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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232751/-prosthetics-and-orthotics-prosthetic-fitting-in-lower-extremity-in-transfemoral-amputation
#1
Bernhard Greitemann
Modern prosthetic equipment often enables reintegration of patients with the amputation of a lower limb into their private life, their professional and social environment to a large extent. Provisioning of the lower extremity with artificial limbs aims at a life as normal as possible for the involved individual. The modules are selected in an interdisciplinary team. An optimal fitting of the socket, the correct static set-up, the appropriate fitting as well as cosmetic aspects are the essential basis for a sufficient provisioning...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232698/low-energy-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-eswt-improves-metaphyseal-fracture-healing-in-an-osteoporotic-rat-model
#2
Gina A Mackert, Matthias Schulte, Christoph Hirche, Dimitra Kotsougiani, Julian Vogelpohl, Bernd Hoener, Teresa Fiebig, Stefanie Kirschner, Marc A Brockmann, Marcus Lehnhardt, Ulrich Kneser, Leila Harhaus
PURPOSE: As result of the current demographic changes, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are becoming an increasing social and economic burden. In this experimental study, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), was evaluated as a treatment option for the improvement of osteoporotic fracture healing. METHODS: A well-established fracture model in the metaphyseal tibia in the osteoporotic rat was used. 132 animals were divided into 11 groups, with 12 animals each, consisting of one sham-operated group and 10 ovariectomized (osteoporotic) groups, of which 9 received ESWT treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232695/integrative-assessment-of-climate-change-for-fast-growing-urban-areas-measurement-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#3
Sebastian Scheuer, Dagmar Haase, Martin Volk
Over the 20th century, urbanization has substantially shaped the surface of Earth. With population rapidly shifting from rural locations towards the cities, urban areas have dramatically expanded on a global scale and represent crystallization points of social, cultural and economic assets and activities. This trend is estimated to persist for the next decades, and particularly the developing countries are expected to face rapid urban growth. The management of this growth will require good governance strategies and planning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232684/beyond-autism-introducing-the-dialectical-misattunement-hypothesis-and-a-bayesian-account-of-intersubjectivity
#4
Dimitris Bolis, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Cristina Becchio, Leonhard Schilbach
Drawing on sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of brain function, in this article we construe psychiatric conditions as disorders of social interaction to fully account for their complexity and dynamicity across levels of description and temporal scales. After an introduction of the theoretical underpinnings of our integrative approach, we take autism spectrum conditions (ASC) as a paradigm example and discuss how neurocognitive hypotheses can be translated into a Bayesian formulation, i.e., in terms of predictive processing and active inference...
December 13, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232631/ambiguous-genitalia-a-social-dilemma-in-bangladesh-a-case-report
#5
Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Rashidul Anwar, Arnab Saha
INTRODUCTION: Ambiguous Genitalia is a form of birth defect in which sex of the newborn cannot be readily distinguishable because of atypical appearance of the external genitalia. CASE REPORT-CLINICAL FINDINGS: The patient, an 8 months old baby, was identified as a female baby since birth; but, some senior members of their neighborhood raised confusion regarding sex differentiation of the child. On examination, there was enlarged clitoris or micropenis, bifid scrotum or labioscrotal fold, and separate presence of urethral and vaginal orifices...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232623/determinants-of-child-maltreatment-in-nepal-results-from-the-2014-nepal-multiple-indicator-cluster-survey-the-2014-nmics
#6
Madhu Sudhan Atteraya, Nasser B Ebrahim, Shreejana Gnawali
We examined the prevalence of child maltreatment as measured by the level of physical (moderate to severe) and emotional abuse and child labor, and the associated household level determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal. We used a nationally representative data set from the fifth round of the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (the 2014 NMICS). The main independent variables were household level characteristics. Dependent variables included child experience of moderate to severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, and child labor (domestic work and economic activities)...
December 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232621/timing-of-poverty-in-childhood-and-adolescent-health-evidence-from-the-us-and-uk
#7
Michael J Green, Haley Stritzel, Chelsea Smith, Frank Popham, Robert Crosnoe
Childhood poverty is associated with poorer adolescent health and health behaviours, but the importance of the timing of poverty remains unclear. There may be critical or sensitive periods in early life or early adolescence, or poverty may have cumulative effects throughout childhood. Understanding when poverty is most important can support efficient timing of interventions to raise family income or buffer against the effects of low income, but answers may vary across social contexts. The US and the UK are a useful comparison with similar liberal approaches to cash transfers, but very different approaches to healthcare provision...
December 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232620/high-social-trust-associated-with-increased-depressive-symptoms-in-a-longitudinal-south-african-sample
#8
Kafui Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Ichiro Kawachi, S V Subramanian, Mauricio Avendano
Several studies have documented a protective association between social trust and mental and physical health, but gaps in knowledge remain. Debates regarding the contextual versus individual nature of social trust are ongoing; research from low- and middle-income countries is lacking, and study designs have been limited for causal inference. To address these gaps, we examined the association between social trust and depressive symptoms using three waves of the National Income Dynamics Study, a longitudinal South African survey...
