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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670481/exercise-associated-muscle-cramp-doubts-about-the-cause
#1
Dzenan Jahic, Edin Begic
Introduction: Exercise-associated muscle cramp (EAMC) is one of the most common conditions that occur during or immediately after the exercise, with questionable etiology. Aim: Aim of article was to present doubts about the cause of EAMC, whether it is primarily a neurological condition or it is water and salt imbalance. Results: Strongest evidence supports the neuromuscular aetiology with the focus on the muscle fatigue. Muscle overload and fatigue affects the balance between the excitatory drive from muscle spindles and the inhibitory drive from the Golgi tendon organs (GTO)...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660407/application-of-water-soluble-polyvinyl-alcohol-based-film-patches-on-laser-microporated-skin-facilitates-intradermal-macromolecule-and-nanoparticle-delivery
#2
Laura Engelke, Gerhard Winter, Julia Engert
The intradermal delivery of biologics has long been recognized as attractive approach for cutaneous immunotherapy, particularly vaccination. Although intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection provide reproducible dosing and good cost- and delivery efficiency, the major objective to avoid sharps and the need for enhanced storage stability have renewed the interest in alternative needle-free delivery strategies. This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652935/adaptability-of-shallow-subsurface-drip-irrigation-of-alfalfa-in-an-arid-desert-area-of-northern-xinjiang
#3
Shufang Wang, Xiyun Jiao, Weihua Guo, Jian Lu, Yungang Bai, Liping Wang
A suitable irrigation method adopted to arid desert conditions, including a special soil structure and specialized plants, has been continuously studied and improved. A field study was conducted in the Awei irrigation area of Aletai in Xinjiang in 2015 and 2016 to investigate the applicability of shallow subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI) in an arid desert area. A completely randomized block design with three replications and three treatments for drip tape subsurface depths at 5, 10, 20 cm was established. The results indicated that the vertical distribution of the soil moisture of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI, buried depth at 20 cm) was mainly concentrated at 0-60 cm, while SSDI (buried depth at 5 and 10 cm) was concentrated at 0-30 cm...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642937/evaluation-of-a-simple-polytetrafluoroethylene-ptfe-based-membrane-for-blood-feeding-of-malaria-and-dengue-fever-vectors-in-the-laboratory
#4
Doreen J Siria, Elis P A Batista, Mercy A Opiyo, Elizangela F Melo, Robert D Sumaye, Halfan S Ngowo, Alvaro E Eiras, Fredros O Okumu
BACKGROUND: Controlled blood-feeding is essential for maintaining laboratory colonies of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and investigating pathogen transmission. We evaluated a low-cost artificial feeding (AF) method, as an alternative to direct human feeding (DHF), commonly used in mosquito laboratories. METHODS: We applied thinly-stretched pieces of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes cut from locally available seal tape (i.e. plumbers tape, commonly used for sealing pipe threads in gasworks or waterworks)...
April 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642446/scalable-fabrication-of-high-performance-transparent-conductors-using-graphene-oxide-stabilized-single-walled-carbon-nanotube-inks
#5
Linxiang He, Chengzhu Liao, Sie Chin Tjong
Recent development in liquid-phase processing of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has revealed rod-coating as a promising approach for large-scale production of SWNT-based transparent conductors. Of great importance in the ink formulation is the stabilizer having excellent dispersion stability, environmental friendly and tunable rheology in the liquid state, and also can be readily removed to enhance electrical conductivity and mechanical stability. Herein we demonstrate the promise of graphene oxide (GO) as a synergistic stabilizer for SWNTs in water...
April 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620002/assessment-of-dermal-uptake-of-diphenylmethane-4-4-diisocyanate-using-tape-stripping-and-biological-monitoring
#6
Haneen Hamada, Ingrid Liljelind, Magnus Bruze, Malin Engfeldt, Marléne Isaksson, Bo Jönsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Christian Lindh, Sara Axelsson, Erik Zimerson
Very little is known about the dermal uptake of isocyanates, and dermal exposure to isocyanates has been discussed as a factor involved in the induction of respiratory diseases. To investigate the dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI). Four volunteers were dermally exposed to 10, 25, 49 and 50 mg 4,4'-MDI, respectively, for eight hours. The exposed areas were tape stripped. Urine and blood were biologically monitored for 48 hours. Tape strips, plasma, and urine were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609247/-stratified-sampling-survey-of-major-human-parasitic-diseases-in-henan-province
#7
B L Xu, H W Zhang, Y Deng, Z L Chen, W Q Chen, D L Lu, Y L Zhang, Y L Zhao, X M Lin, Q Huang, C Y Yang, Y Liu, R M Zhou, P Li, J S Chen, L J He, D Qian
Objective: To understand the prevalence of major human parasitic diseases and related factors in Henan province. Methods: This stratified sampling survey was carried out according to the requirement of national survey protocol of major human parasitic diseases, 2014-2015. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths infection, taeniasis and intestinal protozoiasis were surveyed in 104 sites selected from 35 counties (districts) and the prevalence of clonorchiasis was surveyed in 62 sites selected from 37 townships...
