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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911909/early-onset-paternal-smoking-and-offspring-adiposity-further-investigation-of-a-potential-intergenerational-effect-using-the-hunt-study
#1
David Carslake, Pia R Pinger, Pål Romundstad, George Davey Smith
Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909036/defining-adolescent-common-mental-disorders-using-electronic-primary-care-data-a-comparison-with-outcomes-measured-using-the-cis-r
#2
Rosie P Cornish, Ann John, Andy Boyd, Kate Tilling, John Macleod
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) derived from data held in primary care records with that measured using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) in order to assess the potential robustness of findings based only on routinely collected data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and electronic primary care records. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 1562 adolescents who had completed the CIS-R in ALSPAC at age 17-18 years and had linkage established to their primary care records...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902751/exploration-of-a-polygenic-risk-score-for-alcohol-consumption-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-alspac-cohort
#3
Michelle Taylor, Andrew J Simpkin, Philip C Haycock, Frank Dudbridge, Luisa Zuccolo
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879246/father-involvement-in-early-child-rearing-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-their-pre-adolescent-children-evidence-from-the-alspac-uk-birth-cohort
#4
Charles Opondo, Maggie Redshaw, Emily Savage-McGlynn, Maria A Quigley
OBJECTIVE: To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. SETTING: The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. PARTICIPANTS: Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862641/association-between-oxytocin-receptor-genotype-maternal-care-and-eating-disorder-behaviours-in-a-community-sample-of-women
#5
Nadia Micali, Marta Crous-Bou, Janet Treasure, Elizabeth A Lawson
This study aimed to investigate associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXT-R) polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298), their interaction with maternal care (GxE), and ED behaviours in a community sample. We studied 3698 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who participated in a two-phase prevalence study of lifetime ED and had genotype data. The GG rs53576 genotype was associated with binge eating and purging, and the rs2254298 AG/AA genotype with restrictive eating lifetime...
November 14, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830164/association-between-serum-c-reactive-protein-and-dsm-iv-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-adolescence-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#6
Golam M Khandaker, Stanley Zammit, Glyn Lewis, Peter B Jones
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of anxiety, but human studies of inflammatory markers and anxiety disorders are scarce. We report a study of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) from the general population-based ALSPAC birth cohort. METHODS: DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD was obtained from 5365 cohort members during face-to-face clinical assessment at age 16 years, of which 3392 also provided data on serum high sensitivity CRP levels...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810616/exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-in-utero-or-during-early-childhood-and-risk-of-hypomania-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#7
D F Mackay, J J Anderson, J P Pell, S Zammit, D J Smith
OBJECTIVES: Using data from a prospective birth cohort, we aimed to test for an association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero or during early development and the experience of hypomania assessed in young adulthood. METHODS: We used data on 2957 participants from a large birth cohort (Avon longitudinal study of parents and children [ALSPAC]). The primary outcome of interest was hypomania, and the secondary outcome was "hypomania plus previous psychotic experiences (PE)"...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803356/bullying-mediates-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-childhood-and-psychotic-experiences-in-early-adolescence
#8
Timo Hennig, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying...
November 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797540/child-behavior-and-sibling-relationship-quality-a-cross-lagged-analysis
#9
Alison Pike, Bonamy R Oliver
Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and children's problem behaviors are robust, and links with prosocial behavior have also been reported. Using cross-lagged models, we were able to conservatively test temporal directions of links between positive and negative aspects of sibling relationships and children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems across a 3-year time span in middle childhood. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/) is an ongoing population-based study designed to investigate the effects of a wide range of factors on children's health and development...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779810/trpa1-gene-polymorphisms-and-childhood-asthma
#10
Valentina Gallo, F Nicole Dijk, John W Holloway, Susan M Ring, Gerard H Koppelman, Dirkje S Postma, David P Strachan, Raquel Granell, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herman T den Dekker, Liesbeth Duijts, A John Henderson, Seif O Shaheen
BACKGROUND: Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. METHODS: We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778365/moderate-prenatal-cadmium-exposure-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-a-role-for-sex-specific-differences
#11
Caroline M Taylor, Jean Golding, Alan M Emond
BACKGROUND/AIM: Studies on the effects of moderate prenatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) on birth outcomes have been contradictory and it has been suggested that effects may be partly masked by sex-specific effects. Our aim was to examine the association of Cd exposure in a large group of pregnant women with birth outcomes in the whole group of participants and by sex. METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760582/the-association-between-maternal-postnatal-depressive-symptoms-and-offspring-sleep-problems-in-adolescence
#12
A K Taylor, E Netsi, H O'Mahen, A Stein, J Evans, R M Pearson
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of physical and mental illness. Identifying risk factors is an important method of reducing public health impact. We examined the association between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and offspring adolescent sleep problems. METHOD: The sample was derived from Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) participants. A sample with complete data across all variables was used, with four outcome variables...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743424/assessment-of-rates-of-recanting-and-hair-testing-as-a-biological-measure-of-drug-use-in-a-general-population-sample-of-young-people
#13
M Taylor, J Sullivan, S M Ring, J Macleod, M Hickman
AIMS: We investigate the extent of and factors associated with denial of previously reported cannabis and other illicit drug use, and assess the potential of hair testing for measuring substance use in general population samples. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1991-present. PARTICIPANTS: 3643 participants who provided hair and self-report measures of cannabis and other illicit drug use in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 18 years...
