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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065919/force-of-habit-shrubs-trees-and-contingent-evolution-of-wood-anatomical-diversity-using-croton-euphorbiaceae-as-a-model-system
#1
Rafael Arévalo, Benjamin W van Ee, Ricarda Riina, Paul E Berry, Alex C Wiedenhoeft
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. METHODS: Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040775/genomic-signatures-of-historical-allopatry-and-ecological-divergence-in-an-island-lizard
#2
Richard P Brown, Steve Paterson, Judith Risse
Geographical variation among contiguous populations is frequently attributed to ecological divergence or historical isolation followed by secondary contact. Distinguishing between these effects is key to studies of incipient speciation and could be revealed by different genomic signatures. We used RAD-seq analyses to examine morphologically divergent populations of the endemic lizard (Gallotia galloti) from the volcanic island of Tenerife. Previous analyses have suggested ecological and historical causes to explain the morphological diversity...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029193/disturbance-and-productivity-interactions-mediate-stability-of-forest-composition-and-structure
#3
Christopher D O'Connor, Donald A Falk, Ann M Lynch, Thomas W Swetnam, Craig P Wilcox
Fire is returning to many conifer dominated forests where species composition and structure have been altered by fire exclusion. Ecological effects of these fires are influenced strongly by the degree of forest change during the fire-free period. Response of fire-adapted species assemblages to extended fire-free intervals is highly variable, even in communities with similar historical fire regimes. This variability in plant community response to fire exclusion is not well understood; however, ecological mechanisms such as individual species' adaptations to disturbance or competition, and underlying site characteristics that facilitate or impede establishment and growth have been proposed as potential drivers of assemblage response...
December 28, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001335/climate-change-and-the-eco-hydrology-of-fire-will-area-burned-increase-in-a-warming-western-usa
#4
Donald McKenzie, Jeremy S Littell
Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert...
August 25, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984632/local-epiphyte-establishment-and-future-metapopulation-dynamics-in-landscapes-with-different-spatio-temporal-properties
#5
Rocío Belinchón, Phil J Harrison, Louise Mair, Gergely Várkonyi, Tord Snäll
Understanding the relative importance of different ecological processes on the metapopulation dynamics of species is the basis for accurately forecasting metapopulation size in fragmented landscapes. Successful local colonization depends on both species dispersal range and how local habitat conditions affect establishment success. Moreover, there is limited understanding of the effects of different spatio-temporal landscape properties on future metapopulation size. We test which factors drive the future metapopulation size of the epiphytic model lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria in a managed forest landscape...
December 16, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917183/responses-of-soil-microbial-biomass-and-enzyme-activities-to-tillage-and-fertilization-systems-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-production
#6
Gholamreza Heidari, Khosro Mohammadi, Yousef Sohrabi
Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907259/spectral-diversity-area-relationships-for-assessing-biodiversity-in-a%C3%A2-wildland-agriculture-matrix
#7
Kyla Marie Dahlin
Species-area relationships have long been used to assess patterns of species diversity across scales. Here, this concept is extended to spectral diversity using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over western Michigan. This mixture of mesic forest and agricultural lands offers two end-points on the local-scale diversity continuum; one set of well-mixed forest patches and one set of highly homogeneous agricultural patches. Using the sum of the first three principal component values and the principal components' convex hull volume, spectral diversity was compared within and among these plots and to null expectations for perfectly random and perfectly patchy landscapes...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906022/risk-factors-for-unstructured-treatment-interruptions-and-association-with-survival-in-low-to-middle-income-countries
#8
James H McMahon, Tim Spelman, Nathan Ford, Jane Greig, Anita Mesic, Charles Ssonko, Esther C Casas, Daniel P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment interruptions lead to poor clinical outcomes with unplanned or unstructured TIs (uTIs) likely to be underreported. This study describes; uTIs, their risk factors and association with survival. METHODS: Analysis of ART programmatic data from 11 countries across Asia and Africa between 2003 and 2013 where an uTI was defined as a ≥90-day patient initiated break from ART calculated from the last day the previous ART prescription would have run out until the date of the next ART prescription...