December 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232617/shared-reality-in-interpersonal-relationships
#9
REVIEW
Susan M Andersen, Elizabeth Przybylinski
Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232577/attachment-and-motivational-systems-relevance-of-sensitivity-to-punishment-for-eating-disorder-psychopathology
#10
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Valentina Cardi, Umberto Volpe, Giovanna Fico, Valeria Ruzzi, Francesca Pellegrino, Giovanni Castellini, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
An altered balance of reward and inhibition systems may explain Eating Disorder (ED) behaviors and could be related to difficulties in socio-emotional processing. According to attachment theory, early interaction with caregivers affects the ability to regulate emotion in adult interpersonal situation. The aim of our study was to investigate if insecure attachment may be related to ED symptomatology through changes in reward and inhibition systems. Seventy-eight people affected by EDs and 45 healthy controls (HC) filled in the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), the Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS-BAS) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) questionnaire...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232576/effects-of-oxytocin-on-cortisol-reactivity-and-conflict-resolution-behaviors-among-couples-with-substance-misuse
#11
Julianne C Flanagan, Melanie S Fischer, Paul J Nietert, Sudie E Back, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Alexandra Snead, Kathleen T Brady
Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232567/mapping-network-connectivity-among-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-in-people-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#12
Alexandre Heeren, Payton J Jones, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depressive symptoms often covary. Yet, uncertainty still abounds vis-à-vis the individual symptom-to-symptom associations between these two disorders. Inspired by the network approach to psychopathology that conceptualizes comorbidity as a natural consequence arising from bridge symptoms that can transmit activation from one disorder to the other, we applied network analytic methods to characterize the associations among core symptoms of SAD-i...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232545/influence-of-the-social-determinants-of-health-on-access-to-healthcare-services-among-refugees-in-australia
#13
Jessica Taylor, Greer Lamaro Haintz
Refugees in Australia are not fully utilising the healthcare system for several reasons and this may be affecting their overall health outcomes. This qualitative systematic review examined the influence of the social determinants of health on refugees' access to healthcare services in Australia. Electronic databases were searched using terms relating to refugees, social determinants, healthcare services, barriers, enablers and Australia. Only peer-reviewed studies published in English since 2006, which focused on refugees and specifically discussed social determinants influencing refugees' access to healthcare services in Australia, were included...
December 13, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232536/enhancing-the-effectiveness-of-work-groups-and-teams-a-reflection
#14
Steve W J Kozlowski
Teamwork has been at the core of human accomplishment across the millennia, and it was a focus of social psychological inquiry on small group behavior for nearly half a century. However, as organizations world-wide reorganized work around teams over the past two decades, the nature of teamwork and factors influencing it became a central focus of research in organizational psychology and management. In this article, I reflect on the impetus, strategy, key features, and scientific contribution of "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams," by Kozlowski and Ilgen, a review monograph published in Psychological Science in the Public Interest in 2006...
December 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232487/relation-of-social-constraints-on-disclosure-to-adjustment-among-chinese-american-cancer-survivors-a-multi-processes-approach
#15
Celia C Y Wong, Krystal Warmoth, Shelby Ivy, Bernice Cheung, Qian Lu
PURPOSE: The present study examines the association between social constraints and depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors, and the mechanism underling this association. A multi-processes model is tested to examine the mediating roles of ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE), avoidance, intrusive thoughts, and social support in the association between social constraints and depressive symptoms among Chinese American breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Ninety-six Chinese American breast cancer survivors were recruited from Chinese community organizations...
December 12, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232484/juvenile-social-experience-and-differential-age-related-changes-in-the-dendritic-morphologies-of-subareas-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#16
B T Himmler, R Mychasiuk, A Nakahashi, S M Himmler, S M Pellis, B Kolb
Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i...
December 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232482/validation-of-a-contextualized-assessment-of-smoking-behavior-in-students
#17
Helle Larsen, Elske Salemink, Ilva Grond, Reinout W Wiers, Kristen G Anderson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to validate an audio simulation of culture-specific social contexts associated with smoking to provide a medium for researchers to investigate social-contextual influences on tobacco use in the laboratory. METHODS: 81 students (34.6% men; n = 28) listened to five audio simulations of peer social contexts where offers to smoke tobacco were made (S-SIDE). For each social scenario, participants answered questions about their willingness to accept the offer to smoke and completed measures of smoking cognitions and tobacco use...
December 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232395/testing-the-event-witnessing-status-of-micro-bloggers-from-evidence-in-their-micro-blogs
#18
Marie Truelove, Maria Vasardani, Stephan Winter
This paper demonstrates a framework of processes for identifying potential witnesses of events from evidence they post to social media. The research defines original evidence models for micro-blog content sources, the relative uncertainty of different evidence types, and models for testing evidence by combination. Methods to filter and extract evidence using automated and semi-automated means are demonstrated using a Twitter case study event. Further, an implementation to test extracted evidence using Dempster Shafer Theory of Evidence are presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232329/cortisol-and-subjective-stress-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-fibromyalgia-patients-and-control-participants
#19
Eline Coppens, Stefan Kempke, Peter Van Wambeke, Stephan Claes, Bart Morlion, Patrick Luyten, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. METHODS: Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232317/attitude-of-nursing-students-toward-scientific-research-a-cross-sectional-study-in-turkey
#20
Seher Ünver, Remziye Semerci, Zeynep Kizilcik Özkan, Ilker Avcibaşi
BACKGROUND: Nursing, a social applied science, is a dynamic profession. Professional nurses must be curious, investigative, and open to learning as well as practice critical and analytic thinking to sustain their professionalism. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of nursing students toward scientific research. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted at a nursing department of a university in Turkey...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
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