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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535495/understanding-the-heterogeneity-of-cervical-cancer-screening-non-participants-data-from-a-national-sample-of-british-women
#1
Laura A V Marlow, Amanda J Chorley, Jessica Haddrell, Rebecca Ferrer, Jo Waller
BACKGROUND: Uptake of cervical cancer screening in the United Kingdom (UK) is falling year on year, and a more sophisticated understanding of non-participation may help design interventions to reverse this trend. This study ascertained the prevalence of different non-participant types using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). METHODS: Home-based computer-assisted interviews were carried out with 3113 screening-eligible women in Britain. Survey items assessed self-reported screening uptake and intention to attend in future...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535449/the-center-for-epidemiological-studies-depression-scale-ces-d-measurement-equivalence-across-gender-groups-in-hispanic-college-students
#2
Consuelo Arbona, Andrea Burridge, Norma Olvera
BACKGROUND: This study examined among Hispanic college students the factor structure and gender measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The CES-D's original 20 item four-factor model was compared to a recently proposed 14 item, three-factor model. METHODS: Participants included 858 Hispanic undergraduates at an ethnically diverse, major research, urban, public university in the Southwest United States (U.S.). Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and structural equation modeling were used to examine the factor structure, gender invariance, and construct validity of the CES-D scores...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535428/a-regional-market-oriented-governance-for-disaster-management-a-new-planning-approach
#3
Erwin A Blackstone, Simon Hakim, Brian Meehan
This paper proposes a regional competitive governance and management of response and recovery from disasters. It presents problems experienced in major disasters, analyzes the failures, and suggests how a competitive system that relies on private and volunteer regional leaders, personnel, and capital can improve preparation, response and recovery efforts over the existing government system. A Public Choice approach is adopted to explain why government often fails, and how regional governance may be socially more efficient than the existing federal- state-local funded and managed disaster system...
May 13, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535406/anhedonia-predicts-poor-psychosocial-functioning-results-from-a-large-cohort-of-patients-treated-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-general-practitioners
#4
F Vinckier, D Gourion, S Mouchabac
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depression and a key prognostic factor that is often poorly explored in clinical trials of major depressive disorder (MDD). Beyond symptomatic remission, psychosocial functioning also reveals difficulty in achieving remission in patients with MDD. The main objective of this study was to explore the interrelationships between social functioning and anhedonia on a longitudinal basis. METHODS: In total, 1570 outpatients treated for MDD with agomelatine were included...
March 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535401/workforce-planning-and-training-in-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-across-europe-a-survey-of-national-trainee-societies
#5
Anna J M Aabakke, Alexandra Kristufkova, Charlotte Boyon, Laurids T Bune, Maud Van de Venne
OBJECTIVE(S): To describe the infrastructural differences in training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ObGyn) across Europe. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive web-based survey of 31 national ObGyn trainee societies representing the 30 member countries of the European Network of Trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Answers were verified in a telephone interview and only countries which had completed the telephone interview were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: The final analysis included 28 of 31 societies representing 27 countries (response rate 90%)...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535332/interventions-for-treating-anxiety-after-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Peter Knapp, C Alexia Campbell Burton, John Holmes, Jenni Murray, David Gillespie, C Elizabeth Lightbody, Caroline L Watkins, Ho-Yan Y Chun, Sharon R Lewis
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of stroke patients experience clinically significant levels of anxiety at some point after stroke. Physicians can treat these patients with antidepressants or other anxiety-reducing drugs, or both, or they can provide psychological therapy. This review looks at available evidence for these interventions. This is an update of the review first published in October 2011. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of pharmaceutical, psychological, complementary, or alternative therapeutic interventions in treating stroke patients with anxiety disorders or symptoms...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#7
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535285/delayed-hospital-discharges-of-older-patients-a-systematic-review-on-prevalence-and-costs
#8
Filipa Landeiro, Kenny Roberts, Alastair Mcintosh Gray, José Leal
Purpose of the Study: To determine the prevalence of delayed discharges of elderly inpatients and associated costs. Design and Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, Econlit, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO - CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Health Management Information Consortium, and SCIE - Social Care Online for evidence published between 1990 and 2015 on number of days or proportion of delayed discharges for elderly inpatients in acute hospitals...
May 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535284/cumulative-effects-of-neighborhood-social-adversity-and-personal-crime-victimization-on-adolescent-psychotic-experiences
#9
Joanne Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Helen L Fisher
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. METHODS: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535273/older-adults-in-public-open-spaces-age-and-gender-segregation
#10
Rinat Ben Noon, Liat Ayalon
Background and Objectives: There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Research Design and Methods: Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis...
May 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535264/the-impact-of-the-physical-environment-on-depressive-symptoms-of-older-residents-living-in-care-homes-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Rachel Potter, Bart Sheehan, Rebecca Cain, James Griffin, Paul A Jennings
Background and Objectives: Forty percent of residents living in care homes in the United Kingdom have significant depressive symptoms. Care homes can appear to be depressing places, but whether the physical environment of homes directly affects depression in care home residents is unknown. This study explores the relationship between the physical environment and depressive symptoms of older people living in care homes. Research Design and Methods: In a prospective cohort study the physical environment of 50 care homes were measured using the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (SCEAM) and depressive symptoms of 510 residents measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15)...
