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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614354/maternal-prenatal-anxiety-and-child-comt-genotype-predict-working-memory-and-symptoms-of-adhd
#1
Kieran J O'Donnell, Vivette Glover, Jari Lahti, Marius Lahti, Rachel D Edgar, Katri Räikkönen, Thomas G O'Connor
Maternal prenatal anxiety is an important risk factor for altered child neurodevelopment but there is uncertainty concerning the biological mechanisms involved and sources of individual differences in children's responses. We sought to determine the role of functional genetic variation in COMT, which encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, in the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child symptoms of ADHD and working memory. We used the prospectively-designed ALSPAC cohort (n = 6,969) for our primary data analyses followed by replication analyses in the PREDO cohort (n = 425)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608620/genome-wide-association-study-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-children-and-association-with-polygenic-risk-for-mental-health-disorders
#2
Jonathan R I Coleman, Kathryn J Lester, Robert Keers, Marcus R Munafò, Gerome Breen, Thalia C Eley
Emotion recognition is disrupted in many mental health disorders, which may reflect shared genetic aetiology between this trait and these disorders. We explored genetic influences on emotion recognition and the relationship between these influences and mental health phenotypes. Eight-year-old participants (n = 4,097) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) faces test. Genome-wide genotype data was available from the Illumina HumanHap550 Quad microarray...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588894/aetiological-pathways-to-borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms-in-early-adolescence-childhood-dysregulated-behaviour-maladaptive-parenting-and-bully-victimisation
#3
Catherine Winsper, James Hall, Vicky Y Strauss, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND: Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. METHOD: We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586358/parental-alcohol-use-and-risk-of-behavioral-and-emotional-problems-in-offspring
#4
Liam Mahedy, Gemma Hammerton, Alison Teyhan, Alexis C Edwards, Kenneth S Kendler, Simon C Moore, Matthew Hickman, John Macleod, Jon Heron
OBJECTIVE: The majority of studies that have examined parental alcohol use and offspring outcomes have either focused on exposure in the antenatal period or from clinical populations. This study sought to examine proximal and distal associations between parental alcohol use and offspring conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a population birth cohort. METHODS: We used prospective data from a large UK based population cohort (ALSPAC) to investigate the association between parental alcohol use, measured in units, (assessed at ages 4 and 12 years) with childhood conduct trajectories, (assessed on six occasions from 4 to 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583221/impact-of-dysfunctional-maternal-personality-traits-on-risk-of-offspring-depression-anxiety-and-self-harm-at-age-18-years-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#5
R M Pearson, A Campbell, L M Howard, M H Bornstein, H O'Mahen, B Mars, P Moran
BACKGROUND: The impact of underlying parental psychological vulnerability on the future mental health of offspring is not fully understood. Using a prospective cohort design, we investigated the association between dysfunctional parental personality traits and risks of offspring self-harm, depression and anxiety. METHODS: The association between dysfunctional parental personality traits (monotony avoidance, impulsivity, anger, suspicion, and detachment), measured in both mothers and fathers when offspring were age 9 years, and risk of offspring depression, anxiety and self-harm at age 18 years, was investigated in a population-based cohort (ALSPAC) from over 8000 parents and children...
June 6, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582719/is-adolescent-alcohol-use-associated-with-self-reported-hypomanic-symptoms-in-adulthood-findings-from-a-prospective-birth-cohort
#6
Melissa Fasteau, Daniel Mackay, Daniel J Smith, Thomas D Meyer
High rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are reported in people with major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Substance abuse problems in adolescence may also indicate risk for future onset of mood disorders, especially BD. Data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, allowed information to be collected over several different time points and to test whether problematic alcohol use at age 16 was predictive of vulnerability to hypomanic symptoms at age 23...
