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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318131/hydrologic-refugia-plants-and-climate-change
#1
REVIEW
Blair C McLaughlin, David D Ackerly, P Zion Klos, Jennifer Natali, Todd E Dawson, Sally E Thompson
Climate, physical landscapes, and biota interact to generate heterogeneous hydrologic conditions in space and over time, which are reflected in spatial patterns of species distributions. As these species distributions respond to rapid climate change, microrefugia may support local species persistence in the face of deteriorating climatic suitability. Recent focus on temperature as a determinant of microrefugia insufficiently accounts for the importance of hydrologic processes and changing water availability with changing climate...
March 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295911/co2-exchange-and-evapotranspiration-across-dryland-ecosystems-of-southwestern-north-america
#2
Joel A Biederman, Russell L Scott, Tom W Bell, David R Bowling, Sabina Dore, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Thomas E Kolb, Praveena Krishnan, Dan J Krofcheck, Marcy E Litvak, Gregory E Maurer, Tilden P Meyers, Walter C Oechel, Shirley A Papuga, Guillermo E Ponce-Campos, Julio C Rodriguez, William K Smith, Rodrigo Vargas, Christopher J Watts, Enrico A Yepez, Michael L Goulden
Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in drylands. Here we address this observation gap with eddy covariance data from 25 sites in the water-limited Southwest region of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years (150 site-years in total)...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295022/impacts-of-twenty-years-of-experimental-warming-on-soil-carbon-nitrogen-moisture-and-soil-mites-across-alpine-subarctic-tundra-communities
#3
Juha M Alatalo, Annika K Jägerbrand, Jaanis Juhanson, Anders Michelsen, Peter Ľuptáčik
High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281100/helminth-parasitism-in-two-closely-related-south-african-rodents-abundance-prevalence-species-richness-and-impinging-factors
#4
Andrea Spickett, Kerstin Junker, Boris R Krasnov, Voitto Haukisalmi, Sonja Matthee
We investigated patterns of helminth infection in two closely related rodents (social Rhabdomys pumilio occurring mainly in xeric habitats and solitary R. dilectus occurring mainly in mesic habitats) at 20 localities in different biomes of South Africa and asked if between-species differences were mainly caused by difference in sociality or difference in environmental conditions of their respective habitats. Helminths recovered from the gastrointestinal tract totalled 11 nematode and 5 cestode species from R...
March 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277960/seasonal-metabolic-acclimatization-varies-in-direction-and-magnitude-among-populations-of-an-afrotropical-passerine-bird
#5
Matthew J Noakes, Blair O Wolf, Andrew E McKechnie
Avian metabolic responses demonstrate considerable diversity under fluctuating environmental conditions, a well-studied example being the seasonal upregulation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolism (Msum) in temperate species experiencing harsh winters. Fewer studies have examined seasonal metabolic acclimatization in subtropical or tropical species. We investigated seasonal metabolic variation in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼47 g), at three sites along a climatic gradient of approximately 7°C in winter minimum air temperature (Ta)...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267242/arctic-shrub-growth-trajectories-differ-across-soil-moisture-levels
#6
Daniel Ackerman, Daniel Griffin, Sarah E Hobbie, Jacques C Finlay
The circumpolar expansion of woody deciduous shrubs in arctic tundra alters key ecosystem properties including carbon balance and hydrology. However, landscape-scale patterns and drivers of shrub expansion remain poorly understood, inhibiting accurate incorporation of shrub effects into climate models. Here, we use dendroecology to elucidate the role of soil moisture in modifying the relationship between climate and growth for a dominant deciduous shrub, Salix pulchra, on the North Slope of Alaska, USA. We improve upon previous modeling approaches by using ecological theory to guide model selection for the relationship between climate and shrub growth...
