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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917183/responses-of-soil-microbial-biomass-and-enzyme-activities-to-tillage-and-fertilization-systems-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-production
#1
Gholamreza Heidari, Khosro Mohammadi, Yousef Sohrabi
Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907259/spectral-diversity-area-relationships-for-assessing-biodiversity-in-a%C3%A2-wildland-agriculture-matrix
#2
Kyla Marie Dahlin
Species-area relationships have long been used to assess patterns of species diversity across scales. Here, this concept is extended to spectral diversity using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over western Michigan. This mixture of mesic forest and agricultural lands offers two end-points on the local-scale diversity continuum; one set of well-mixed forest patches and one set of highly homogeneous agricultural patches. Using the sum of the first three principal component values and the principal components' convex hull volume, spectral diversity was compared within and among these plots and to null expectations for perfectly random and perfectly patchy landscapes...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906022/risk-factors-for-unstructured-treatment-interruptions-and-association-with-survival-in-low-to-middle-income-countries
#3
James H McMahon, Tim Spelman, Nathan Ford, Jane Greig, Anita Mesic, Charles Ssonko, Esther C Casas, Daniel P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment interruptions lead to poor clinical outcomes with unplanned or unstructured TIs (uTIs) likely to be underreported. This study describes; uTIs, their risk factors and association with survival. METHODS: Analysis of ART programmatic data from 11 countries across Asia and Africa between 2003 and 2013 where an uTI was defined as a ≥90-day patient initiated break from ART calculated from the last day the previous ART prescription would have run out until the date of the next ART prescription...
July 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886506/measurement-of-excitation-spectra-in-the-12-c-p-d-reaction-near-the-%C3%AE-emission-threshold
#4
Y K Tanaka, K Itahashi, H Fujioka, Y Ayyad, J Benlliure, K-T Brinkmann, S Friedrich, H Geissel, J Gellanki, C Guo, E Gutz, E Haettner, M N Harakeh, R S Hayano, Y Higashi, S Hirenzaki, C Hornung, Y Igarashi, N Ikeno, M Iwasaki, D Jido, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, R Kanungo, R Knöbel, N Kurz, V Metag, I Mukha, T Nagae, H Nagahiro, M Nanova, T Nishi, H J Ong, S Pietri, A Prochazka, C Rappold, M P Reiter, J L Rodríguez-Sánchez, C Scheidenberger, H Simon, B Sitar, P Strmen, B Sun, K Suzuki, I Szarka, M Takechi, I Tanihata, S Terashima, Y N Watanabe, H Weick, E Widmann, J S Winfield, X Xu, H Yamakami, J Zhao
Excitation spectra of ^{11}C are measured in the ^{12}C(p,d) reaction near the η^{'} emission threshold. A proton beam extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI with an incident energy of 2.5 GeV impinges on a carbon target. The momenta of deuterons emitted at 0° are precisely measured with the fragment separator (FRS) operated as a spectrometer. In contrast to theoretical predictions on the possible existence of deeply bound η^{'}-mesic states in carbon nuclei, no distinct structures are observed associated with the formation of bound states...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869752/extracting-plant-phenology-metrics-in-a-great-basin-watershed-methods-and-considerations-for-quantifying-phenophases-in-a-cold-desert
#5
Keirith A Snyder, Bryce L Wehan, Gianluca Filippa, Justin L Huntington, Tamzen K Stringham, Devon K Snyder
Plant phenology is recognized as important for ecological dynamics. There has been a recent advent of phenology and camera networks worldwide. The established PhenoCam Network has sites in the United States, including the western states. However, there is a paucity of published research from semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of camera-based repeat digital imagery and use of R statistical phenopix package to quantify plant phenology and phenophases in four plant communities in the semi-arid cold desert region of the Great Basin...
