members of the United Kingdom-based birth cohort study the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687944/association-of-copy-number-variation-across-the-genome-with-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-the-general-population
#8
Anna L Guyatt, Evie Stergiakouli, Joanna Martin, James Walters, Michael O'Donovan, Michael Owen, Anita Thapar, George Kirov, Santiago Rodriguez, Dheeraj Rai, Stan Zammit, Tom R Gaunt
Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with psychiatric conditions in clinical populations. The relationship between rare CNV burden and neuropsychiatric traits in young, general populations is underexplored. A total of 6,807 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied. CNVs were inferred from single nucleotide polymorphism-array data using PennCNV. After excluding children with known candidate CNVs for schizophrenia (SCZ), rare (<1%) CNV burden (total number of genes affected by CNVs, total length of CNVs, and largest CNV carried) was analyzed in relation to: psychotic experiences (PEs) and anxiety/depression in adolescence; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ASD and ADHD traits, and cognitive measures during childhood...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677556/prenatal-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-fetal-growth-in-british-girls
#9
Jill F Patel, Terryl J Hartman, Andreas Sjodin, Kate Northstone, Ethel V Taylor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that bioaccumulate in the food chain. PCBs were used primarily for industrial applications due to their insulating and fire retardant properties, but were banned in the 1970s in the United States and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom, as adverse health effects following exposure were identified. Previous studies of populations with high PCB exposure have reported inverse associations with birth weight and gestational length. Birth weight is a powerful predictor of infant survival, and low birth weight can predispose infants to chronic conditions in adult life such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
April 17, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665469/total-mercury-exposure-in-early-pregnancy-has-no-adverse-association-with-scholastic-ability-of-the-offspring-particularly-if-the-mother-eats-fish
#10
Joseph Hibbeln, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Caroline M Taylor, Alan Emond, Jean Golding
There is a public perception that relatively low doses of mercury found in seafood are harmful to the fetal brain but little consistent evidence to support this. In earlier publications we have shown no adverse associations between maternal total blood mercury levels and child behaviour, early development or cognitive function as measured by IQ. However, for IQ the lack of adverse association was conditional upon the mother being a fish eater. In this paper we analyse further data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), this time examining whether prenatal exposure to total mercury is associated with the child's scholastic abilities in reading, spelling, phoneme awareness, mathematics and science; the number of participants with prenatal mercury and relevant test results varied from 1500 to 2200...
April 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649967/influence-of-maternal-and-own-genotype-at-tanning-dependence-related-snps-on-sun-exposure-in-childhood
#11
Jasmine Khouja, Sarah J Lewis, Carolina Bonilla
BACKGROUND: Research suggests there may be a genetic influence on the likelihood of becoming tanning dependent (TD). The way in which mothers regulate their children's sun exposure may be affected by being TD. We investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to being TD and early sun exposure. METHODS: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used. Associations between 17 TD related SNPs in children and their mothers and 10 sun exposure variables in children (assessed via questionnaire at age 8) were analyzed in logistic and ordinal logistic regressions...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611205/on-the-use-of-the-not-at-random-fully-conditional-specification-narfcs-procedure-in-practice
#12
Daniel Mark Tompsett, Finbarr Leacy, Margarita Moreno-Betancur, Jon Heron, Ian R White
The not-at-random fully conditional specification (NARFCS) procedure provides a flexible means for the imputation of multivariable missing data under missing-not-at-random conditions. Recent work has outlined difficulties with eliciting the sensitivity parameters of the procedure from expert opinion due to their conditional nature. Failure to adequately account for this conditioning will generate imputations that are inconsistent with the assumptions of the user. In this paper, we clarify the importance of correct conditioning of NARFCS sensitivity parameters and develop procedures to calibrate these sensitivity parameters by relating them to more easily elicited quantities, in particular, the sensitivity parameters from simpler pattern mixture models...
April 2, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608775/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-a-recall-by-genotype-based-approach
#13
Thomas M Lancaster, Stavros L Dimitriadis, Katherine E Tansey, Gavin Perry, Niklas Ihssen, Derek K Jones, Krish D Singh, Peter Holmans, Andrew Pocklington, George Davey Smith, Stan Zammit, Jeremy Hall, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, David E Linden
Risk profile scores (RPS) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain a considerable amount of susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ). However, little is known about how common genetic risk factors for SCZ influence the structure and function of the human brain, largely due to the constraints of imaging sample sizes. In the current study, we use a novel recall-by-genotype (RbG) methodological approach, where we sample young adults from a population cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: N genotyped = 8365) based on their SCZ-RPS...