May 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535258/invited-commentary-beyond-individuals-area-poverty-and-health-or-the-search-for-an-impactful-epidemiology
#12
Ana V Diez Roux
In this commentary, I reflect on the paper "Poverty and Health: Prospective Evidence From the Alameda County Study" by Haan et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125(6):989-998), which together with supporting work ushered in a surge of epidemiologic interest in the impact of social contexts on health. I discuss why the paper was influential and how the premise of this type of work influenced theories and methods in epidemiology. The paper is placed in the broader context of the nature of evidence in epidemiology and the ultimate purpose of epidemiologic inquiry...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535254/invited-commentary-cassel-s-the-contribution-of-the-social-environment-to-host-resistance-a-modern-classic
#13
Sherman A James
John Cassel's 1976 paper "The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance" (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(2):107-123) is widely regarded as a classic in epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the degree to which her relationships are more stressful than supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and observational studies on diverse human populations...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535168/invited-commentary-evolution-of-social-networks-health-and-the-role-of-epidemiology
#14
Allison E Aiello
Almost 40 years ago, Berkman and Syme demonstrated that social networks were related to the risk of early mortality (Am J Epidemiol. 1979;109(2):186-204). Their study was highly innovative because they directly measured and quantified social networks in a large prospective population-based survey with mortality follow-up. The results of the study showed robust network gradients, whereby those with fewer networks and weaker social ties had significantly higher mortality rates. The important influence of social networks that Berkman and Syme noted many years ago is likely to heighten in the future, as demographic characteristics shift and individuals become more inclined to socialize through online platforms instead of real-world interactions...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535165/parental-body-mass-index-and-behavioral-problems-in-their-offspring-a-danish-national-birth-cohort-study
#15
Susanne Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Lena Hohwü, Jørn Olsen, Bodil Hammer Bech, Zeyan Liew, Carsten Obel
Maternal obesity has been associated with increased risk of offspring behavioral problems. We examined whether this association could be explained by familial factors by comparing associations for maternal body mass index (BMI) with associations for paternal BMI. We studied 38,314 children born to mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. Data on maternal BMI was collected at 15 weeks of gestation, and paternal BMI was assessed when the child was 18 months old. When the child was 7 years old, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was completed by the parents...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535162/examining-the-social-context-of-injection-drug-use-social-proximity-vs-geographic-proximity-to-others-who-inject-drugs
#16
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
This analysis uses social network and spatial data to examine associations between one's injection status and social and/or spatial proximity to others who inject. 503 rural persons who use drugs were recruited to participate in the Social Networks among Appalachian People (SNAP) Study (2008-2010). Interviewer-administered surveys collected information on recent sex, drug use, and social support network members (n = 897 ties). Using network simulations, we determined a threshold for the association between social proximity to others who inject and recent injection status ('socially proximal' defined by shortest path≤2)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535140/relation-between-body-mass-index-and-body-image-in-spanish-and-mexican-adolescents
#17
Jesús Roberto García Sandoval, José Carlos Caracuel, Armando Cocca, Michaela Cocca, Oswaldo Ceballos Gurrola
This article aims to study the relation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body image in adolescents from two different social environments in Spain and Mexico, and to compare the construction of an appropriate body scheme in youth from these two countries. The majority of participants were found to be in the normal weight category of BMI. No significant differences were found in BMI or body image comparing Mexican and Spanish adolescents. Regardless of the country of origin, youth belonging to the weight deficit category of BMI overestimated their body shape, whereas those pertaining to overweight and obesity categories underestimated it...
May 23, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535113/quality-of-life-of-the-elderly-on-old-age-pension-in-lesotho
#18
Eltony Mugomeri, Peter Chatanga, Ts'ele Khetheng, Jotham Dhemba
The southern African country of Lesotho introduced an old age pension scheme in 2004 with the aim of enhancing the quality of life (QoL) of the nation's elderly population. This study is the first to assess the physical, psychological, social and environmental aspects of the health-related QoL of the elderly in Lesotho since the pension scheme was adopted. Data for this study was gathered using the World Health Organization QoL-Bref questionnaire. Mean QoL scores were compared across demographic, socio-economic and clinical variables using analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-test and regression analysis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535025/missad-diagnos-av-h%C3%A3-lseneruptur-vanligast-hos-%C3%A3-ldre-patienter
#19
Thomas Fridén, Tomas Movin, Åke Andrén-Sandberg
We audited forty-six patients with a rupture of the Achilles tendon notified to the Swedish regulatory authority (the Health and Social Care Inspectorate) due to suspicion of malpractice. The patients' history and clinical presentation differed from those with a more classical acute rupture. The diagnostic errors were often found in patients older than 60 years, they were just as common in women as in men and the symptoms often had a subacute start. In most patients, the diagnostic errors were due to an incomplete clinical examination...
May 23, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534928/music-genetics-research-association-with-musicality-of-a-polymorphism-in-the-avpr1a-gene
#20
Luiza Monteavaro Mariath, Alexandre Mauat da Silva, Thayne Woycinck Kowalski, Gustavo Schulz Gattino, Gustavo Andrade de Araujo, Felipe Grahl Figueiredo, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Tatiana Roman, Fernanda Sales Luiz Vianna, Lavínia Schuler-Faccini, Jaqueline Bohrer Schuch
Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype...
May 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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