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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908489/work-related-fatal-injuries-in-brescia-county-northern-italy-1982-to-2015-a-forensic-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Silvia Perotti, Maria Cristina Russo
Work-related deaths represent an important social problem. We report all the occupational fatal injuries recorded by the Brescia Institute of Forensic Medicine from 1982 to 2015. A total of 426 post-mortem examinations due to accidental work injuries were retrospectively analysed according to temporal distribution (year, month and day of the workplace accident); workers' characteristics (sex, age, nationality); type of occupation; cause of death; anatomical region of fatal injuries and timing of death. The accidental occupational events occurred with a mean of 12...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908484/ethnic-differences-in-the-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia-and-mood-disorders-during-admission-to-an-academic-safety-net-psychiatric-hospital
#2
Jane E Hamilton, Angela M Heads, Thomas D Meyer, Pratikkumar V Desai, Olaoluwa O Okusaga, Raymond Y Cho
U.S. Hispanics, now the single largest minority group in the country, face unique mental health disparities. The current study utilizes Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use to examine ethnic disparities in receiving a schizophrenia or mood disorder diagnosis at psychiatric hospital admission. Our retrospective cohort study examined electronic health record data at an academic safety-net psychiatric hospital for adult patients (n = 5571) admitted between 2010 and 2013. Logistic regression with block-wise entry of predisposing, enabling and need variables was used to examine ethnic disparities in receiving a schizophrenia diagnosis at admission...
May 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908477/recreational-use-in-dispersed-public-lands-measured-using-social-media-data-and-on-site-counts
#3
David M Fisher, Spencer A Wood, Eric M White, Dale J Blahna, Sarah Lange, Alex Weinberg, Michael Tomco, Emilia Lia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908475/help-seeking-intention-for-depression-in-early-adolescents-associated-factors-and-sex-differences
#4
Shuntaro Ando, Atsushi Nishida, Satoshi Usami, Shinsuke Koike, Syudo Yamasaki, Sho Kanata, Shinya Fujikawa, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Masato Fukuda, Susan M Sawyer, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Seeking help from others is an essential behavioural intention for humans to adapt to the social environment. Transgenerational and gender-related mechanisms of how this intention is shaped is an important but unresolved question in adolescent development. This study aimed to comprehensively examine the factors promoting or inhibiting intention to seek help for depression in 10-year-olds, including transgenerational factors, and to investigate the sex differences in the effect of these factors...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908474/early-warnings-for-suicide-attempt-among-chinese-rural-population
#5
Juncheng Lyu, Yingying Wang, Hong Shi, Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was to explore the main influencing factors of attempted suicide and establish an early warning model, so as to put forward prevention strategies for attempted suicide. METHOD: Data came from a large-scale case-control epidemiological survey. A sample of 659 serious suicide attempters was randomly recruited from 13 rural counties in China. Each case was matched by a community control for gender, age, and residence location. Face to face interviews were conducted for all the cases and controls with the same structured questionnaire...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908409/heroism-and-nursing-a-thematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Kathleen MacDonald, Jessica De Zylva, Margaret McAllister, Donna Lee Brien
OBJECTIVES: Nursing history is replete with examples of heroic individuals acting courageously to meet the needs of vulnerable patients and communities. Heroism exemplifies the pinnacle of self-actualised behaviour. It fuels the plots of countless human stories, and enthrals and inspires people. Yet, heroism may be seen as an extreme behaviour that only exceptional individuals are capable of enacting, and may thus be seen as out of reach for ordinary nurses, and something that could be risky to teach and disseminate...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908406/peer-support-intervention-for-postpartum-depression-participant-satisfaction-and-program-effectiveness
#7
Betty-Shannon Prevatt, Evan M Lowder, Sarah L Desmarais
OBJECTIVE: Postpartum mood disorders represent a serious problem affecting 10-20% of women and support groups offer a promising intervention modality. The current study examined participant satisfaction with and effectiveness of a peer-facilitated postpartum support group. INTERVENTION: The program consists of a free, peer-support group, developed to increase social support and destigmatise postpartum mood symptoms. The weekly group is co-facilitated by former group attendees and maternal health professionals...