March 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245232/implications-of-high-species-turnover-on-the-south-western-australian-sandplains
#7
Neil Gibson, Suzanne Prober, Rachel Meissner, Stephen van Leeuwen
Species turnover and its components related to replacement and nestedness form a significant element of diversity that is historically poorly accounted for in conservation planning. To inform biodiversity conservation and contribute to a broader understanding of patterns in species turnover, we undertook a floristic survey of 160 plots along an 870 km transect across oligotrophic sandplains, extending from the mesic south coast to the arid interior of south-western Australia. A nested survey design was employed to sample distances along the transect as evenly as possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236438/evaluation-of-a-chest-radiograph-reading-and-recording-system-for-tuberculosis-in-a-hiv-positive-cohort
#8
C S Kosack, S Spijker, J Halton, M Bonnet, S Nicholas, K Chetcuti, A Mesic, W E Brant, E Joekes, S Andronikou
AIM: To assess the impact of introducing a chest radiograph reading and recording system (CRRS) with a short training session, on the accuracy and inter-reader variability of tuberculosis (TB) interpretation of chest radiographs (CXRs) by a group of non-expert readers in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A set of 139 CXRs was reviewed by a group of eight physicians pre- and post-intervention at two clinics in Shan State, Myanmar, providing HIV/TB diagnosis and treatment services...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165444/correlation-between-cervical-infection-and-preterm-labor
#9
Larisa Mešić Ðogić, Nenad Lučić, Dragana Mićić, Feđa Omeragić, Enes Hodžić, Seid Fazlagić, Refka Kovač, Nevenka Pavlović
Aim To investigate a correlation between cervical canal infection and imminent preterm labor and to identify most frequent pathogens. Methods A prospective study was conducted in obstetrics/gynecology departments of Health Center and the University Clinical Center Tuzla, and General Hospital Tešanj (Bosnia and Herzegovina, B&H) between October 2013 and May 2014. An examined group included 50 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancy of the gestation age between the 28th and 37th week, with cervical changes that are related to imminent preterm labor...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154965/an-assessment-of-diurnal-water-uptake-in-a-mesic-prairie-evidence-for-hydraulic-lift
#10
Kimberly O'Keefe, Jesse B Nippert
Hydraulic lift, the passive movement of water through plant roots from wet to dry soil, is an important ecohydrological process in a wide range of water-limited ecosystems. This phenomenon may also alter plant functioning, growth, and survival in mesic grasslands, where soil moisture is spatially and temporally variable. Here, we monitored diurnal changes in the isotopic signature of soil and plant xylem water to assess (1) whether hydraulic lift occurs in woody and herbaceous tallgrass prairie species (Rhus glabra, Amorpha canescens, Vernonia baldwinii, and Andropogon gerardii), (2) if nocturnal transpiration or grazing by large ungulates limits hydraulic lift, and (3) if a dominant grass, A...
April 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152187/clinal-population-divergence-in-an-adaptive-parental-environmental-effect-that-adjusts-seed-banking
#11
Christian Lampei, Johannes Metz, Katja Tielbörger
Bet-hedging via between-year seed dormancy is a costly strategy for plants in unpredictable environments. Theoretically, fitness costs can be reduced through a parental environmental effect when the environment is partly predictable. We tested whether populations from environments that differ in predictability diverged in parental effects on seed dormancy. Common garden-produced seeds of the two annual plant species Biscutella didyma and Bromus fasciculatus collected along an aridity gradient were grown under 12 irrigation treatments...
