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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917325/comparison-of-five-diagnostic-tests-for-giardia-duodenalis-in-fecal-samples-from-young-dogs
#1
Fabienne D Uehlinger, S Ali Naqvi, Spencer J Greenwood, J Trenton McClure, Gary Conboy, Ryan O'Handley, Herman W Barkema
Five diagnostic tests were compared for the diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis in fecal samples of young dogs. Fecal samples were collected from 136 healthy dogs <1year old and examined using immunofluorescence antibody microscopy (IFA) after sucrose gradient centrifugation, zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation technique (ZSCT), SNAP(®)Giardia test, and ProSpecT(®)Giardia EZ Microplate assay. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rRNA gene was performed. Kappa (κ) statistic was calculated to assess diagnostic agreement between the IFA and each test...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916001/giardia-and-cryptosporidium-infections-in-neonatal-reindeer-calves-relation-to-the-acute-phase-response
#2
Tarmo Niine, Kristel Peetsalu, Mauri Nieminen, Antti Oksanen, Timo Soveri, Toomas Orro
This longitudinal observational study was conducted to investigate the spontaneous effect of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections on acute phase response (APR) in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Finnish Lapland. Serum (n=609) and faecal samples (n=366) were collected from 54 reindeer calves aged zero to 33days. The samples were analysed for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, acute phase proteins (APP) and γ-globulins. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations of early Giardia infection (before 12days of life) with the response of APPs and acquiring of passive immunity...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915270/the-single-cyclic-nucleotide-specific-phosphodiesterase-of-the-intestinal-parasite-giardia-lamblia-represents-a-potential-drug-target
#3
Stefan Kunz, Vreni Balmer, Geert Jan Sterk, Michael P Pollastri, Rob Leurs, Norbert Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Cornelia Spycher
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913339/ulcerative-gastritis-and-esophagitis-in-two-children-with-sarcina-ventriculi-infection
#4
Tim G J de Meij, Michiel P van Wijk, Aart Mookhoek, Andries E Budding
Sarcina ventriculi is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic coccus, with a characteristic morphology. Only 22 cases of human infections by this microorganism, including 7 in children, have been reported in literature so far. Affected subjects usually present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and delayed gastric emptying. However, life-threatening complications, like emphysematous gastritis and gastric perforation have also been described. Gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction have been considered as a potential etiologic factor...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910741/drug-susceptibility-testing-in-microaerophilic-parasites-cysteine-strongly-affects-the-effectivities-of-metronidazole-and-auranofin-a-novel-and-promising-antimicrobial
#5
David Leitsch
The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen...
September 5, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910512/differences-in-staining-intensities-affects-reported-occurrences-and-concentrations-of-giardia-spp-in-surface-drinking-water-sources
#6
Kerri A Alderisio, Leah F Villegas, Michael W Ware, Lisa A McDonald, Lihua Xiao, Eric N Villegas
AIM: USEPA Method 1623, or its equivalent, is currently used to monitor for protozoan contamination of surface drinking water sources worldwide. At least three approved staining kits used for detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia are commercially available. This study focuses on understanding the differences among staining kits used for Method 1623. METHODS AND RESULTS: Merifluor and EasyStain labeling kits were used to monitor Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst densities in New York City's raw surface water sources...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910395/multilocus-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-captive-non-human-primates-in-sichuan-and-guizhou-provinces-southwestern-china
#7
Zhijun Zhong, Yinan Tian, Wei Li, Xiangming Huang, Lei Deng, Suizhong Cao, Yi Geng, Hualin Fu, Liuhong Shen, Haifeng Liu, Guangneng Peng
Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs) in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902297/the-influence-of-serial-fecal-sampling-on-the-diagnosis-of-giardiasis-in-humans-dogs-and-cats
#8