March 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597345/dna-methylome-marks-of-exposure-to-particulate-matter-at-three-time-points-in-early-life
#14
Michelle Plusquin, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Akram Ghantous, Rossella Alfano, Mariona Bustamante, Leda Chatzi, Cyrille Cuenin, John Gulliver, Zdenko Herceg, Manolis Kogevinas, Tim Nawrot, Costanza Pizzi, Daniela Porta, Caroline Relton, Lorenzo Richiardi, Oliver Robinson, Jordi Sunyer, Roel Vermeulen, Annette Vriens, Martine Vrijheid, John Henderson, Paolo Vineis
Maternal exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with restricted foetal growth and reduced birthweight. Here, we performed methylome-wide analyses of cord and children's blood DNA in relation to residential exposure to PM smaller than 10µm (PM10). This study included participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC, cord blood, n=780; blood at age 7, n=757 and age 15-17, n=850) and the EXPOsOMICS birth cohort consortium including cord blood from ENVIRONAGE (n=197), INMA (n=84), Piccolipiù (n=99) and Rhea (n=75)...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587894/maternal-fish-consumption-during-pregnancy-and-smoking-behavioural-patterns
#15
Rachel V Gow, Jon Heron, Joseph R Hibbeln, John M Davis, John Paul SanGiovanni
n-3 Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), are essential components of neuronal membranes and mediate a range of complex bioactive properties including gene expression, myelination, cell-signalling and dopaminergic function. Deficits in n-3 HUFA have been linked to increased risks for addictive disorders, thus we posited that lower fish consumption would be associated with greater risks for perinatal smoking among 9640 mothers enroled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used univariable and multivariable regression models to examine relationships between self-reported prenatal dietary intakes of n-3 HUFA-rich foods (fish and shellfish) and maternal smoking; outcomes included cessation and the number of cigarettes smoked per d...
March 28, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550905/sexual-orientation-disparities-in-eating-disorder-symptoms-among-adolescent-boys-and-girls-in-the-uk
#16
Jerel P Calzo, S Bryn Austin, Nadia Micali
Much of the research on sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder behaviors has been conducted in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Data on the associations of sexual orientation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in the UK are lacking. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a youth cohort born 1991-1992 (n = 5048; 53% female; 12% sexual minority). Sexual orientation was assessed at 16 years. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed at 14 and 16 years...
March 17, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550610/pregnancy-risk-factors-in-relation-to-oppositional-defiant-and-conduct-disorder-symptoms-in-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children
#17
I Hyun Ruisch, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546694/do-disordered-eating-behaviours-in-girls-vary-by-school-characteristics-a-uk-cohort-study
#18
Helen Bould, Bianca De Stavola, Glyn Lewis, Nadia Micali
Previous research on eating disorders, disordered eating behaviours, and whether their prevalence varies across schools, has produced inconsistent results. Our previous work using Swedish record-linkage data found that rates of diagnosed eating disorders vary between schools, with higher proportions of girls and higher proportions of highly educated parents within a school being associated with greater numbers of diagnosed eating disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a UK population-based sample and hypothesised that a similar association would be evident when studying disordered eating behaviours...
March 15, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537902/urinary-magnesium-and-other-elements-in-relation-to-mammographic-breast-density-a-measure-of-breast-cancer-risk
#19
Maria C Mora-Pinzon, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Ronald E Gangnon, Scott V Adams, John M Hampton, Elizabeth Burnside, Martin M Shafer, Polly A Newcomb
PURPOSE: Heavy metals and other elements may act as breast carcinogens due to estrogenic activity. We investigated associations between urine concentrations of a panel of elements and breast density. METHODS: Mammographic density categories were abstracted from radiology reports of 725 women aged 40-65 yr in the Avon Army of Women. A panel of 27 elements was quantified in urine using high resolution magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We applied LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression to the 27 elements and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dense vs...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520540/co-occurring-internalizing-and-externalizing-psychopathology-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-network-approach
#20
Eoin McElroy, Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy, Orla McBride
The network approach suggests that psychopathology arises from complex associations between symptoms and may offer insight into the mechanisms that underpin psychiatric comorbidities. The transition from childhood to adolescence is a key period in the development of psychopathology, yet has rarely been considered from a network perspective. As such, the present study examined the network structure of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from middle childhood through adolescence using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4405)...
March 8, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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