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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316344/widespread-dynamic-and-pleiotropic-expression-of-the-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-system-is-conserved-across-chick-mouse-and-human-embryonic-development
#1
Anna C Thomas, Pauline Heux, Chloe Santos, Wisenave Arulvasan, Nita Solanky, Magalie E Carey, Dianne Gerrelli, Veronica A Kinsler, Heather C Etchevers
BACKGROUND: MC1R, a G-protein coupled receptor with high affinity for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), modulates pigment production in melanocytes from many species and is associated with human melanoma risk. MC1R mutations affecting human skin and hair color also have pleiotropic effects on the immune response and analgesia. Variants affecting human pigmentation in utero alter the congenital phenotype of both oculocutaneous albinism and congenital melanocytic naevi, and have a possible effect on birthweight...
January 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310737/low-resting-heart-rate-sensation-seeking-and-the-course-of-antisocial-behaviour-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#2
Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Liam Mahedy, Barbara Maughan, Matthew Hickman, Joseph Murray
BACKGROUND: Low resting heart rate (RHR) is a consistent biological correlate of antisocial behaviour (ASB), however potential mechanisms have been largely unexplored. We hypothesise that lower RHR will be associated with higher ASB levels in mid-adolescence and persistence into adulthood, and that these associations will be explained, in part, by sensation seeking and callous-unemotional traits. METHODS: ASB was assessed repeatedly with young people from ages 15 to 21 years in a population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC)...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286930/hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-planned-delivery-before-intrapartum-events
#3
David Odd, Axel Heep, Karen Luyt, Tim Draycott
BACKGROUND: Mothers are increasingly given greater control over many of the choices around birth, although there is little robust evidence to inform these choices. After an infant is born with HIE the question of whether it was predictable, or preventable, is often raised. Intrapartum 'sentinel' events and antenatal predictors of HIE have been well described, however there is little evidence how antenatal and intrapartum factors interact. This is particularly important when elective delivery by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) has been shown to be beneficial in high risk groups...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242840/the-mid-childhood-and-adolescent-antecedents-of-women-s-external-locus-of-control-orientation
#4
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Background: External locus of control orientation (ELOC) is a powerful predictor of adverse consequences in regard to health, educational attainment, inter-personal relationships and well-being. Although many cross-sectional studies have been carried out, relatively little is known about antecedent factors influencing the development of ELOC. Methods: Over 12,000 pregnant women who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in south-west England, had completed a brief version of the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External LOC scale, together with detailed questions concerning their own parents and childhood...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197507/association-between-a-functional-interleukin-6-receptor-genetic-variant-and-risk-of-depression-and-psychosis-in-a-population-based-birth-cohort
#5
Golam M Khandaker, Stanley Zammit, Stephen Burgess, Glyn Lewis, Peter B Jones
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are commonly elevated in patients with depression and psychosis and in people who are at risk of developing these disorders. A common, functional variant in the IL6R gene (IL6R Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A > C) is known to dampen down inflammation by impairing IL6R signaling. We have examined the association of Asp358Ala with diagnosis of depression and psychosis, serum IL-6, CRP levels, and a number of risk factors commonly linked with inflammation, depression or psychosis...
December 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172051/dna-methylation-from-birth-to-late-adolescence-and-development-of-multiple-risk-behaviours
#6
F de Vocht, M Suderman, K Tilling, J Heron, L D Howe, R Campbell, M Hickman, C Relton
BACKGROUND: Risk behaviours in adolescence are linked to poor educational attainment and health and other outcomes in young adulthood. We explored whether there are molecular mechanisms associated with the development, or the result, of multiple risk behaviours (MRBs). METHODS: MRBs (antisocial behaviour and delinquency, traffic-related risk behaviour, risky sexual behaviour, lack of exercise) and their sumscore were characterized based on self-reported questions at age 7 and 17 within the ARIES subsample of the ALSPAC birth cohort, and were linked to DNA methylation at over 485,000 CpG sites at ages 0,7 and 17...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171666/the-association-between-paternal-depressogenic-cognitive-styles-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-depressogenic-cognitive-styles-an-18-year-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Gemma Lewis, Siying Wen, Rebecca M Pearson, Glyn Lewis
BACKGROUND: Preventing the development of depressogenic or negative cognitive styles could also prevent the development of depression, a leading public health problem worldwide. Maternal negative cognitive styles are a modifiable risk factor for the development of negative cognitive styles in offspring. However, evidence on the role of paternal negative cognitive styles is inconclusive and there have only been a few small studies, which may also have lacked statistical power. METHODS: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate the association between paternal negative cognitive styles, measured when mothers were 18 weeks pregnant, and offspring negative cognitive styles 18 years later (N = 6,123)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135081/adverse-childhood-experiences-aces-and-adiposity-in-adolescents-a-cross-cohort-comparison
#8
Ana Luiza G Soares, Alicia Matijasevich, Ana M B Menezes, Maria Cecília Assunção, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Laura D Howe, Helen Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adiposity in adolescents from two cohorts in different socioeconomic contexts. METHODS: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, United Kingdom) and the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) were used. Six ACEs were assessed in both cohorts up to age 15. At 15 years, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and at 18 years, BMI, fat mass index, and android fat percentage were assessed...
