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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338919/genetic-overlap-between-schizophrenia-and-developmental-psychopathology-longitudinal-and-multivariate-polygenic-risk-prediction-of-common-psychiatric-traits-during-development
#1
Michel G Nivard, Suzanne H Gage, Jouke J Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Bart M L Baselmans, Lannie Ligthart, Beate St Pourcain, Dorret I Boomsma, Marcus R Munafò, Christel M Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained by correlated genetic risk factors. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), reflecting an individual's genetic risk for schizophrenia, were constructed for 2588 children from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and 6127 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335879/are-social-and-communication-difficulties-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-social-anxiety
#2
Hannah Pickard, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Francesca Happé, William Mandy
OBJECTIVE: Social anxiety (SA) is a common condition associated with social and communication (SC) difficulties in typically developing young people, as well as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether SC difficulties place children at risk for developing SA is unclear. Using a longitudinal design, the present study aimed to disentangle the relationship between SA symptoms and SC difficulties using a population-based sample of 9,491 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334631/internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-latent-transition-analysis-using-alspac-data
#3
Eoin McElroy, Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy
BACKGROUND: Research examining the association between internalizing and externalizing dimensions of psychopathology has relied heavily on variable-centered analytical techniques. Person-centered methodologies complement the variable-centered approach, and may help explain the medium-to-large correlations that exist between higher order dimensions of psychopathology. What little person-centered research exists has been cross-sectional and utilized adult samples. The present study sought to take a person-centered approach to the modeling of psychiatric comorbidity during a key developmental phase; middle childhood through adolescence...
March 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279888/validation-of-the-electronic-version-of-the-breast-q-in-the-army-of-women-study
#4
Sarah Fuzesi, Stefan J Cano, Anne F Klassen, Dunya Atisha, Andrea L Pusic
Women undergoing surgery for primary breast cancer can choose between breast conserving therapy and mastectomy (with or without breast reconstruction). Patients often turn to outcomes data to help guide the decision-making process. The BREAST-Q is a validated breast surgery-specific patient-reported outcome measure that evaluates satisfaction, quality of life, and patient experience. It was originally developed for paper-and-pencil administration. However, the BREAST-Q has increasingly been administered electronically...
March 6, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259093/exposure-to-phytoestrogens-in-utero-and-age-at-menarche-in-a-contemporary-british-cohort
#5
Kristin J Marks, Terryl J Hartman, Ethel V Taylor, Michael E Rybak, Kate Northstone, Michele Marcus
Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds that occur naturally in plants. Phytoestrogens can cross the placenta, and animal studies have found associations between in utero exposure to phytoestrogens and markers of early puberty. We investigated the association between in utero exposure to phytoestrogens and early menarche (defined as <11.5 years of age at onset) using data from a nested case-control study within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study involving families living in the South West of England...
May 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254453/structural-properties-of-the-human-corpus-callosum-multimodal-assessment-and-sex-differences
#6
L Björnholm, J Nikkinen, V Kiviniemi, T Nordström, S Niemelä, M Drakesmith, J C Evans, G B Pike, J Veijola, T Paus
A number of structural properties of white matter can be assessed in vivo using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We measured profiles of R1 and R2 relaxation rates, myelin water fraction (MWF) and diffusion tensor measures (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]) across the mid-sagittal section of the corpus callosum in two samples of young individuals. In Part 1, we compared histology-derived axon diameter (Aboitiz et al., 1992) to MRI measures obtained in 402 young men (19.55 ± 0.84 years) recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study on Parents and Children...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251825/maternal-dietary-patterns-during-pregnancy-and-intelligence-quotients-in-the-offspring-at-8%C3%A2-years-of-age-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#7
Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Rebecca M Pearson, Pauline Emmett, Jon Heron, Andrew D A C Smith, Alan Emond, Joseph R Hibbeln, Maria Beatriz Trindade Castro, Gilberto Kac
Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee...
March 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251618/a-randomised-crossover-simulation-study-comparing-the-impact-of-chemical-biological-radiological-or-nuclear-substance-personal-protection-equipment-on-the-performance-of-advanced-life-support-interventions
#8
J Schumacher, J Arlidge, F Garnham, I Ahmad
Recent incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances have stressed the importance of sufficient personal protection equipment for medical first-responders. Modern lightweight, battery-independent, suit ensembles may prove superior to the current protective suit used in the UK. This study compared the powered respiratory protective suit (PRPS ensemble) with a lightweight suit consisting of a SARATOGA(®) Multipurpose CBRN Protective Coverall Polyprotect 12 in conjunction with the Avon C50 Respirator/Avon CBRNF12CE filter canister and butyl rubber protective gloves (Polyprotect 12 ensemble)...
March 2, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245296/time-outdoors-at-specific-ages-during-early-childhood-and-the-risk-of-incident-myopia
#9
Rupal L Shah, Yu Huang, Jeremy A Guggenheim, Cathy Williams
Purpose: Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Methods: Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222824/curiosity-killed-the-cat-no-evidence-of-an-association-between-cat-ownership-and-psychotic-symptoms-at-ages-13-and-18-years-in-a-uk-general-population-cohort
#10
F Solmi, J F Hayes, G Lewis, J B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Congenital or early life infection with Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in schizophrenia aetiology. Childhood cat ownership has been hypothesized as an intermediary marker of T. gondii infection and, by proxy, as a risk factor for later psychosis. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is, however, limited. METHOD: We used birth cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate whether cat ownership in pregnancy and childhood (ages 4 and 10 years) was associated with psychotic experiences (PEs) in early (age 13, N = 6705) and late (age 18, N = 4676) adolescence, rated from semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215545/associations-of-parental-food-choice-control-and-use-of-food-to-soothe-with-adiposity-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#11
Shiau Y Chong, Catherine R Chittleborough, Tess Gregory, John W Lynch, Murthy N Mittinty, Lisa G Smithers
BACKGROUND: Associations of parental feeding techniques with adiposity are mixed and largely rely on cross-sectional studies. We examined associations between parental food-choice control and using food to soothe at 3.5 years on adiposity at 7 and 15 years. METHODS: Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7312). Food-choice control was assessed using the item 'how much choice do you allow him/her in deciding what foods he eats at meals?'...