May 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569044/anxiety-disorders-gender-nonconformity-bullying-and-self-esteem-in-sexual-minority-adolescents-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#7
Abbeygail Jones, Emily Robinson, Olakunle Oginni, Qazi Rahman, Katharine A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority adolescents (i.e. youth not exclusively heterosexual) report more anxiety than heterosexual youth on symptom questionnaires but no research has used standardised diagnostic tools to investigate anxiety disorder risk. This study uses a UK birth cohort to investigate the risk of anxiety disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual youth using a computerised structured clinical interview and explores the influence of gender nonconformity, bullying and self-esteem...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560222/a-birth-cohort-analysis-to-study-dog-walking-in-adolescence-shows-no-relationship-with-objectively-measured-physical-activity
#8
Carri Westgarth, Andrew R Ness, Calum Mattocks, Robert M Christley
Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11-12, 13-14, and 15-16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (ALSPAC, UK) birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550520/homotypic-and-heterotypic-psychopathological-continuity-a-child-cohort-study
#9
Mark Shevlin, Eoin McElroy, Jamie Murphy
BACKGROUND: Heterotypic psychopathological continuity (i.e. one disorder predicting another at a later time point) contradicts the conventional view that psychiatric disorders are discrete, static entities. Studying this phenomenon may help to tease out the complex mechanisms that underpin psychiatric comorbidity. To date, no studies have explicitly compared heterotypic effects within and across higher order dimensions of psychopathology. METHODS: Patterns of homotypic and heterotypic psychopathological continuity were examined using cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 4815)...
May 26, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499112/polygenic-risk-personality-dimensions-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-problems-a-longitudinal-study
#10
James J Li, Jeanne E Savage, Kenneth S Kendler, Matthew Hickman, Liam Mahedy, John Macleod, Jaakko Kaprio, Richard J Rose, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use problems are common during adolescence and can predict serious negative outcomes in adulthood, including substance dependence and psychopathology. The current study examines the notion that alcohol use problems are driven by polygenic influences and that genetic influences may indirectly affect alcohol use problems through multiple pathways of risk, including variations in personality. METHOD: We used a genome-wide approach to examine associations between genetic risk for alcohol use problems, personality dimensions, and adolescent alcohol use problems in two separate longitudinal population-based samples, the Finnish Twin Cohort (FinnTwin12) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453778/exploring-a-causal-role-of-dna-methylation-in-the-relationship-between-maternal-vitamin-b12-during-pregnancy-and-child-s-iq-at-age-8-cognitive-performance-and-educational-attainment-a-two-step-mendelian-randomization-study
#11
Doretta Caramaschi, Gemma C Sharp, Ellen A Nohr, Katie Berryman, Sarah J Lewis, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton
An adequate intake of vitamin B12 during pregnancy plays an important role in offspring neurodevelopment, potentially via epigenetic processes. We used a two-step Mendelian randomization approach to assess whether DNA methylation plays a mediating and causal role in associations between maternal vitamin B12 status and offspring's cognition. Firstly, we estimated the causal effect of maternal vitamin B12 levels on cord blood DNA methylation using the maternal FUT2 genotypes rs492602:A>G and rs1047781:A>T as proxies for circulating vitamin B12 levels in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and we tested the observed associations in a replication cohort...
April 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448061/grand-maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy-and-grandchild-s-autistic-traits-and-diagnosed-autism
#12
Jean Golding, Genette Ellis, Steven Gregory, Karen Birmingham, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Dheeraj Rai, Marcus Pembrey
Although there is considerable research into the genetic background of autism spectrum disorders, environmental factors are likely to contribute to the variation in prevalence over time. Rodent experiments indicate that environmental exposures can have effects on subsequent generations, and human studies indicate that parental prenatal exposures may play a part in developmental variation. Here we use the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test the hypothesis that if the mother or father (F1) had been exposed to their own mother's (F0) smoking during pregnancy, the offspring (F2) would be at increased risk of autism...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446887/the-impact-of-prenatal-parental-locus-of-control-on-children-s-psychological-outcomes-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-a-prospective-5-year-study
#13
Stephen Nowicki, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Jean Golding
Locus of control is one of the most widely studied concepts in the history of personality psychology. In spite of its popularity and its associations with numerous relevant outcomes, the ability of locus of control to predict future behaviors involving parenting effectiveness has been under researched. The few parent locus of control children's outcome studies are characterized by cross-sectional methodologies that focus on mothers. The present study uses a prospective methodology to compare data on mothers' and fathers' locus of control with their child's behavior outcomes from a large scale research project, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444145/parental-separation-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-late-adolescence-a-cross-cohort-comparison