November 14, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129583/identification-of-atopic-dermatitis-subgroups-in-children-from-two-longitudinal-birth-cohorts
#9
Lavinia Paternoster, Olga E M Savenije, Jon Heron, David M Evans, Judith M Vonk, Bert Brunekreef, Alet H Wijga, A John Henderson, Gerard H Koppelman, Sara J Brown
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with variable natural history. Longitudinal birth cohort studies provide an opportunity to define subgroups based on disease trajectories, which may represent different genetic and environmental pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of distinct longitudinal phenotypes of AD and test whether these findings are reproducible in two independent cohorts. METHODS: The presence of AD was examined in two birth cohort studies including 9,894 children from the UK (ALSPAC) and 3,652 from the Netherlands (PIAMA)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124294/the-relationship-between-financial-difficulty-and-childhood-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-uk-longitudinal-cohort-study
#10
Abigail Emma Russell, Tamsin Ford, Ginny Russell
PURPOSE: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with socioeconomic status (SES), in that children who grow up in low SES families are at an increased risk of ADHD symptoms and diagnosis. The current study explores whether different levels of ADHD symptoms are associated with prior changes in the SES facet of financial difficulty. METHODS: Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined symptoms of ADHD measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity subscale in relation to parent-reported changes in financial difficulty, grouped into four repeated measures at four time points across childhood; (n = 6416)...
November 9, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122994/childhood-psychosocial-adversity-and-female-reproductive-timing-a-cohort-study-of-the-alspac-mothers
#11
Maria C Magnus, Emma L Anderson, Laura D Howe, Carol J Joinson, Ian S Penton-Voak, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. METHODS: We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
January 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106580/physical-activity-phenotyping-with-activity-bigrams-and-their-association-with-bmi
#12
Louise A C Millard, Kate Tilling, Debbie A Lawlor, Peter A Flach, Tom R Gaunt
Background: Analysis of physical activity usually focuses on a small number of summary statistics derived from accelerometer recordings: average counts per minute and the proportion of time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity or in sedentary behaviour. We show how bigrams, a concept from the field of text mining, can be used to describe how a person's activity levels change across (brief) time points. These variables can, for instance, differentiate between two people spending the same time in moderate activity, where one person often stays in moderate activity from one moment to the next and the other does not...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098496/partitioning-phenotypic-variance-due-to-parent-of-origin-effects-using-genomic-relatedness-matrices
#13
Charles Laurin, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Gibran Hemani, George Davey Smith, Jian Yang, David M Evans
We propose a new method, G-REMLadp, to estimate the phenotypic variance explained by parent-of-origin effects (POEs) across the genome. Our method uses restricted maximum likelihood analysis of genome-wide genetic relatedness matrices based on individuals' phased genotypes. Genome-wide SNP data from parent child duos or trios is required to obtain relatedness matrices indexing the parental origin of offspring alleles, as well as offspring phenotype data to partition the trait variation into variance components...