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Daniel de Barros Macieira, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Giardia infection is a common clinical problem in humans and pets. The diagnosis of giardiasis is challenging as hosts intermittently excrete protozoan cysts in their feces. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated two methods of serial fecal sampling in humans, dogs, and cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Faust et al. technique was used to examine fecal specimens collected in triplicate from 133 patients (52 humans, 60 dogs, and 21 cats). Specimens from 74 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on consecutive days - 34 humans, 35 dogs, and 5 cats, and specimens from 59 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on non-consecutive, separate days - 18 human beings, 25 dogs, and 16 cats...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888474/recent-advances-in-the-genomic-and-molecular-biology-of-giardia
#9
M Guadalupe Ortega-Pierres, Aaron R Jex, Brendan R E Ansell, Staffan G Svärd
Giardia duodenalis is the most common gastrointestinal protozoan parasite of humans and a significant contributor to the global burden of both diarrheal disease and post-infectious chronic disorders. Robust tools for analyzing gene function in this parasite have been developed and a range of genetic tools are now available. These together with public databases have provided insights on the function of different genes in Giardia. In this review we provide a current perspective on different molecular aspects of Giardia related to genomics, regulation of encystation, trophozoite transcriptional responses to physiological and xenobiotic (drug-induced) stress, and mechanisms of drug resistance...
September 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884403/resonance-raman-studies-on-the-flavohemoglobin-of-the-protist-giardia-intestinalis-evidence-of-a-type-i-ii-peroxidase-like-heme-environment-and-roles-of-the-active-site-distal-residues
#10
Brian Lukaszewicz, Eliza McColl, Janet Yee, Steven Rafferty, Manon Couture
Flavohemoglobins are microbial enzymes that counter nitrosative stress, but the details of their underlying enzymatic activities and structure-function relationships are not completely understood. These enzymes have been identified in Gram-negative bacteria, certain fungi, and the parasitic protist Giardia intestinalis (gFlHb) which, despite lacking the ability to make heme, encodes several hemeproteins. To gain knowledge about the biophysical properties of the active site of gFlHb, we used resonance Raman spectroscopy to probe the wild-type protein and variants at globin domain positions E11, E7, and B10 on the distal, ligand-binding side of the heme...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879824/under-reporting-giardiasis-time-to-consider-the-public-health-implications
#11
S L Currie, N Stephenson, A S Palmer, B L Jones, C L Alexander
Giardiasis is a treatable disease, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). It is one of the most common enteric parasites found globally to cause gastrointestinal disturbances, and infections may result in long-term irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. It is a common misconception that giardiasis is associated with foreign travel, which results in locally acquired cases in the UK being underdiagnosed. This report highlights the findings from one large Scottish Health Board, arising from a change in testing methodology, which resulted in the screening of all stools submitted for enteric investigations for G...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879211/common-variable-immunodeficiency-with-several-gastrointestinal-manifestations
#12
Catarina Atalaia-Martins, Sandra Barbeiro, Pedro Marcos, Isabel Cotrim, Helena Vasconcelos
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency disorder with a high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and an increased risk of gastric malignancy. We report a case of a CVID with mild anemia presenting with multiple GI manifestations: gastric low-grade dysplasia (LGD), enteropathy with villous atrophy, refractory Giardia infection, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, and inflammatory bowel-like disease. The differential diagnosis with celiac sprue could be challenging because of CVID enteropathy with villous flattening...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877704/coproscopy-and-molecular-screening-for-detection-of-intestinal-protozoa
#13
Marawan Abu-Madi, Sonia Boughattas, Jerzy M Behnke, Aarti Sharma, Ahmed Ismail
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitosis is one of several health concerns about immigrants who travel from endemic to non-endemic regions. Reliable rapid sensitive diagnostic tools, for use in non-endemic regions, are urgently required to enable frequent assessment of immigrant workers in jobs where risk of local transmission is a particular concern (e.g. food-handlers). We assessed the burden of intestinal protozoa in newly arrived immigrants and those applying for renewal of work permits in Qatar (n = 735), by both microscopic examination of stool samples and by Real Time PCR methodology...
