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Water for recreational use

Blandine Fauvel, Christophe Gantzer, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Leslie Ogorzaly
The occurrence and propagation of enteric viruses in rivers constitute a major public health issue. However, little information is available on the in situ transport and spread of viruses in surface water. In this study, an original in situ experimental approach using the residence time of the river water mass was developed to accurately follow the propagation of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) along a 3-km studied river. Surface water and sediment of 9 sampling campaigns were collected and analyzed using both infectivity and RT-qPCR assays...
October 22, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Jian-Xin Chen, Xiao-Xiang Yu, Yu Ye, Xiao-Bo Yang, Ai-Hua Tan, Xiao-Ying Xian, Su-Chun Wei, Jun Long, Zeng-Nan Mo
OBJECTIVE: Upper urinary calculi (UUC) is considered to be a comprehensive disease associated with many risk factors, but the role of physical activity (PA) is undefined. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate this relationship in Asian populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with UUC were the subjects of study and those who participated in a health examination in local medical center were included as controls. Information was collected through the same standard questionnaire...
October 21, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Darija Vukić Lušić, Slaven Jozić, Arijana Cenov, Marin Glad, Marko Bulić, Dražen Lušić
Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) specifies two reference methods for Escherichia coli detection: ISO 9308-1 and 9308-3. The revised ISO 9308-1 is recommended only for waters with a low bacterial background flora. Considering the extended time needed for analysis and, generally, the lack of experience in using ISO 9308-3 in the Mediterranean, the suitability of ISO 9308-1 for the examination of E. coli in bathing water was evaluated. The present study was aimed at a comparison of data obtained by the reference method in seawater samples (110 beaches, N=477) with data received from six alternative methods...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Montana F McLean, Kyle C Hanson, Steven J Cooke, Scott G Hinch, David A Patterson, Taylor L Nettles, Matt K Litvak, Glenn T Crossin
White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Sofie Compernolle, Katrien De Cocker, Célina Roda, Jean-Michel Oppert, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Ketevan Glonti, Helga Bardos, Harry Rutter, Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
BACKGROUND: The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level. METHODS: In 60 randomly sampled neighbourhoods from 5 urban regions in Europe (Ghent and suburbs, Paris and inner suburbs, Budapest and suburbs, the Randstad, and Greater London), a virtual audit with Google Street View was performed to assess environmental characteristics...
2016: PloS One
D R Lapen, P J Schmidt, J L Thomas, T A Edge, C Flemming, J Keithlin, N Neumann, F Pollari, N Ruecker, A Simhon, E Topp, G Wilkes, K D M Pintar
Many Cryptosporidium species/genotypes are not considered infectious to humans, and more realistic estimations of seasonal infection risks could be made using human infectious species/genotype information to inform quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA). Cryptosporidium oocyst concentration and species/genotype data were collected from three surface water surveillance programs in two river basins [South Nation River, SN (2004-09) and Grand River, GR (2005-13)] in Ontario, Canada to evaluate seasonal infection risks...
August 13, 2016: Water Research
Nilima Gandhi, Ken G Drouillard, George B Arhonditsis, Sarah B Gewurtz, Satyendra P Bhavsar
BACKGROUND: North American Great Lakes are home to more than 140 types of fish and are famous for recreational and commercial fishing. However, presence of toxic substances has resulted in issuance of fish consumption advisories typically based on the most restrictive contaminant. OBJECTIVES: We investigate if these advisories, which typically neglect existence of a mixture of chemicals and their possible additive adverse effects, are adequately protective of health of humans consuming fish from the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Camino Liquete, Chiara Piroddi, Diego Macías, Jean-Noël Druon, Grazia Zulian
Mediterranean ecosystems support important processes and functions that bring direct benefits to human society. Yet, marine ecosystem services are usually overlooked due to the challenges in identifying and quantifying them. This paper proposes the application of several biophysical and ecosystem modelling approaches to assess spatially and temporally the sustainable use and supply of selected marine ecosystem services. Such services include food provision, water purification, coastal protection, lifecycle maintenance and recreation, focusing on the Mediterranean region...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Iaconelli, M Muscillo, S Della Libera, M Fratini, L Meucci, M De Ceglia, D Giacosa, G La Rosa
Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated...
September 28, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
Yiheng Qin, Si Pan, Matiar M R Howlader, Raja Ghosh, Nan-Xing Hu, M Jamal Deen
The concentration of free chlorine used for disinfecting drinking water, recreational water, and food processing water is critical for environmental and human health conditions, and should be controlled within stipulated ranges. This report, for the first time, describes a paper-based electrochemical free chlorine sensor fabricated by hand-drawing. The electrical resistivity of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) chemoresistor increases when it is exposed to free chlorine in water due to oxidation reactions...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Lisa Waddell, Andrijana Rajić, Katharina Stärk, Scott A McEwen
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants and is hypothesized to be an infectious cause of Crohn's disease, as well as some other human diseases. Due to key knowledge gaps, the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis is unknown. This scoping review aims to identify and characterised the evidence on potential sources and vehicles of M. paratuberculosis exposure for humans to better understand how exposure is likely to occur. Evidence from 255 primary research papers is summarized; most examined the prevalence or concentration of M...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Megan A Stallard, Ryan R Otter, Steve Winesett, Michelle Barbero, Mary Bruce, Alice Layton, Frank C Bailey
Fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are frequently monitored in recreational waterbodies as indicators of potential fecal pathogen presence and exposure. The present watershed analysis investigated the influence of season on E. coli concentration (MPN/100 mL) and loading (MPN/day) measurements for inland waters at baseflow conditions. The master dataset collected during 2007-2012 for three watersheds included 896 E. coli (Colilert) samples with simultaneous flow taken for a subset (39 %) of samples...