February 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126515/post-eocene-climate-change-across-continental-australia-and-the-diversification-of-australasian-spiny-trapdoor-spiders-idiopidae-arbanitinae
#12
Michael G Rix, Steven J B Cooper, Karen Meusemann, Seraina Klopfstein, Sophie E Harrison, Mark S Harvey, Andrew D Austin
The formation and spread of the Australian arid zone during the Neogene was a profoundly transformative event in the biogeographic history of Australia, resulting in extinction or range contraction in lineages adapted to mesic habitats, as well as diversification and range expansion in arid-adapted taxa (most of which evolved from mesic ancestors). However, the geographic origins of the arid zone biota are still relatively poorly understood, especially among highly diverse invertebrate lineages, many of which are themselves poorly documented at the species level...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123112/how-the-aridification-of-australia-structured-the-biogeography-and-influenced-the-diversification-of-a-large-lineage-of-australian-cicadas
#13
Christopher L Owen, David C Marshall, Kathy B R Hill, Chris Simon
Over the last 30 million years, Australia's landscape has undergone dramatic cooling and drying due to the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and change in global CO[Formula: see text] levels. Studies have shown that many Australian organisms went extinct during these major cooling events, while others experienced adaptive radiations and increases in diversification rates as a result of exploiting new niches in the arid zone. Despite the many studies on diversification and biogeography in Australia, few have been continent-wide and none have focused on a group of organisms adapted to feeding on plants...
January 25, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107055/radiating-despite-a-lack-of-character-ecological-divergence-among-closely-related-morphologically-similar-honeyeaters-aves-meliphagidae-co-occurring-in-arid-australian-environments
#14
Eliot T Miller, Sarah K Wagner, Luke J Harmon, Robert E Ricklefs
Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097736/restoration-and-management-for-plant-diversity-enhances-the-rate-of-belowground-ecosystem-recovery
#15
Ryan P Klopf, Sara G Baer, Elizabeth M Bach, J Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20) and grasslands restored with fewer species that were infrequently burned (n=15)...
January 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094046/spatiotemporal-variation-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-colonization-in-olive-olea-europaea-l-roots-across-a-broad-mesic-xeric-climatic-gradient-in-north-africa
#16
Amel Meddad-Hamza, Nabila Hamza, Souad Neffar, Arifa Beddiar, Silvio Gianinazzi, Haroun Chenchouni
This study aims to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of root colonization and spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere of olive trees (Olea europaea) with different plantation ages and under different climatic areas in Algeria. Soil and root samples were seasonally collected from three olive plantations of different ages. Other samples were carried out in productive olive orchards cultivated under a climatic gradient (desertic, semi-arid, subhumid, and humid). The olive varieties analysed in this study were Blanquette, Rougette, Chemlel and the wild-olive...
January 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065919/force-of-habit-shrubs-trees-and-contingent-evolution-of-wood-anatomical-diversity-using-croton-euphorbiaceae-as-a-model-system
#17
Rafael Arévalo, Benjamin W van Ee, Ricarda Riina, Paul E Berry, Alex C Wiedenhoeft
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. METHODS: Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040775/genomic-signatures-of-historical-allopatry-and-ecological-divergence-in-an-island-lizard
#18
Richard P Brown, Steve Paterson, Judith Risse
Geographical variation among contiguous populations is frequently attributed to ecological divergence or historical isolation followed by secondary contact. Distinguishing between these effects is key to studies of incipient speciation and could be revealed by different genomic signatures. We used RAD-seq analyses to examine morphologically divergent populations of the endemic lizard (Gallotia galloti) from the volcanic island of Tenerife. Previous analyses have suggested ecological and historical causes to explain the morphological diversity...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029193/disturbance-and-productivity-interactions-mediate-stability-of-forest-composition-and-structure
#19
Christopher D O'Connor, Donald A Falk, Ann M Lynch, Thomas W Swetnam, Craig P Wilcox
Fire is returning to many conifer-dominated forests where species composition and structure have been altered by fire exclusion. Ecological effects of these fires are influenced strongly by the degree of forest change during the fire-free period. Response of fire-adapted species assemblages to extended fire-free intervals is highly variable, even in communities with similar historical fire regimes. This variability in plant community response to fire exclusion is not well understood; however, ecological mechanisms such as individual species' adaptations to disturbance or competition and underlying site characteristics that facilitate or impede establishment and growth have been proposed as potential drivers of assemblage response...
December 28, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001335/climate-change-and-the-eco-hydrology-of-fire-will-area-burned-increase-in-a-warming-western-usa
#20
Donald McKenzie, Jeremy S Littell
Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert...
August 25, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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