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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314984/substance-use-criminal-behaviour-and-psychiatric-symptoms-following-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#1
Eleanor Kennedy, Jon Heron, Marcus Munafò
Recent research suggests a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youth and later risk behaviour. We explored the association between mild TBI and psychiatric symptoms, substance use and criminal behaviour using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. Participants with mild TBI (n = 800), orthopaedic injuries (n = 2305) and no injuries (n = 8307) were identified from self and parent reports up to age 16 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and criminal behaviours, and parent-reported psychiatric symptoms were collected at age 17 years...
March 17, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251825/maternal-dietary-patterns-during-pregnancy-and-intelligence-quotients-in-the-offspring-at-8%C3%A2-years-of-age-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#2
Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Rebecca M Pearson, Pauline Emmett, Jon Heron, Andrew D A C Smith, Alan Emond, Joseph R Hibbeln, Maria Beatriz Trindade Castro, Gilberto Kac
Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee...
March 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246294/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-type-2-diabetes-aetiology-using-genotype-as-a-causal-anchor
#3
Hannah R Elliott, Hashem A Shihab, Gabrielle A Lockett, John W Holloway, Allan F McRae, George Davey Smith, Susan M Ring, Tom R Gaunt, Caroline L Relton
Several studies have investigated the relationship between genetic variation and DNA methylation with respect to type 2 diabetes but it is unknown if DNA methylation is a mediator in the disease pathway or if it is altered in response to disease state. This study uses genotypic information as a causal anchor to help decipher the likely role of DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip data was generated on 1,018 young individuals from the ALSPAC cohort...
February 28, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245296/time-outdoors-at-specific-ages-during-early-childhood-and-the-risk-of-incident-myopia
#4
Rupal L Shah, Yu Huang, Jeremy A Guggenheim, Cathy Williams
Purpose: Time outdoors during childhood is negatively associated with incident myopia. Consequently, additional time outdoors has been suggested as a public health intervention to reduce the prevalence of myopia. We investigated whether there were specific ages during early childhood when the time outdoors versus incident myopia association was strongest. Methods: Children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied from age 2 to 15 years...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222824/curiosity-killed-the-cat-no-evidence-of-an-association-between-cat-ownership-and-psychotic-symptoms-at-ages-13-and-18-years-in-a-uk-general-population-cohort
#5
F Solmi, J F Hayes, G Lewis, J B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: Congenital or early life infection with Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in schizophrenia aetiology. Childhood cat ownership has been hypothesized as an intermediary marker of T. gondii infection and, by proxy, as a risk factor for later psychosis. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is, however, limited. METHOD: We used birth cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to investigate whether cat ownership in pregnancy and childhood (ages 4 and 10 years) was associated with psychotic experiences (PEs) in early (age 13, N = 6705) and late (age 18, N = 4676) adolescence, rated from semi-structured interviews...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203641/the-antecedents-of-women-s-external-locus-of-control-associations-with-characteristics-of-their-parents-and-their-early-childhood
#6
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Locus of control (LOC) measures individuals' expectancies regarding their ability to affect what happens to them based on how they behave. The more they believe their behaviour has something to do with what happens to them the more internal they are. In contrast the more they perceive that what happens to them is beyond their control and determined by luck, fate, chance or powerful others the more external they are. Copious research findings suggest that external LOC (ELOC) is associated with many adverse personal, social, academic and health outcomes...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118352/using-genetic-variation-to-explore-the-causal-effect-of-maternal-pregnancy-adiposity-on-future-offspring-adiposity-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#7
Rebecca C Richmond, Nicholas J Timpson, Janine F Felix, Tom Palmer, Romy Gaillard, George McMahon, George Davey Smith, Vincent W Jaddoe, Debbie A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that greater maternal adiposity during pregnancy affects lifelong risk of offspring fatness via intrauterine mechanisms. Our aim was to use Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of intrauterine exposure to greater maternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring BMI and fat mass from childhood to early adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used maternal genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to test the causal effect of maternal BMI in pregnancy on offspring fatness (BMI and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] determined fat mass index [FMI]) in a MR approach...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095833/lifetime-and-12-month-prevalence-of-eating-disorders-amongst-women-in-mid-life-a-population-based-study-of-diagnoses-and-risk-factors
#8
Nadia Micali, Maria G Martini, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Radha Kothari, Ellie Russell, Cynthia M Bulik, Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are common amongst women; however, no research has specifically investigated the lifetime/12-month prevalence of eating disorders amongst women in mid-life (i.e., fourth and fifth decade of life) and the relevant longitudinal risk factors. We aimed to investigate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of EDs and lifetime health service use and to identify childhood, parenting, and personality risk factors. METHODS: This is a two-phase prevalence study, nested within an existing longitudinal community-based sample of women in mid-life...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089957/the-epigenetic-clock-and-physical-development-during-childhood-and-adolescence-longitudinal-analysis-from-a-uk-birth-cohort
#9
Andrew J Simpkin, Laura D Howe, Kate Tilling, Tom R Gaunt, Oliver Lyttleton, Wendy L McArdle, Susan M Ring, Steve Horvath, George Davey Smith, Caroline L Relton
BACKGROUND: Statistical models that use an individual's DNA methylation levels to estimate their age (known as epigenetic clocks) have recently been developed, with 96% correlation found between epigenetic and chronological age. We postulate that differences between estimated and actual age [age acceleration (AA)] can be used as a measure of developmental age in early life. METHODS: We obtained DNA methylation measures at three time points (birth, age 7 years and age 17 years) in 1018 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977232/interpersonal-callousness-and-co-occurring-anxiety-developmental-validity-of-an-adolescent-taxonomy
#10
Alan J Meehan, Barbara Maughan, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker
Growing evidence suggests heterogeneity within interpersonal-callous (IC) youth based on co-occurring anxiety. The developmental validity of this proposed taxonomy remains unclear however, as most previous research is cross-sectional and/or limited to adolescence. We aimed to identify low-anxiety (IC/ANX-) and high-anxiety (IC/ANX+) IC variants, and compare these groups on (a) early risk exposures, (b) psychiatric symptoms from midchildhood to early adolescence, and (c) school-based functioning. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective epidemiological birth cohort, model-based cluster analysis was performed on children with complete age-13 IC and anxiety scores (n = 6,791)...