September 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859958/understanding-giardia-infections-among-rural-communities-using-the-one-health-approach
#14
Soo Ching Lee, Romano Ngui, Tiong Kai Tan, Muhammad Aidil Roslan, Init Ithoi, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Lokman Hakim S, Yvonne A L Lim
The epidemiology of giardiasis in rural villages in Peninsular Malaysia was examined in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, animals and environment (i.e. river water). A cross-sectional study was carried out among five rural communities in Malaysia to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals and river water. Fecal samples collected from humans and animals were examined by light microscopy. Water was sampled from the rivers adjacent to the target communities and investigated for the occurrence of Giardia cysts...
August 30, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#15
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842650/giardia-s-primitive-gpl-biosynthesis-pathways-with-parasitic-adaptation-patches-implications-for-giardia-s-evolutionary-history-and-for-finding-targets-against-giardiasis
#16
Qingqing Ye, Haifeng Tian, Bing Chen, Jingru Shao, Yan Qin, Jianfan Wen
Giardia is a worldwide spread protozoan parasite colonizing in small intestines of vertebrates, causing Giardiasis. The controversy about whether it is an extremely primitive eukaryote or just a highly evolved parasite has become a fetter to its uses as a model for both evolutionary and parasitological studies for years. Glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis is a conserved essential cellular process, and thus may retain some original features reflecting its evolutionary position, and this process should also have undergone parasitic adaptation to suit Giardia's dietary lipid-rich environment...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833836/assessing-the-infection-risk-of-enteropathogens-from-consumption-of-raw-vegetables-washed-with-contaminated-water-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#17
Shankar Shrestha, Eiji Haramoto, Junko Shindo
AIMS: To assess diarrheal risks from enteropathogenic E. coli, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium from consuming raw spinach, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. METHODS AND RESULTS: The annual infection risk was quantified using the probabilistic Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment approach, which considered 12 vegetable washing combinations. A new model was used to estimate dose of pathogens per exposure comprising parameters such as pathogen concentration in vegetable wash water before selling and eating, vegetable consumption rate, remaining pathogen ratio after washing, remaining water on vegetables after washing, and water treatment removal efficiency...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832257/survey-of-the-occurrence-and-human-infective-potential-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-wastewater-and-different-surface-water-sources-of-western-romania
#18
Kálmán Imre, Adriana Morar, Marius S Ilie, Judit Plutzer, Mirela Imre, Tîrziu Emil, Mihai V Herbei, Gheorghe Dărăbuș
From the group of parasitic protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common pathogens spread in surface water sources, representing a continuous threat to public health and water authorities. The aim of this survey was to assess the occurrence and human infective potential of these pathogens in treated wastewaters and different surface water sources. A total of 76 western Romanian water bodies in four counties (Arad, Bihor, Caraș-Severin and Timiș) were investigated, including the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (n = 11) and brooks (n = 19), irrigation channels (n = 8), lakes (n = 16), and ponds (n = 22)...
August 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830665/the-intersection-of-immune-responses-microbiota-and-pathogenesis-in-giardiasis
#19
REVIEW
Marc Y Fink, Steven M Singer
Giardia lamblia is one of the most common infectious protozoans in the world. Giardia rarely causes severe life-threatening diarrhea, and may even have a slight protective effect in this regard, but it is a major contributor to malnutrition and growth faltering in children in the developing world. Giardia infection also appears to be a significant risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndromes. In this review we highlight recent work focused on the impact of giardiasis and the mechanisms that contribute to the various outcomes of this infection, including changes in the composition of the microbiota, activation of immune responses, and immunopathology...
August 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828960/survey-of-intestinal-parasitism-in-dogs-in-the-phoenix-metropolitan-area
#20
Heather N Cornell, Peter R O'Neal, Valerie M Wong, Donald L Noah
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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