July 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886506/measurement-of-excitation-spectra-in-the-12-c-p-d-reaction-near-the-%C3%AE-emission-threshold
#9
Y K Tanaka, K Itahashi, H Fujioka, Y Ayyad, J Benlliure, K-T Brinkmann, S Friedrich, H Geissel, J Gellanki, C Guo, E Gutz, E Haettner, M N Harakeh, R S Hayano, Y Higashi, S Hirenzaki, C Hornung, Y Igarashi, N Ikeno, M Iwasaki, D Jido, N Kalantar-Nayestanaki, R Kanungo, R Knöbel, N Kurz, V Metag, I Mukha, T Nagae, H Nagahiro, M Nanova, T Nishi, H J Ong, S Pietri, A Prochazka, C Rappold, M P Reiter, J L Rodríguez-Sánchez, C Scheidenberger, H Simon, B Sitar, P Strmen, B Sun, K Suzuki, I Szarka, M Takechi, I Tanihata, S Terashima, Y N Watanabe, H Weick, E Widmann, J S Winfield, X Xu, H Yamakami, J Zhao
Excitation spectra of ^{11}C are measured in the ^{12}C(p,d) reaction near the η^{'} emission threshold. A proton beam extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI with an incident energy of 2.5 GeV impinges on a carbon target. The momenta of deuterons emitted at 0° are precisely measured with the fragment separator (FRS) operated as a spectrometer. In contrast to theoretical predictions on the possible existence of deeply bound η^{'}-mesic states in carbon nuclei, no distinct structures are observed associated with the formation of bound states...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869752/extracting-plant-phenology-metrics-in-a-great-basin-watershed-methods-and-considerations-for-quantifying-phenophases-in-a-cold-desert
#10
Keirith A Snyder, Bryce L Wehan, Gianluca Filippa, Justin L Huntington, Tamzen K Stringham, Devon K Snyder
Plant phenology is recognized as important for ecological dynamics. There has been a recent advent of phenology and camera networks worldwide. The established PhenoCam Network has sites in the United States, including the western states. However, there is a paucity of published research from semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of camera-based repeat digital imagery and use of R statistical phenopix package to quantify plant phenology and phenophases in four plant communities in the semi-arid cold desert region of the Great Basin...
November 18, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859095/controls-on-carbon-storage-and-weathering-in-volcanic-soils-across-a-high-elevation-climate-gradient-on-mauna-kea-hawaii
#11
Marc G Kramer, Oliver A Chadwick
Volcanic ash soils retain the largest and most persistent soil carbon pools of any ecosystem. However, the mechanisms governing soil carbon accumulation and weathering during initial phases of ecosystem development are not well understood. We examined soil organic matter dynamics and soil development across a high-altitude (3,560-3,030 m) 20-kyr climate gradient on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Four elevation sites were selected (~250-500 mm rainfall), which range from sparsely vegetated to sites that contain a mix of shrubs and grasses...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859094/productivity-and-species-richness-in-longleaf-pine-woodlands-resource-disturbance-influences-across-an-edaphic-gradient
#12
L K Kirkman, L M Giencke, R S Taylor, L R Boring, C L Staudhammer, R J Mitchell
This study examines the complex feedback mechanisms that regulate a positive relationship between species richness and productivity in a longleaf pine-wiregrass woodland. Across a natural soil moisture gradient spanning wet-mesic to xeric conditions, two large scale manipulations over a 10-yr period were used to determine how limiting resources and fire regulate plant species diversity and productivity at multiple scales. A fully factorial experiment was used to examine productivity and species richness responses to N and water additions...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855693/modelling-the-effect-of-short-course-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-karakalpakstan-uzbekistan
#13
James M Trauer, Jay Achar, Nargiza Parpieva, Atadjan Khamraev, Justin T Denholm, Dennis Falzon, Ernesto Jaramillo, Anita Mesic, Philipp du Cros, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major threat to global TB control. MDR-TB treatment regimens typically have a high pill burden, last 20 months or more and often lead to unsatisfactory outcomes. A 9-11 month regimen with seven antibiotics has shown high success rates among selected MDR-TB patients in different settings and is conditionally recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We construct a transmission-dynamic model of TB to estimate the likely impact of a shorter MDR-TB regimen when applied in a low HIV prevalence region of Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) with high rates of drug resistance, good access to diagnostics and a well-established community-based MDR-TB treatment programme providing treatment to around 400 patients...