May 31, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908392/differences-between-self-and-peer-rated-likability-in-relation-to-social-anxiety-and-depression-in-adolescents-with-mild-intellectual-disabilities
#8
Anke M Klein, Esther O Houtkamp, Elske Salemink, Jeanine M D Baartmans, Mike Rinck, Mariët J van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID). Unfortunately, there are only a few studies that focus on examining processes underlying social anxiety and depression in these adolescents. AIMS: The aim was to examine the differences between self- and peer-rated likability in relation to social anxiety and depression in the classroom environment. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 631 normative non-clinical adolescents with MBID completed questionnaires to measure social anxiety, depression, and the estimation of their own likability by peers...
June 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908242/medium-chain-triglyceride-diet-reduces-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-enhances-social-competitiveness-in-rats
#9
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908241/environmental-enrichment-enhances-conditioned-place-preference-to-ethanol-via-an-oxytocinergic-dependent-mechanism-in-male-mice
#10
Mariana Rae, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Priti Chivers, Alexis Bailey, Rosana Camarini
Environmental conditions, such as stress and environmental enrichment (EE), influence predisposition to alcohol use/abuse; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To assess the effect of environmental conditions on the initial rewarding effects of alcohol, we examined conditioned place-preference (CPP) to alcohol following exposure to EE in mice. Since social context is a major factor contributing to initial alcohol-drinking, we also assessed the impact of EE on the levels of the "social neuropeptide" oxytocin (OT) and its receptor, OTR...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908235/the-effect-of-antibiotics-on-social-aversion-following-early-life-inflammation
#11
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908025/seroprevalence-and-social-determinants-of-varicella-in-turkey
#12
Can Hüseyin Hekimoğlu, Özgen Alpay Özbek, Mestan Emek, Mehmet Ali Öktem, Galip Köroğlu, Mustafa Sertel, Sevin Özdeniz, Ali Ceylan, Ayla Açikgöz, Belgin Ünal
Background: In Turkey, varicella vaccine was introduced into routine childhood immunization in 2013, with a single dose administered to children aged 12 months. However, there is limited information on the morbidity (incidence and seroprevalence), mortality and burden of disease of varicella in the overall Turkish population. Aim: To determine varicella seroprevalence and its social determinants in Manisa Province, Turkey in children aged > 2 years before single-dose varicella vaccination was introduced in 2013...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907953/effectiveness-of-a-scerts-model-based-intervention-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-in-hong-kong-a-pilot-study
#13
Lu Yu, Xiaoqin Zhu
A SCERTS model-based intervention with different durations (5-month vs. 10-month) was provided to 122 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (age = 53.43 ± 9.05 months) in Hong Kong. Before and after the intervention, the children were assessed with the Chinese Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition (CPEP-3) and the Developmental Assessment Chart (DAC). Educators and parents expressed their views toward the intervention in focus groups. Results showed that participating children improved significantly in their social communication and emotional behavior after the intervention, as measured by DAC and CPEP-3...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907923/how-durable-are-ethnoracial-segregation-and-spatial-disadvantage-intergenerational-contextual-mobility-in-france
#14
Haley McAvay
Building on emerging research into intergenerational contextual mobility, I use longitudinal data from France (1990-2008) to investigate the extent to which second-generation immigrants and the French majority continue to live in similar neighborhood environments during childhood and adulthood. To explore the persistence of ethnoracial segregation and spatial disadvantage, I draw on two measures of neighborhood composition: the immigrant share and the unemployment rate. The analysis explores the individual and contextual factors underpinning intergenerational contextual mobility and variation across immigrant-origin groups...
June 15, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907917/neurologic-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#15
REVIEW
Margie A Ream, Lenora Lehwald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death worldwide in children < 5 years of age; however, technology and advances in medical knowledge are increasing the survival of children born even at the fringes of viability. With increased survival comes increased risk of long-term neurologic impairments. This paper aims to review recent findings related to changes in brain development associated with prematurity and its impact on neurodevelopmental disabilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced imaging techniques, longitudinal follow-up of individuals born extremely preterm into adulthood and improved understanding of risk factors associated with neurologic impairment contribute to recent discoveries...
