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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932233/schizophrenia-risk-alleles-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia typically onsets after puberty but is often preceded by observable childhood neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether these childhood antecedents index genetic liability is unknown. We used polygenic risk scores derived from a patient discovery sample as indicators of the genetic liability of schizophrenia. Our aim was to identify the early childhood manifestations of this liability in a UK population-based cohort. METHODS: The study sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective population-based cohort study of 14701 children...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923430/family-income-and-material-deprivation-do-they-matter-for-sleep-quality-and-quantity-in-early-life
#2
Marta Barazzetta, Simone Ghislandi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present paper is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. METHODS: The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14,000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922636/dna-methylation-and-substance-use-risk-a-prospective-genome-wide-study-spanning-gestation-to-adolescence
#3
C A M Cecil, E Walton, R G Smith, E Viding, E J McCrory, C L Relton, M Suderman, J-B Pingault, W McArdle, T R Gaunt, J Mill, E D Barker
Epigenetic processes have been implicated in addiction; yet, it remains unclear whether these represent a risk factor and/or a consequence of substance use. Here, we believe we conducted the first genome-wide, longitudinal study to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in early life prospectively associate with substance use in adolescence. The sample comprised of 244 youth (51% female) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), with repeated assessments of DNA methylation (Illumina 450k array; cord blood at birth, whole blood at age 7) and substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use; age 14-18)...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911909/early-onset-paternal-smoking-and-offspring-adiposity-further-investigation-of-a-potential-intergenerational-effect-using-the-hunt-study
#4
David Carslake, Pia R Pinger, Pål Romundstad, George Davey Smith
Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909036/defining-adolescent-common-mental-disorders-using-electronic-primary-care-data-a-comparison-with-outcomes-measured-using-the-cis-r
#5
Rosie P Cornish, Ann John, Andy Boyd, Kate Tilling, John Macleod
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) derived from data held in primary care records with that measured using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) in order to assess the potential robustness of findings based only on routinely collected data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and electronic primary care records. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 1562 adolescents who had completed the CIS-R in ALSPAC at age 17-18 years and had linkage established to their primary care records...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902751/exploration-of-a-polygenic-risk-score-for-alcohol-consumption-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-alspac-cohort
#6
Michelle Taylor, Andrew J Simpkin, Philip C Haycock, Frank Dudbridge, Luisa Zuccolo
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892595/the-rate-of-change-in-alcohol-misuse-across-adolescence-is-heritable
#7
Alexis C Edwards, Jon Heron, Vladimir Vladimirov, Aaron R Wolen, Daniel E Adkins, Fazil Aliev, Matthew Hickman, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use typically begins during adolescence and escalates into young adulthood. This represents an important period for the establishment of alcohol use and misuse patterns, which can have psychosocial and medical consequences. Although changes in alcohol use during this time have been phenotypically characterized, their genetic nature is poorly understood. METHODS: Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 4 times from age 16 to 20...
November 28, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879246/father-involvement-in-early-child-rearing-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-their-pre-adolescent-children-evidence-from-the-alspac-uk-birth-cohort
#8
Charles Opondo, Maggie Redshaw, Emily Savage-McGlynn, Maria A Quigley
OBJECTIVE: To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. SETTING: The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. PARTICIPANTS: Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878096/a-sixth-level-habitat-cascade-increases-biodiversity-in-an-intertidal-estuary
#9
Mads S Thomsen, Thomas Hildebrand, Paul M South, Travis Foster, Alfonso Siciliano, Eliza Oldach, David R Schiel
Many studies have documented habitat cascades where two co-occurring habitat-forming species control biodiversity. However, more than two habitat-formers could theoretically co-occur. We here documented a sixth-level habitat cascade from the Avon-Heathcote Estuary, New Zealand, by correlating counts of attached inhabitants to the size and accumulated biomass of their biogenic hosts. These data revealed predictable sequences of habitat-formation (=attachment space). First, the bivalve Austrovenus provided habitat for green seaweeds (Ulva) that provided habitat for trochid snails in a typical estuarine habitat cascade...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862641/association-between-oxytocin-receptor-genotype-maternal-care-and-eating-disorder-behaviours-in-a-community-sample-of-women
#10
Nadia Micali, Marta Crous-Bou, Janet Treasure, Elizabeth A Lawson
This study aimed to investigate associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXT-R) polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298), their interaction with maternal care (GxE), and ED behaviours in a community sample. We studied 3698 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who participated in a two-phase prevalence study of lifetime ED and had genotype data. The GG rs53576 genotype was associated with binge eating and purging, and the rs2254298 AG/AA genotype with restrictive eating lifetime...