February 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922636/dna-methylation-and-substance-use-risk-a-prospective-genome-wide-study-spanning-gestation-to-adolescence
#11
C A M Cecil, E Walton, R G Smith, E Viding, E J McCrory, C L Relton, M Suderman, J-B Pingault, W McArdle, T R Gaunt, J Mill, E D Barker
Epigenetic processes have been implicated in addiction; yet, it remains unclear whether these represent a risk factor and/or a consequence of substance use. Here, we believe we conducted the first genome-wide, longitudinal study to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in early life prospectively associate with substance use in adolescence. The sample comprised of 244 youth (51% female) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), with repeated assessments of DNA methylation (Illumina 450k array; cord blood at birth, whole blood at age 7) and substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use; age 14-18)...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911909/early-onset-paternal-smoking-and-offspring-adiposity-further-investigation-of-a-potential-intergenerational-effect-using-the-hunt-study
#12
David Carslake, Pia R Pinger, Pål Romundstad, George Davey Smith
Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909036/defining-adolescent-common-mental-disorders-using-electronic-primary-care-data-a-comparison-with-outcomes-measured-using-the-cis-r
#13
Rosie P Cornish, Ann John, Andy Boyd, Kate Tilling, John Macleod
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) derived from data held in primary care records with that measured using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) in order to assess the potential robustness of findings based only on routinely collected data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and electronic primary care records. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 1562 adolescents who had completed the CIS-R in ALSPAC at age 17-18 years and had linkage established to their primary care records...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902751/exploration-of-a-polygenic-risk-score-for-alcohol-consumption-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-alspac-cohort
#14
Michelle Taylor, Andrew J Simpkin, Philip C Haycock, Frank Dudbridge, Luisa Zuccolo
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879246/father-involvement-in-early-child-rearing-and-behavioural-outcomes-in-their-pre-adolescent-children-evidence-from-the-alspac-uk-birth-cohort
#15
Charles Opondo, Maggie Redshaw, Emily Savage-McGlynn, Maria A Quigley
OBJECTIVE: To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. SETTING: The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. PARTICIPANTS: Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862641/association-between-oxytocin-receptor-genotype-maternal-care-and-eating-disorder-behaviours-in-a-community-sample-of-women
#16
Nadia Micali, Marta Crous-Bou, Janet Treasure, Elizabeth A Lawson
This study aimed to investigate associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXT-R) polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298), their interaction with maternal care (GxE), and ED behaviours in a community sample. We studied 3698 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who participated in a two-phase prevalence study of lifetime ED and had genotype data. The GG rs53576 genotype was associated with binge eating and purging, and the rs2254298 AG/AA genotype with restrictive eating lifetime...
January 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830164/association-between-serum-c-reactive-protein-and-dsm-iv-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-adolescence-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#17
Golam M Khandaker, Stanley Zammit, Glyn Lewis, Peter B Jones
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of anxiety, but human studies of inflammatory markers and anxiety disorders are scarce. We report a study of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) from the general population-based ALSPAC birth cohort. METHODS: DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD was obtained from 5365 cohort members during face-to-face clinical assessment at age 16 years, of which 3392 also provided data on serum high sensitivity CRP levels...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810616/exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-in-utero-or-during-early-childhood-and-risk-of-hypomania-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#18
D F Mackay, J J Anderson, J P Pell, S Zammit, D J Smith
OBJECTIVES: Using data from a prospective birth cohort, we aimed to test for an association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero or during early development and the experience of hypomania assessed in young adulthood. METHODS: We used data on 2957 participants from a large birth cohort (Avon longitudinal study of parents and children [ALSPAC]). The primary outcome of interest was hypomania, and the secondary outcome was "hypomania plus previous psychotic experiences (PE)"...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803356/bullying-mediates-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-childhood-and-psychotic-experiences-in-early-adolescence
#19
Timo Hennig, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying...
November 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797540/child-behavior-and-sibling-relationship-quality-a-cross-lagged-analysis
#20
Alison Pike, Bonamy R Oliver
Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and children's problem behaviors are robust, and links with prosocial behavior have also been reported. Using cross-lagged models, we were able to conservatively test temporal directions of links between positive and negative aspects of sibling relationships and children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems across a 3-year time span in middle childhood. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/) is an ongoing population-based study designed to investigate the effects of a wide range of factors on children's health and development...
March 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
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