November 18, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859095/controls-on-carbon-storage-and-weathering-in-volcanic-soils-across-a-high-elevation-climate-gradient-on-mauna-kea-hawaii
#6
Marc G Kramer, Oliver A Chadwick
Volcanic ash soils retain the largest and most persistent soil carbon pools of any ecosystem. However, the mechanisms governing soil carbon accumulation and weathering during initial phases of ecosystem development are not well understood. We examined soil organic matter dynamics and soil development across a high-altitude (3,560-3,030 m) 20-kyr climate gradient on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Four elevation sites were selected (~250-500 mm rainfall), which range from sparsely vegetated to sites that contain a mix of shrubs and grasses...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859094/productivity-and-species-richness-in-longleaf-pine-woodlands-resource-disturbance-influences-across-an-edaphic-gradient
#7
L K Kirkman, L M Giencke, R S Taylor, L R Boring, C L Staudhammer, R J Mitchell
This study examines the complex feedback mechanisms that regulate a positive relationship between species richness and productivity in a longleaf pine-wiregrass woodland. Across a natural soil moisture gradient spanning wet-mesic to xeric conditions, two large scale manipulations over a 10-yr period were used to determine how limiting resources and fire regulate plant species diversity and productivity at multiple scales. A fully factorial experiment was used to examine productivity and species richness responses to N and water additions...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855693/modelling-the-effect-of-short-course-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#8
James M Trauer, Jay Achar, Nargiza Parpieva, Atadjan Khamraev, Justin T Denholm, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Anita Mesic, Philipp du Cros, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global TB control. MDR-TB treatment regimens typically have a high pill burden, last 20 months or more and often lead to unsatisfactory outcomes. A 9-11 month regimen with seven antibiotics has shown high success rates among selected MDR-TB patients in different settings and is conditionally recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We construct a transmission-dynamic model of TB to estimate the likely impact of a shorter MDR-TB regimen when applied in a low HIV prevalence region of Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) with high rates of drug resistance, good access to diagnostics and a well-established community-based MDR-TB treatment programme providing treatment to around 400 patients...
November 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853534/young-relicts-and-old-relicts-a-novel-palaeoendemic-vertebrate-from-the-australian-central-uplands
#9
Paul M Oliver, Peter J McDonald
Climatic change, and in particular aridification, has played a dominant role in shaping Southern Hemisphere biotas since the mid-Neogene. In Australia, ancient and geologically stable ranges within the vast arid zone have functioned as refugia for populations of mesic taxa extirpated from surrounding areas, yet the extent to which relicts may be linked to major aridification events before or after the Pliocene has not been examined in detail. Here we use molecular phylogenetic and morphological data to show that isolated populations of saxicoline geckos in the genus Oedura from the Australian Central Uplands, formerly confounded as a single taxon, actually comprise two divergent species with contrasting histories of isolation...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851742/demographic-costs-associated-with-differences-in-habitat-space-occupancy
#10
Kelly A Williams, Donald B Miles
Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848000/effects-of-post-fire-plant-cover-in-the-performance-of-two-cordilleran-cypress-austrocedrus-chilensis-seedling-stocktypes-planted-in-burned-forests-of-northeastern-patagonia-argentina
#11
María F Urretavizcaya, Héctor E Gonda, Guillermo E Defossé
Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions...
November 15, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811782/description-of-the-mature-larva-of-pseudopyrochroa-depressa-pic-coleoptera-pyrochroidae-pyrochroinae-with-comparison-to-other-taiwanese-pseudopyrochroa
#12
Daniel K Young, Yun Hsiao
Field collections and rearing has established an association between the larva and adult of the Taiwanese Pseudopyrochroa depressa. Larvae were collected from beneath bark of the exposed portions of a dead, decaying log in a mesic montane forest and successfully reared to the adult stage. The mature larva is described and salient features are illustrated and compared to other known pyrochroid larvae from Taiwan. Notes on larval habitats and natural history are also provided.
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798300/identifying-cryptic-diversity-with-predictive-phylogeography
#13
Anahí Espíndola, Megan Ruffley, Megan L Smith, Bryan C Carstens, David C Tank, Jack Sullivan
Identifying units of biological diversity is a major goal of organismal biology. An increasing literature has focused on the importance of cryptic diversity, defined as the presence of deeply diverged lineages within a single species. While most discoveries of cryptic lineages proceed on a taxon-by-taxon basis, rapid assessments of biodiversity are needed to inform conservation policy and decision-making. Here, we introduce a predictive framework for phylogeography that allows rapidly identifying cryptic diversity...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757543/photosynthetic-responses-of-a-dominant-c4-grass-to-an-experimental-heat-wave-are-mediated-by-soil-moisture
#14
D L Hoover, A K Knapp, M D Smith
Extreme heat waves and drought are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. These extreme events often co-occur, making it difficult to separate their direct and indirect effects on important ecophysiological and carbon cycling processes such as photosynthesis. Here, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of experimental heat waves and drought on photosynthesis in Andropogon gerardii, a dominant C4 grass in a native mesic grassland. We experimentally imposed a two-week heat wave at four intensity levels under two contrasting soil moisture regimes: a well-watered control and an extreme drought...