March 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609166/in-vitro-model-for-assessing-glucose-diffusion-through-skin
#8
Sana Ullah, Fadi Hamade, Urte Bubniene, Johan Engblom, Arunas Ramanavicius, Almira Ramanaviciene, Tautgirdas Ruzgas
Pig ear skin membrane-covered glucose biosensor based on oxygen electrode has been assessed as a tool to evaluate glucose penetration through skin in-vitro. For this, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilised on oxygen electrode and covered with the skin membrane. Exposing this electrode to the solution of glucose resulted in glucose penetration though skin membrane, its oxidation catalysed by GOx, consumption of O2 and decrease of the current of the oxygen electrode. By processing the biosensor responses to glucose, we found that glucose penetration through 250 µm thick skin membrane is slow; 90% of steady-state current response was reached in 32( ± 22) min...
March 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565438/a-turn-on-fluorogenic-chemosensor-for-fe-3-and-a-schottky-barrier-diode-with-frequency-switching-device-applications
#9
Habib Ali Molla, Rahul Bhowmick, Abu Saleh Musha Islam, Bibhutibhushan Show, Nillohit Mukherjee, Anup Mondal, Mahammad Ali
A novel highly sensitive and selective fluorescent chemosensor L has been synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical techniques. In 3 : 7 water : MeCN (v/v) at pH 7.2 (10 mM HEPES buffer, μ = 0.05 M LiCl), it selectively recognizes Fe3+ through 1 : 1 complexation resulting in a 106-fold fluorescence enhancement and a binding constant of 8.10 × 104 M-1. The otherwise non-fluorescent spirolactam form of the probe results a dual-channel (absorbance and fluorescence) recognition of Fe3+ via CHEF (chelation enhanced fluorescence) through the opening of the spirolactam ring...
March 22, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531529/pre-and-postoperative-body-composition-and-metabolic-characteristics-in-patients-with-acromegaly-a-prospective-study
#10
Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Hailong Li, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Chen, Bing Xing
Objective: To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods: We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518286/ingestion-of-partially-hydrolyzed-whey-protein-suppresses-epicutaneous-sensitization-to-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-in-mice
#11
Takeshi Matsubara, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yuki Nakazato, Tomoyuki Okamoto, Tatsuya Ehara, Hirohisa Izumi, Yasuhiro Takeda
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous sensitization to food allergens can occur through defective skin barriers. However, the relationship between oral tolerance and epicutaneous sensitization remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine whether prior oral exposure to whey proteins or their hydrolysates prevents epicutaneous sensitization and subsequent food allergic reaction to the whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and investigated the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BALB/c mice were given whey protein concentrate (WPC), two kinds of partial whey protein hydrolysate (PWH1 or PWH2), or extensive whey protein hydrolysate (EWH) in drinking water for 21 days...
March 8, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485689/effect-of-atopic-skin-stressors-on-natural-moisturizing-factors-and-cytokines-in-healthy-adult-epidermis
#12
K A Engebretsen, S Kezic, I Jakasa, A Hedengran, A Linneberg, L Skov, J D Johansen, J P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Epidermal deficiency of filaggrin, and the derived natural moisturizing factors (NMF), is associated with increased risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). While filaggrin gene mutations cause filaggrin deficiency, there is limited insight in causative environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of selected exogenous skin stressors on NMF and skin cytokines levels in healthy adult epidermis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 healthy volunteers (18-49 years) were exposed to hard, soft, and chlorinated water, 0...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484615/application-of-an-optimized-tape-stripping-method-for-the-bioequivalence-assessment-of-topical-acyclovir-creams
#13
Sumalatha Nallagundla, Srinivas Patnala, Isadore Kanfer
This study indicates the application of tape stripping (TS) for bioequivalence (BE) assessment of a topical cream product containing 5% acyclovir. A TS method, previously used successfully to assess BE of topical clobetasol propionate and clotrimazole formulations, was used to assess BE of an acyclovir cream (5%) formulation as well as a diluted acyclovir formulation (1.5%) applied to the skin of healthy humans. An appropriate application time was established by conducting a dose duration study using the innovator product, Zovirax® cream...