November 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853534/young-relicts-and-old-relicts-a-novel-palaeoendemic-vertebrate-from-the-australian-central-uplands
#14
Paul M Oliver, Peter J McDonald
Climatic change, and in particular aridification, has played a dominant role in shaping Southern Hemisphere biotas since the mid-Neogene. In Australia, ancient and geologically stable ranges within the vast arid zone have functioned as refugia for populations of mesic taxa extirpated from surrounding areas, yet the extent to which relicts may be linked to major aridification events before or after the Pliocene has not been examined in detail. Here we use molecular phylogenetic and morphological data to show that isolated populations of saxicoline geckos in the genus Oedura from the Australian Central Uplands, formerly confounded as a single taxon, actually comprise two divergent species with contrasting histories of isolation...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851742/demographic-costs-associated-with-differences-in-habitat-space-occupancy
#15
Kelly A Williams, Donald B Miles
Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848000/effects-of-post-fire-plant-cover-in-the-performance-of-two-cordilleran-cypress-austrocedrus-chilensis-seedling-stocktypes-planted-in-burned-forests-of-northeastern-patagonia-argentina
#16
María F Urretavizcaya, Héctor E Gonda, Guillermo E Defossé
Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions...
November 15, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811782/description-of-the-mature-larva-of-pseudopyrochroa-depressa-pic-coleoptera-pyrochroidae-pyrochroinae-with-comparison-to-other-taiwanese-pseudopyrochroa
#17
Daniel K Young, Yun Hsiao
Field collections and rearing has established an association between the larva and adult of the Taiwanese Pseudopyrochroa depressa. Larvae were collected from beneath bark of the exposed portions of a dead, decaying log in a mesic montane forest and successfully reared to the adult stage. The mature larva is described and salient features are illustrated and compared to other known pyrochroid larvae from Taiwan. Notes on larval habitats and natural history are also provided.
October 12, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798300/identifying-cryptic-diversity-with-predictive-phylogeography
#18
Anahí Espíndola, Megan Ruffley, Megan L Smith, Bryan C Carstens, David C Tank, Jack Sullivan
Identifying units of biological diversity is a major goal of organismal biology. An increasing literature has focused on the importance of cryptic diversity, defined as the presence of deeply diverged lineages within a single species. While most discoveries of cryptic lineages proceed on a taxon-by-taxon basis, rapid assessments of biodiversity are needed to inform conservation policy and decision-making. Here, we introduce a predictive framework for phylogeography that allows rapidly identifying cryptic diversity...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757543/photosynthetic-responses-of-a-dominant-c4-grass-to-an-experimental-heat-wave-are-mediated-by-soil-moisture
#19
D L Hoover, A K Knapp, M D Smith
Extreme heat waves and drought are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. These extreme events often co-occur, making it difficult to separate their direct and indirect effects on important ecophysiological and carbon cycling processes such as photosynthesis. Here, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of experimental heat waves and drought on photosynthesis in Andropogon gerardii, a dominant C4 grass in a native mesic grassland. We experimentally imposed a two-week heat wave at four intensity levels under two contrasting soil moisture regimes: a well-watered control and an extreme drought...
October 18, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659304/an-impulsive-modelling-framework-of-fire-occurrence-in-a-size-structured-model-of-tree-grass-interactions-for-savanna-ecosystems
#20
V Yatat, P Couteron, J J Tewa, S Bowong, Y Dumont
Fires and mean annual rainfall are major factors that regulate woody and grassy biomasses in savanna ecosystems. Within the savanna biome, conditions of long-lasting coexistence of trees and grasses have been often studied using continuous-time modelling of tree-grass competition. In these studies, fire is a time-continuous forcing while the relationship between woody plant size and fire-sensitivity is not systematically considered. In this paper, we propose a new mathematical framework to model tree-grass interactions that takes into account both the impulsive nature of fire occurrence and size-dependent fire sensitivity (via two classes of woody plants)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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