June 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907813/early-life-and-pubertal-stress-differentially-modulate-grey-matter-development-in-human-adolescents
#16
Anna Tyborowska, Inge Volman, Hannah C M Niermann, J Loes Pouwels, Sanny Smeekens, Antonius H N Cillessen, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
Animal and human studies have shown that both early-life traumatic events and ongoing stress episodes affect neurodevelopment, however, it remains unclear whether and how they modulate normative adolescent neuro-maturational trajectories. We characterized effects of early-life (age 0-5) and ongoing stressors (age 14-17) on longitudinal changes (age 14 to17) in grey matter volume (GMV) of healthy adolescents (n = 37). Timing and stressor type were related to differential GMV changes. More personal early-life stressful events were associated with larger developmental reductions in GMV over anterior prefrontal cortex, amygdala and other subcortical regions; whereas ongoing stress from the adolescents' social environment was related to smaller reductions over the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907804/administration-of-molecular-hydrogen-during-pregnancy-improves-behavioral-abnormalities-of-offspring-in-a-maternal-immune-activation-model
#17
Kenji Imai, Tomomi Kotani, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomoko Nakano, Takafumi Ushida, Akira Iwase, Taku Nagai, Shinya Toyokuni, Akio Suzumura, Fumitaka Kikkawa
The aim of the present study was to investigate long-term outcomes of the offspring in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maternal immune activation (MIA) model and the effect of maternal molecular hydrogen (H2 ) administration. We have previously demonstrated in the MIA mouse model that maternal administration of H2 attenuates oxidative damage and neuroinflammation, including induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation, in the fetal brain. Short-term memory, sociability and social novelty, and sensorimotor gating were evaluated using the Y-maze, three-chamber, and prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, respectively, at postnatal 3 or 4 weeks...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907782/sociality-does-not-drive-the-evolution-of-large-brains-in-eusocial-african-mole-rats
#18
Kristina Kverková, Tereza Bělíková, Seweryn Olkowicz, Zuzana Pavelková, M Justin O'Riain, Radim Šumbera, Hynek Burda, Nigel C Bennett, Pavel Němec
The social brain hypothesis (SBH) posits that the demands imposed on individuals by living in cohesive social groups exert a selection pressure favouring the evolution of large brains and complex cognitive abilities. Using volumetry and the isotropic fractionator to determine the size of and numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we test this hypothesis in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae). These subterranean rodents exhibit a broad spectrum of social complexity, ranging from strictly solitary through to eusocial cooperative breeders, but feature similar ecologies and life history traits...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907777/social-status-and-prenatal-testosterone-exposure-assessed-via-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-affect-6-9-year-old-children-s-prosocial-choices
#19
Lisa Horn, Niklas A Hungerländer, Sonja Windhager, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
Prosocial behaviour (i.e., voluntary behaviour intended to benefit another) seems to be fully developed in children by the age of 6 years. However, questions about which factors modify prosocial behaviour at that age remain understudied. Here we used a resource allocation paradigm to test prosocial behaviour in 6-9-year-old school children. They could decide between a "selfish" (i.e., one sticker for themselves) and a "prosocial" option (i.e., one sticker for themselves and one for the receiver) and we tested whether friendship, social status and prenatal androgen exposure (approximated by the 2nd to 4th digit ratio; 2D:4D) influenced children's prosocial choices...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907738/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-is-associated-with-neural-response-during-selective-social-attention
#20
Meghan H Puglia, Jessica J Connelly, James P Morris
Aberrant attentional biases to social stimuli have been implicated in a number of disorders including autism and social anxiety disorder. Oxytocin, a naturally-occurring mammalian hormone and neuromodulator involved in regulating social behavior, has been proposed to impact basic biological systems that facilitate the detection of and orientation to social information. Here, we investigate a role for naturally-occurring variability in the endogenous oxytocinergic system in regulating neural response during attention to social information...
June 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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