September 23, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Chih-Chun Chang, Chin-Chuan Yeh, Fang-Yeh Chu
The Formosa Fun Coast explosion, occurring in a recreational water park located in the Northern Taiwan on 27 June 2015, made 499 people burn-injured. For those who had severe burn trauma, surgical intervention and fluid resuscitation were necessary, and potential blood transfusion therapy could be initiated, especially during and after broad escharotomy. Here, we reviewed the literature regarding transfusion medicine and skin grafting as well as described the practicing experience of combined tissue and blood bank in the burn disaster in Taiwan...
October 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Katarina D M Pintar, Kate M Thomas, Tanya Christidis, Ainslie Otten, Andrea Nesbitt, Barbara Marshall, Frank Pollari, Matt Hurst, Andre Ravel
To inform source attribution efforts, a comparative exposure assessment was developed to estimate the relative exposure to Campylobacter, the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Canada, for 13 different transmission routes within Ontario, Canada, during the summer. Exposure was quantified with stochastic models at the population level, which incorporated measures of frequency, quantity ingested, prevalence, and concentration, using data from FoodNet Canada surveillance, the peer-reviewed and gray literature, other Ontario data, and data that were specifically collected for this study...
September 18, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Andrew Stevenson, Philip G Hamill, Ángel Medina, Gerhard Kminek, John D Rummel, Jan Dijksterhuis, David J Timson, Naresh Magan, Su-Lin L Leong, John E Hallsworth
For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores of a variety of species including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilium (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum), and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores(-1) )...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Mehrnaz Zare Afifi, Ernest R Blatchley
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chlorination are commonly used together in treatment of swimming pool water because they function as complementary disinfectants and because UV-based processes have been shown to promote photodecay of chloramines. However, UV-based treatment also has the potential to promote formation of some disinfection byproducts (DBPs). As a result, the overall effects of UV irradiation with chlorination on swimming pool chemistry remain unclear. To address this issue, a three-year study was conducted in a chlorinated, indoor swimming pool under three different operating conditions: conventional chlorination (1st year) which served as a control, chlorination augmented by MP UV irradiation (2nd year), and chlorination augmented by LP UV irradiation (3rd year)...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Marek Kirs, Roberto A Caffaro-Filho, Mayee Wong, Valerie J Harwood, Philip Moravcik, Roger S Fujioka
: Identification of sources of fecal contaminants is needed to: 1) determine the health risk associated with recreational water use, and 2) implement appropriate management practices to mitigate this risk and protect the environment. This study evaluated human-associated Bacteroides (HF183TaqMan) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) markers for host sensitivity and specificity using human and animal fecal samples collected in Hawaii. The decay rates of those markers and indicator bacteria were identified in marine and freshwater microcosms exposed and not exposed to sunlight, followed by field testing of the usability of the molecular markers...
September 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Waleed M Sweileh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Naser Y Shraim
BACKGROUND: Water - related diseases are worldwide health concern. Microbial contamination and contaminant products in water are a source of disease outbreaks and development of cumulative toxic effects. Ensuring safe water is one of the goals to be achieved at the global level. The aim of this study was to assess publications on drinking and recreational water from a health point of view to understand current problems and future research trends in this field. METHODS: Scopus, the largest scientific electronic database, was used to retrieve related articles and present the results as bibliometric tables and maps...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Joseph Anthony Moss
Waterborne diseases associated with polluted recreational and potable waters have been documented for more than a century. Key microbial protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are causative agents for gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Although not a first-line diagnostic approach for these diseases, medical imaging, such as radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine technologies, can be used to evaluate patients with long-term effects...
September 2016: Radiologic Technology
Eric A Dubinsky, Steven R Butkus, Gary L Andersen
Sources of fecal indicator bacteria are difficult to identify in watersheds that are impacted by a variety of non-point sources. We developed a molecular source tracking test using the PhyloChip microarray that detects and distinguishes fecal bacteria from humans, birds, ruminants, horses, pigs and dogs with a single test. The multiplexed assay targets 9001 different 25-mer fragments of 16S rRNA genes that are common to the bacterial community of each source type. Both random forests and SourceTracker were tested as discrimination tools, with SourceTracker classification producing superior specificity and sensitivity for all source types...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
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