October 18, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659304/an-impulsive-modelling-framework-of-fire-occurrence-in-a-size-structured-model-of-tree-grass-interactions-for-savanna-ecosystems
#15
V Yatat, P Couteron, J J Tewa, S Bowong, Y Dumont
Fires and mean annual rainfall are major factors that regulate woody and grassy biomasses in savanna ecosystems. Within the savanna biome, conditions of long-lasting coexistence of trees and grasses have been often studied using continuous-time modelling of tree-grass competition. In these studies, fire is a time-continuous forcing while the relationship between woody plant size and fire-sensitivity is not systematically considered. In this paper, we propose a new mathematical framework to model tree-grass interactions that takes into account both the impulsive nature of fire occurrence and size-dependent fire sensitivity (via two classes of woody plants)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643755/acidity-and-organic-matter-promote-abiotic-nitric-oxide-production-in-drying-soils
#16
Peter M Homyak, Matthew Kamiyama, James O Sickman, Joshua P Schimel
Soils are an important source of NO, particularly in dry lands because of tradeoffs that develop between biotic and abiotic NO-producing processes when soils dry out. Understanding how drier climates may offset the balance of these tradeoffs as soils transition toward more arid states is, therefore, critical to estimating global NO budgets, especially because drylands are expected to increase in size. We measured NO emission pulses after wetting soils from similar lithologies along an altitudinal gradient in the Sierra Nevada, CA, where mean annual precipitation varied from 670 to 1,500 mm...
September 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609804/temperate-tree-species-show-identical-response-in-tree-water-deficit-but-different-sensitivities-in-sap-flow-to-summer-soil-drying
#17
Nadine Brinkmann, Werner Eugster, Roman Zweifel, Nina Buchmann, Ansgar Kahmen
Temperate forests are expected to be particularly vulnerable to drought and soil drying because they are not adapted to such conditions and perform best in mesic environments. Here we ask (i) how sensitively four common temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus excelsior) respond in their water relations to summer soil drying and seek to determine (ii) if species-specific responses to summer soil drying are related to the onset of declining water status across the four species...
September 8, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595230/intensifying-drought-eliminates-the-expected-benefits-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-for-soybean
#18
Sharon B Gray, Orla Dermody, Stephanie P Klein, Anna M Locke, Justin M McGrath, Rachel E Paul, David M Rosenthal, Ursula M Ruiz-Vera, Matthew H Siebers, Reid Strellner, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Carl J Bernacchi, Stephen P Long, Donald R Ort, Andrew D B Leakey
Stimulation of C3 crop yield by rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) is widely expected to counteract crop losses that are due to greater drought this century. But these expectations come from sparse field trials that have been biased towards mesic growth conditions. This eight-year study used precipitation manipulation and year-to-year variation in weather conditions at a unique open-air field facility to show that the stimulation of soybean yield by elevated [CO2] diminished to zero as drought intensified...
2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588685/phylogeography-of-the-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-and-harmonising-data-to-inform-conservation
#19
Linda E Neaves, Greta J Frankham, Siobhan Dennison, Sean FitzGibbon, Cheyne Flannagan, Amber Gillett, Emily Hynes, Kathrine Handasyde, Kristofer M Helgen, Kyriakos Tsangaras, Alex D Greenwood, Mark D B Eldridge, Rebecca N Johnson
The Australian continent exhibits complex biogeographic patterns but studies of the impacts of Pleistocene climatic oscillation on the mesic environments of the Southern Hemisphere are limited. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), one of Australia's most iconic species, was historically widely distributed throughout much of eastern Australia but currently represents a complex conservation challenge. To better understand the challenges to koala genetic health, we assessed the phylogeographic history of the koala...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575596/limber-pine-pinus-flexilis-james-a-flexible-generalist-of-forest-communities-in-the-intermountain-west
#20
Marcella A Windmuller-Campione, James N Long
As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA...
2016: PloS One
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