February 26, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458644/recycling-of-waste-poly-ethylene-terephthalate-bottles-by-alkaline-hydrolysis-and-recovery-of-pure-nanospindle-shaped-terephthalic-acid
#14
Sukhjinder Singh, Shelja Sharma, Ahmad Umar, Surinder Kumar Mehta, Manpreet Singh Bhatti, Sushil Kumar Kansal
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a versatile engineering plastic which exhibits exceptional mechanical and thermal properties. Huge amounts of PET are consumed in various industries such as food packaging industry, textile industry, in the manufacturing of audio, video tapes and X-ray films and so on. But due to its substantial fraction by volume in water bodies and its high persistence to the atmospheric and biological agents, it could be considered as a hazard substance. Thereby chemical recycling of PET serves as a solution to solid waste problem as it transforms PET into its monomers via hydrolysis...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411999/field-evidence-supporting-conventional-onion-curing-practices-as-a-strategy-to-mitigate-escherichia-coli-contamination-from-irrigation-water
#15
Daniel Wright, Erik Feibert, Stuart Reitz, Clint Shock, Joy Waite-Cusic
The Produce Safety Rule of the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act includes restrictions on the use of agricultural water of poor microbiological quality. Mitigation options for poor water quality include the application of an irrigation-to-harvest interval of <4 days; however, dry bulb onion production includes an extended irrigation-to-harvest interval (<30 days). This study evaluated conventional curing practices for mitigating Escherichia coli contamination in a field setting. Well water inoculated with rifampin-resistant E...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386815/comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-tokuyama-and-gc-ii-metal-primer-on-the-bond-strength-of-acrylic-resins-to-ti-6al-7nb
#16
Sunit Kumar Jurel, Niraj Mishra, Pooran Chand, Himanshi Aggarwal, Raghuwar Dayal Singh, Balendra Pratap Singh
Statement of Problem: Because of the toxicity of vanadium in Ti-6Al-4V alloy, next generation of titanium alloys is proposed to focus on niobium-containing alloy, but for clinical applications, it is crucial for this alloy to bond with acrylic resins with or without the use of primers. However, literature was lacking about the effect of primers on bonding of autopolymerizing resins to Ti-6Al-7Nb. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different metal primers on the shear bond strength of acrylic resin to Ti-6Al-7Nb...
July 2017: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385298/head-and-neck-lymphedema-management-evaluation-of-a-therapy-program
#17
Amanda Pigott, Jodie Nixon, Jennifer Fleming, Sandro Porceddu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine a therapeutic intervention for head and neck lymphedema. The 22-week intervention involved therapist-led care and participant self-management. Effectiveness was evaluated using a previously described lymphedema assessment tool, the Assessment of Lymphedema of the Head and Neck (ALOHA) to detect change over the course of the 22 weeks of treatment, and before and after a single treatment session. METHODS: A prospective observational pilot study was conducted with a cohort of 10 participants assessed...
January 31, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377414/optical-clearing-agent-reduces-scattering-of-light-by-the-stratum-corneum-and-modulates-the-physical-properties-of-coenocytes-via-hydration
#18
S-H Lee, S-H Jun, J Yeom, S-G Park, C-K Lee, N-G Kang
BACKGROUND: The interaction between light and the skin determine how the skin looks to the human eye. Light can be absorbed, scattered, and reflected by different components of the skin in a variety of different ways. Here, we focus on the scattering properties of the outmost layer, the stratum corneum (SC). However, we currently have limited methods with which to distinguish the scattering of light by SC from the changes due to other components of the skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dark-field images of tape-striped corneocytes were used in vitro to study the differences in light scattered by the SC and other skin components...
January 28, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364224/a-method-for-obtaining-serial-ultrathin-sections-of-microorganisms-in-transmission-electron-microscopy
#19
Masashi Yamaguchi, Hiroji Chibana
Observing cells and cell components in three dimensions at high magnification in transmission electron microscopy requires preparing serial ultrathin sections of the specimen. Although preparing serial ultrathin sections is considered to be very difficult, it is rather easy if the proper method is used. In this paper, we show a step-by-step procedure for safely obtaining serial ultrathin sections of microorganisms. The key points of this method are: 1) to use the large part of the specimen and adjust the specimen surface and knife edge so that they are parallel to each other; 2) to cut serial sections in groups and avoid difficulty in separating sections using a pair of hair strands when retrieving a group of serial sections onto the slit grids; 3) to use a 'Section-holding loop' and avoid mixing up the order of the section groups; 4) to use a 'Water-surface-raising loop' and make sure the sections are positioned on the apex of the water and that they touch the grid first, in order to place them in the desired position on the grids; 5) to use the support film on an aluminum rack and make it easier to recover the sections on the grids and to avoid wrinkling of the support film; and 6) to use a staining tube and avoid accidentally breaking the support films with tweezers...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297780/fully-3d-printed-multi-material-soft-bio-inspired-whisker-sensor-for-underwater-induced-vortex-detection
#20
Jahan Zeb Gul, Kim Young Su, Kyung Hyun Choi
Bio-mimicking the underwater sensors has tremendous potential in soft robotics, under water exploration and human interfaces. Pinniped are semiaquatic carnivores that use their whiskers to sense food by tracking the vortices left by potential prey. To detect and track the vortices inside the water, a fully 3D printed pinniped inspired multi-material whisker sensor is fabricated and characterized. The fabricated whisker is composed of a polyurethane rod with a length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) of 20:1 with four graphene patterns (length × diameter: 60 × 0...
January 3, 2018: Soft Robotics
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