February 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203641/the-antecedents-of-women-s-external-locus-of-control-associations-with-characteristics-of-their-parents-and-their-early-childhood
#12
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Locus of control (LOC) measures individuals' expectancies regarding their ability to affect what happens to them based on how they behave. The more they believe their behaviour has something to do with what happens to them the more internal they are. In contrast the more they perceive that what happens to them is beyond their control and determined by luck, fate, chance or powerful others the more external they are. Copious research findings suggest that external LOC (ELOC) is associated with many adverse personal, social, academic and health outcomes...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165265/minority-stress-psychosocial-resources-and-psychological-distress-among-sexual-minority-breast-cancer-survivors
#13
Charles Kamen, Jennifer M Jabson, Karen M Mustian, Ulrike Boehmer
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. METHOD: Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women...
February 6, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128969/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-body-fatness-in-girls
#14
Terryl J Hartman, Antonia M Calafat, Adrianne K Holmes, Michele Marcus, Kate Northstone, W Dana Flanders, Kayoko Kato, Ethel V Taylor
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in surface coatings that resist stains, grease, and water. METHODS: The association between in utero PFAS exposure and girls' body fatness at age 9 was analyzed in The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK). Maternal serum [median 15 weeks: interquartile range (IQR) 10 and 28 weeks of gestation] was analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA)...
January 27, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118352/using-genetic-variation-to-explore-the-causal-effect-of-maternal-pregnancy-adiposity-on-future-offspring-adiposity-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#15
Rebecca C Richmond, Nicholas J Timpson, Janine F Felix, Tom Palmer, Romy Gaillard, George McMahon, George Davey Smith, Vincent W Jaddoe, Debbie A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used maternal genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test the causal effect of maternal BMI in pregnancy on offspring fatness (BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] determined fat mass index [FMI]) in a MR approach...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104625/natural-course-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-in-adolescents
#16
Tom Norris, Simon M Collin, Kate Tilling, Roberto Nuevo, Stephen A Stansfeld, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Jon Heron, Esther Crawley
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about persistence of or recovery from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in adolescents. Previous studies have small sample sizes, short follow-up or have focused on fatigue rather than CFS/ME or, equivalently, chronic fatigue, which is disabling. This work aimed to describe the epidemiology and natural course of CFS/ME in adolescents aged 13-18 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up of adolescents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095833/lifetime-and-12-month-prevalence-of-eating-disorders-amongst-women-in-mid-life-a-population-based-study-of-diagnoses-and-risk-factors
#17
Nadia Micali, Maria G Martini, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Radha Kothari, Ellie Russell, Cynthia M Bulik, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are common amongst women; however, no research has specifically investigated the lifetime/12-month prevalence of eating disorders amongst women in mid-life (i.e., fourth and fifth decade of life) and the relevant longitudinal risk factors. We aimed to investigate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of EDs and lifetime health service use and to identify childhood, parenting, and personality risk factors. METHODS: This is a two-phase prevalence study, nested within an existing longitudinal community-based sample of women in mid-life...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089957/the-epigenetic-clock-and-physical-development-during-childhood-and-adolescence-longitudinal-analysis-from-a-uk-birth-cohort
#18
Andrew J Simpkin, Laura D Howe, Kate Tilling, Tom R Gaunt, Oliver Lyttleton, Wendy L McArdle, Susan M Ring, Steve Horvath, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton
BACKGROUND: Statistical models that use an individual's DNA methylation levels to estimate their age (known as epigenetic clocks) have recently been developed, with 96% correlation found between epigenetic and chronological age. We postulate that differences between estimated and actual age [age acceleration (AA)] can be used as a measure of developmental age in early life. METHODS: We obtained DNA methylation measures at three time points (birth, age 7 years and age 17 years) in 1018 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044064/asd-and-schizophrenia-show-distinct-developmental-profiles-in-common-genetic-overlap-with-population-based-social-communication-difficulties
#19
B St Pourcain, E B Robinson, V Anttila, B B Sullivan, J Maller, J Golding, D Skuse, S Ring, D M Evans, S Zammit, S E Fisher, B M Neale, R J L Anney, S Ripke, M V Hollegaard, T Werge, A Ronald, J Grove, D M Hougaard, A D Børglum, P B Mortensen, M J Daly, G Davey Smith
Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977232/interpersonal-callousness-and-co-occurring-anxiety-developmental-validity-of-an-adolescent-taxonomy
#20
Alan J Meehan, Barbara Maughan, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker
Growing evidence suggests heterogeneity within interpersonal-callous (IC) youth based on co-occurring anxiety. The developmental validity of this proposed taxonomy remains unclear however, as most previous research is cross-sectional and/or limited to adolescence. We aimed to identify low-anxiety (IC/ANX-) and high-anxiety (IC/ANX+) IC variants, and compare these groups on (a) early risk exposures, (b) psychiatric symptoms from midchildhood to early adolescence, and (c) school-based functioning. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective epidemiological birth cohort, model-based cluster analysis was performed on children with complete age-13 IC and anxiety scores (n = 6,791)...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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