November 14, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853543/life-history-factors-personality-and-the-social-clustering-of-sexual-experience-in-adolescents
#11
Abram J van Leeuwen, Ruth Mace
Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845196/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-chronic-widespread-pain-in-adolescence-population-birth-cohort-study
#12
Tom Norris, Kevin Deere, Jon H Tobias, Esther Crawley
: Whilst many studies have investigated the overlap between pain phenotypes and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adults, little is known about the relationship between these conditions in adolescents. The study's aim was therefore to identify whether a relationship exists between chronic widespread pain (CWP) and CFS in adolescents and investigate whether the two share common associations with a set of covariates. A questionnaire was administered to offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at age 17, asking about site, duration, and pain intensity, from which participants with CWP were identified...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837235/family-socioeconomic-position-in-early-life-and-onset-of-depressive-symptoms-and-depression-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Carol Joinson, Daphne Kounali, Glyn Lewis
PURPOSE: To investigate whether low parental socioeconomic position (SEP) at birth is associated only with early-onset depressive symptoms in offspring. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used data on 9193 individuals (4768 females, 4425 males) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Depressive symptoms during three age periods (10-12, 12-16, 16-20 years) were assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and ICD-10 depression at age 18 was assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised...
November 11, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814496/characteristics-associated-with-risk-taking-behaviours-predict-young-people-s-participation-in-organised-activities
#14
Britt E Hallingberg, Stephanie H M Van Goozen, Simon C Moore
Participation in organised activities (OAs) such as sports and special groups can shape adolescent risk taking behaviours. Sensation seeking and inhibitory control play an important role in the emergence of adolescent risk taking behaviours and may explain variations in OA participation as well as inform the development of more effective interventions that use OAs. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (England) were analysed using logistic regression to test whether inhibitory control and sensation seeking predicted participation in OAs at a mean age of 11...
December 2016: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812905/associations-between-prenatal-and-early-childhood-fish-and-processed-food-intake-conduct-problems-and-co-occurring-difficulties
#15
Maurissa Sc Mesirow, Charlotte Cecil, Barbara Maughan, Edward D Barker
: Little is known about early life diet as a risk factor for early-onset persistent conduct problems (EOP CP). To investigate this, we used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK-based prospective epidemiological birth cohort. 5727 mother-child pairs (49.9 % boys) monitored since pregnancy (delivery date between 1 April, 1991 and 31 December, 1992) reported intake of fish and processed foods at 32 weeks gestation and, for the child, at 3 years; EOP (n = 666) and Low conduct problem (Low CP, n = 5061) trajectories were measured from 4 to 13 years; hyperactivity and emotional difficulties were assessed in childhood (4-10 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), in addition to potential confounding factors (family adversity, birth complications, income)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810616/exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-in-utero-or-during-early-childhood-and-risk-of-hypomania-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#16
D F Mackay, J J Anderson, J P Pell, S Zammit, D J Smith
OBJECTIVES: Using data from a prospective birth cohort, we aimed to test for an association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero or during early development and the experience of hypomania assessed in young adulthood. METHODS: We used data on 2957 participants from a large birth cohort (Avon longitudinal study of parents and children [ALSPAC]). The primary outcome of interest was hypomania, and the secondary outcome was "hypomania plus previous psychotic experiences (PE)"...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806167/association-of-genetic-risk-variants-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-trajectories-in-the-general-population
#17
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Ajay K Thapar, Søren Dalsgaard, Kate Langley, George Davey Smith, Evie Stergiakouli, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder that shows clinical and genetic overlap with other childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Levels of ADHD symptoms typically decline across childhood and adolescence, although they remain elevated for some individuals. The determinants of symptom persistence and decline are not yet fully understood. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that genetic risk variant load for ADHD (indexed by polygenic risk scores [PRS]), but not for other psychiatric disorders, is associated with population-based ADHD symptom trajectories across childhood and adolescence, and to examine whether higher genetic liability for ADHD is correlated with total number of additional neurodevelopmental disorders (multimorbidity) in childhood...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803356/bullying-mediates-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-childhood-and-psychotic-experiences-in-early-adolescence
#18
Timo Hennig, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying...
November 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799659/exaggerated-exercise-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-higher-left-ventricular-mass-in-adolescence-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children
#19
Martin Schultz, Chloe Park, James Sharman, Abigail Fraser, Laura Howe, Debbie Lawlor, Nish Chaturvedi, George Davey Smith, Alun Hughes
OBJECTIVE: Dynamic exercise results in an increase to systolic blood pressure (BP). Irrespective of resting BP, some individuals may experience an exaggerated rise in systolic BP with exercise, which in adulthood, is associated with greater risk of developing hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is not known if exercise BP is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk during adolescence. We determined associations of exercise BP with left ventricular mass (LVM) in adolescents, with consideration of the possible confounding effect of body composition...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798733/a-novel-accelerometer-based-method-to-describe-day-to-day-exposure-to-potentially-osteogenic-vertical-impacts-in-older-adults-findings-from-a-multi-cohort-study
#20
K Hannam, K C Deere, A Hartley, E M Clark, J Coulson, A Ireland, C Moss, M H Edwards, E Dennison, T Gaysin, R Cooper, A Wong, J S McPhee, C Cooper, D Kuh, J H Tobias
: This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity. INTRODUCTION: We aimed to validate a novel method for evaluating day-to-day higher impact weight-bearing physical activity (PA) in older adults, thought to be important in protecting against osteoporosis, by comparing results between four cohorts varying in age and activity levels, and with self-reported PA levels...
October 31, 2016: Osteoporosis International
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