October 15, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742626/are-prenatal-mercury-levels-associated-with-subsequent-blood-pressure-in-childhood-and-adolescence-the-avon-prebirth-cohort-study
#14
Steve Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph R Hibbeln, Caroline M Taylor, Jean Golding
OBJECTIVES: There have been conflicting data suggesting that prenatal mercury exposure is associated with adverse cardiovascular measures in children. We therefore analysed a large prospective population study to investigate whether prenatal mercury exposure might influence offspring blood pressure (BP) and heart rate adversely. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort. SETTING: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). PARTICIPANTS: Maternal whole blood collected in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury and selenium...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663611/mode-of-delivery-affected-questionnaire-response-rates-in-a-birth-cohort-study
#15
Isabelle Bray, Sian Noble, Ross Robinson, Lynn Molloy, Kate Tilling
OBJECTIVE: Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomised controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eligible participants were young people in the ALSPAC study (born 01/04/91-31/12/92 in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomised...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642617/data-relating-to-early-child-development-in-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac-their-relationship-with-prenatal-blood-mercury-and-stratification-by-fish-consumption
#16
Yasmin Iles-Caven, Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Alan Emond, Caroline M Taylor
As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of early child development were collected using both hands-on expert assessment (on a random 10% sub-sample) by trained psychologists at 18 months using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (Extended 0-8 years) and from detailed questionnaires completed by the study mothers on the whole cohort using assessments based on the Denver Developmental Screening Test. The development determined by the psychologists on the 10% subsample showed a correlation of 0...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633321/prenatal-mercury-exposure-and-offspring-behaviour-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#17
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Alan Emond, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph Hibbeln, Caroline M Taylor
BACKGROUND: There is considerable discussion over the possible harm caused by fetal exposure to mercury, but evidence of such harm is contradictory at levels commonly found in populations with moderate intakes of fish. Further information is needed to inform debate and clarify policy recommendations. MATERIAL: Data were collected prospectively for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Whole blood taken in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury...
September 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590183/young-people-s-views-about-the-purpose-and-composition-of-research-ethics-committees-findings-from-the-pearl-qualitative-study
#18
Suzanne Audrey, Lindsey Brown, Rona Campbell, Andy Boyd, John Macleod
BACKGROUND: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a birth cohort study within which the Project to Enhance ALSPAC through Record Linkage (PEARL) was established to enrich the ALSPAC resource through linkage between ALSPAC participants and routine sources of health and social data. PEARL incorporated qualitative research to seek the views of young people about data linkage, including their opinions about appropriate safeguards and research governance. In this paper we focus on views expressed about the purpose and composition of research ethics committees...
September 2, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559110/collapsed-methylation-quantitative-trait-loci-analysis-for-low-frequency-and-rare-variants
#19
Tom G Richardson, Hashem A Shihab, Gibran Hemani, Jie Zheng, Eilis Hannon, Jonathan Mill, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Jordana T Bell, Oliver Lyttleton, Wendy L McArdle, Susan M Ring, Santiago Rodriguez, Colin Campbell, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton, Nicholas J Timpson, Tom R Gaunt
BACKGROUND: Single variant approaches have been successful in identifying DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL), although as with complex traits they lack the statistical power to identify the effects from rare genetic variants. We have undertaken extensive analyses to identify regions of low frequency and rare variants that are associated with DNA methylation levels. METHODS: We used repeated measurements of DNA methylation from five different life stages in human blood, taken from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort...
August 24, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533796/association-of-acetaminophen-use-during-pregnancy-with-behavioral-problems-in-childhood-evidence-against-confounding
#20
Evie Stergiakouli, Anita Thapar, George Davey Smith
Importance: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is used by a large proportion of pregnant women. Research suggests that acetaminophen use in pregnancy is associated with abnormal fetal neurodevelopment. However, it is possible that this association might be confounded by unmeasured behavioral factors linked to acetaminophen use. Objective: To examine associations between offspring behavioral problems and (1) maternal prenatal acetaminophen use, (2) maternal postnatal acetaminophen use, and (3) partner's acetaminophen use...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
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