November 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080482/the-impact-of-developmental-coordination-disorder-on-educational-achievement-in-secondary-school
#14
Ian Harrowell, Linda Hollén, Raghu Lingam, Alan Emond
BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common developmental disorder but its long term impact on health and education are poorly understood. AIM: To assess the impact of DCD diagnosed at 7 years, and co-occurring developmental difficulties, on educational achievement at 16 years. METHODS: A prospective cohort study using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). National General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exam results and Special Educational Needs provision were compared for adolescents with DCD (n=284) and controls (n=5425)...
October 25, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074331/intra-individual-variability-and-psychotic-like-experiences-in-adolescents-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#15
Simon Wallace, Richard J Linscott
Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between elevated intra-individual variability (IIV) of reaction time and psychotic disorders. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between performance stability and psychotic-like experiences (PLE) in adolescence, before psychotic disorder onset. Data from 6702 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to address this issue. Children took part in a semi-structured clinical interview regarding psychotic symptoms at age 12 and 18, and reaction time variability was assessed at age 13 and 15...
October 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046734/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-asthma-and-wheeze-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#16
Ryan Arathimos, Matthew Suderman, Gemma C Sharp, Kimberley Burrows, Raquel Granell, Kate Tilling, Tom R Gaunt, John Henderson, Susan Ring, Rebecca C Richmond, Caroline L Relton
BACKGROUND: Asthma heritability has only been partially explained by genetic variants and is known to be sensitive to environmental factors, implicating epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Using data collected in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we assessed associations of asthma and wheeze with DNA methylation at 7.5 and 16.5 years, at over 450,000 CpG sites in DNA from the peripheral blood of approx...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040503/the-role-of-early-life-growth-development-the-fto-gene-and-exclusive-breastfeeding-on-child-bmi-trajectories
#17
Yan Yan Wu, Stephen Lye, Laurent Briollais
Background: Recent studies have implicated the FTO gene in child and adult obesity. A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EXBF) has been shown to reduce body mass index (BMI) and the risk of being overweight in the general population and among FTO gene carriers. However, it remains unclear whether the preventive effect of EXBF could be explained by its impact on early life growth development, e.g. ages at adiposity peak (AP) and adiposity rebound (AR) and BMI velocities in the first years of life, which are major determinants of overweight and obesity later in life...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036721/blood-based-protein-changes-in-childhood-are-associated-with-increased-risk-for-later-psychotic-disorder-evidence-from-a-nested-case-control-study-of-the-alspac-longitudinal-birth-cohort
#18
Jane A English, Lorna M Lopez, Aoife O'Gorman, Melanie Föcking, Magdalena Hryniewiecka, Caitriona Scaife, Sophie Sabherwal, Kieran Wynne, Patrick Dicker, Bart P F Rutten, Glynn Lewis, Stanley Zammit, Mary Cannon, Gerard Cagney, David R Cotter
The identification of early biological changes associated with the psychotic disorder (PD) is important as it may provide clues to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. We undertook the first proteomic profiling of blood plasma samples of children who later develop a PD. Participants were recruited from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort who also participated in psychiatric assessment interviews at age 18. Protein expression levels at age 11 were compared between individuals who developed PD at age 18 (n = 37) with population-based age-matched controls (n = 38)...
July 27, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032015/possible-positive-effect-of-the-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B52-allele-on-cognition-in-early-to-mid-adult-life
#19
Lindsey I Sinclair, Christopher W Pleydell-Pearce, Ian N M Day
BACKGROUND: ε4 allele possession is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. Its effects earlier in life are less well understood. Previous studies have reported both detrimental effects and a lack of effect on cognition outside dementia. We used genotype based recall from the ALSPAC study to investigate whether APOE genotype influences cognition in earlier adult life. METHODS: We invited all individuals with the rarer ε22 or ε44 genotypes and equal numbers of those with ε32, ε33 or ε34 APOE genotypes (total n invited = 1936, ages 23-67)...
October 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993473/changes-in-marital-quality-over-6-years-and-its-association-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-men-findings-from-the-alspac-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Ian Bennett-Britton, Alison Teyhan, John Macleod, Naveed Sattar, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: Marital relationship quality has been suggested to have independent effects on cardiovascular health outcomes. This study investigates the association between changes in marital relationship quality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in men. METHODS: We used data from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort study (Bristol, UK). Our baseline sample was restricted to married study fathers with baseline relationship and covariate data (n=2496)...
November 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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