#14
Ana Luiza Gonçalves Soares, Helen Gonçalves, Alicia Matijasevich, Maija Sequeira, George Davey Smith, Ana M B Menezes, Maria Cecília Assunção, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Abigail Fraser, Laura D Howe
The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental separation during childhood (up to 18 years of age) and cardiometabolic risk factors (body mass index, fat mass index, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) in late adolescence using a cross-cohort comparison and to explore whether associations differ according to the age at which the parental separation occurred and the presence or absence of parental conflict prior to separation. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, United Kingdom) (1991-2011) and the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil) (1993-2011) were used...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441402/sex-discordance-in-asthma-and-wheeze-prevalence-in-two-longitudinal-cohorts
#15
Ryan Arathimos, Raquel Granell, John Henderson, Caroline L Relton, Kate Tilling
Sex discordance in asthma prevalence has been previously reported, with higher prevalence in males before puberty, and in females after puberty; the adolescent "switch". However, cross-sectional studies have suggested a narrowing of this discordance in recent decades. We used a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal modelling to examine sex differences in asthma, wheeze and longitudinal wheezing phenotypes in two UK birth cohorts, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; born 1991-92 with data from age 0-18 years) and the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS; born 2000-02 with data from age 3-10 years)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439312/validation-of-the-multiplier-method-for-leg-length-predictions-on-a-large-european-cohort-and-an-assessment-of-the-effect-of-physiological-age-on-predictions
#16
J J Aird, C L Cheesman, A T Schade, F P Monsell
PURPOSE: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective cohort was used to determine the accuracy of the Paley multiplier method for predicting leg length. Using menarche as a proxy, physiological age was then used to increase the accuracy of the multiplier. METHODS: Chronological age was corrected in female patients over the age of eight years with documented date of first menses. Final sub-ischial leg length and predicted final leg length were predicted for all data points...
2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411449/prenatal-concentrations-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-early-communication-development-in-british-girls
#17
Zuha Jeddy, Terryl J Hartman, Ethel V Taylor, Cayla Poteete, Katarzyna Kordas
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), found in many household products and classed as endocrine disrupting chemicals, can be transferred through the placenta and are associated with multiple developmental deficits in offspring. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the association between intrauterine exposure to PFAS and early communication development in 432 mother-daughter dyads at 15 and 38months of age. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy...
April 12, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392908/shared-genetic-influences-between-dimensional-asd-and-adhd-symptoms-during-child-and-adolescent-development
#18
Evie Stergiakouli, George Davey Smith, Joanna Martin, David H Skuse, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Susan M Ring, Angelica Ronald, David E Evans, Simon E Fisher, Anita Thapar, Beate St Pourcain
BACKGROUND: Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms have been reported. Cross-trait genetic relationships are, however, subject to dynamic changes during development. We investigated the continuity of genetic overlap between ASD and ADHD symptoms in a general population sample during childhood and adolescence. We also studied uni- and cross-dimensional trait-disorder links with respect to genetic ADHD and ASD risk...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349888/screening-for-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-childhood-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac
#19
Marta Futema, Jackie A Cooper, Marietta Charakida, Christopher Boustred, Naveed Sattar, John Deanfield, Debbie A Lawlor, Nicholas J Timpson, Steve E Humphries, Aroon D Hingorani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant disease with frequency of 1/500 to 1/250 that leads to premature coronary heart disease. New approaches to identify FH mutation-carriers early are needed to prevent premature cardiac deaths. In a cross-sectional study of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we evaluated the biochemical thresholds for FH screening in childhood, and modelled a two-stage biochemical and sequencing screening strategy for FH detection...
May 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338919/genetic-overlap-between-schizophrenia-and-developmental-psychopathology-longitudinal-and-multivariate-polygenic-risk-prediction-of-common-psychiatric-traits-during-development
#20
Michel G Nivard, Suzanne H Gage, Jouke J Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Bart M L Baselmans, Lannie Ligthart, Beate St Pourcain, Dorret I Boomsma, Marcus R Munafò, Christel M Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: Several nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence can precede the onset of schizophrenia, but the etiology of this relationship remains unclear. We investigated to what extent the association between schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders in childhood is explained by correlated genetic risk factors. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), reflecting an individual's genetic risk for schizophrenia, were constructed for 2588 children from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) and 6127 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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