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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329749/assessment-of-the-diagnostic-performance-of-four-methods-for-the-detection-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-fecal-samples-from-human-canine-and-feline-carriers
#1
Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Sabrina Destri Emmerick Campos, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Enteric parasitic diseases including giardiasis are of public health concern. Different methods are available for the diagnosis of this parasitic infection in fecal samples such as the identification of protozoan cysts and trophozoites by light microscopy, detection of specific antigens by ELISA, and amplification of DNA fragments by PCR. The present study aimed at assessing the performance of four laboratory tests for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in fecal specimens from three different host species with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis; canine, feline and human patients provided new stool samples to be retested for Giardia before initiating treatment with antiprotozoal drugs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329622/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-cattle-and-sheep-from-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-area-qtpa-northwestern-china
#2
Yingna Jian, Xueyong Zhang, Xiuping Li, Gabriele Karanis, Liqing Ma, Panagiotis Karanis
Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans, livestock and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections among cattle and sheep in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA) and to assess the potential risk of the zoonotic transmission of this pathogen. A total of 454 stool specimens were collected and examined using the nested PCR method based on the G. duodenalis SSUrRNA gene fragment. Thirty-nine out of 389 cattle specimens examined were positive (10%) for the G...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325751/a-difficult-diagnosis-of-coeliac-disease-repeat-duodenal-histology-increases-diagnostic-yield-in-patients-with-concomitant-causes-of-villous-atrophy
#3
Gaetano Cristian Morreale, Luigi Maria Montalbano, Maria Cappello, Emanuele Sinagra, Aroldo Rizzo, Antonio Carroccio
Villous atrophy in absence of coeliac disease (CD)-specific antibodies represents a diagnostic dilemma. We report a case of a woman with anaemia, weight loss and diarrhoea with an initial diagnosis of seronegative CD and a histological documented villous atrophy who did not improve on gluten-free diet due to the concomitant presence of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and Giardia lamblia infection. This case report confirms that CD diagnosis in CVID patients is difficult; the combination of anti-endomysial antibodies (EmA-IgA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-IgAb) antibodies and total IgA is obligatory in basic diagnostic of CD but in CVID are negative...
January 8, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318125/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-food-handlers-of-bandar-abbas-southern-iran
#4
Mehrgan Heydari-Hengami, Yaghoob Hamedi, Majid Najafi-Asl, Khojasteh Sharifi-Sarasiabi
Background: Food handlers play a significant role in the dissemination and transmission of enteropathogenic microorganisms, including intestinal parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in food handlers of Bandar Abbas, southern Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 800 stool samples were randomly collected in a period of 6 months from Jun to Nov 2015. The diagnosis was made on direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Trichrome stained slides...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317877/phylogenetic-analysis-of-giardia-lamblia-human-genotypes-in-fars-province-southern-iran
#5
Mohammad Rayani, Gholamreza Hatam, Ngah Zasmy Unyah, Abdolmajid Ashrafmansori, Wan Omar Abdullah, Rukman Awang Hamat
Background: This study is the first phylogenetic genotype analysis of Giardia lamblia in Iran. The main objective was to determine genotyping and identify the sub-assemblages of Giardia lamblia isolates involved in the transmission of giardiasis in Fars Province, south of Iran, in 2012. Methods: Forty G. lamblia isolates were collected from the patient's fecal samples with gastrointestinal discomfort referred to the health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Fars Province, south of Iran...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314280/fabrication-of-silver-chloride-nanoparticles-using-a-plant-serine-protease-in-combination-with-photo-activation-and-investigation-of-their-biological-activities
#6
Jaruwan Siritapetawee, Wanwisa Limphirat, Nawarat Nantapong, Dujdow Songthamwat
Recently, the development of 'green' methods for fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been emphasized, in view of their environmental safety, feasibility and low cost. In this study, a serine protease, EuP-82 from Euphorbia cf. lactea latex, was used to fabricate silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), under the influence of visible light. The fabricated nanoparticles had a maximal surface plasmon resonance absorption peak at 435 nm. The size of the AgCl-NPs, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, was 57 ± 14...
January 3, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313513/diseases-due-to-intestinale-protozoa-diagnosed-at-le-dantec-university-hospital-in-dakar-senegal-from-2011-to-2015
#7
K Diongue, M Ndiaye, M C Seck, M A Diallo, Y D Ndiaye, A S Badiane, D Ndiaye
To identify the protozoa responsible for intestinal parasitosis diagnosed at Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. The retrospective study included 2578 patients for whom stool samples were analyzed from 2011 to 2015. The sex ratio was 1.1. Patients' mean age was 28.5 years, with a range of 11 days to 91 years. Direct examination and the Ritchie technique were performed to search for parasites. In total, 317 patients had intestinal protozoa, for a prevalence of 12.3 %. Infections involved one (91%) or two parasites (9%)...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309786/comparison-of-elisa-nested-pcr-and-sequencing-and-a-novel-qpcr-for-detection-of-giardia-isolates-from-jordan
#8
Nawal Hijjawi, Rongchang Yang, Ma'mon Hatmal, Yasmeen Yassin, Taghrid Mharib, Rami Mukbel, Sameer Alhaj Mahmoud, Abdel-Ellah Al-Shudifat, Una Ryan
Little is known about the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in human patients in Jordan and all previous studies have used direct microscopy, which lacks sensitivity. The present study developed a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay at the β-giardin (bg) locus and evaluated its use as a frontline test for the diagnosis of giardiasis in comparison with a commercially available ELISA using nested PCR and sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus (gdh nPCR) as the gold standard. A total of 96 human faecal samples were collected from 96 patients suffering from diarrhea from 5 regions of Jordan and were screened using the ELISA and qPCR...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306723/current-prevalence-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-their-impact-on-hematological-and-nutritional-status-among-karen-hill-tribe-children-in-omkoi-district-chiang-mai-province-thailand
#9
Jintana Yanola, Woottichai Nachaiwieng, Suwit Duangmano, Mujalin Prasannarong, Pradya Somboon, Sakorn Pornprasert
Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study...
January 5, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304439/cryptosporidium-outbreak-in-calves-on-a-large-dairy-farm-effect-of-treatment-and-the-association-with-the-inflammatory-response-and-short-term-weight-gain
#10
Tarmo Niine, Elisabeth Dorbek-Kolin, Brian Lassen, Toomas Orro
Cryptosporidium spp. infections in neonatal dairy calves can cause diarrhoea and, in rare cases, death. The infection is usually self-limiting, but halofuginone lactate (HL) can be used prophylactically. Calves (n=144) in the study were born during a 2-month period on one farm. A total of 901 serum and 767 faecal samples were collected. Based on HL treatment, the calves were divided into 3 groups: I) not treated, II) treated incorrectly (treatment started >48h after birth, or lasted <7days), and III) treated correctly (started <48h after birth, and lasted ≥7days)...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290328/human-intestinal-microbiota-interaction-between-parasites-and-the-host-immune-response
#11
REVIEW
Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Patricia Moran, Liliana Rojas, Tobias Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, B Brett Finlay, Cecilia Ximenez
The human gut is a highly complex ecosystem with an extensive microbial community, and the influence of the intestinal microbiota reaches the entire host organism. For example, the microbiome regulates fat storage, stimulates or renews epithelial cells, and influences the development and maturation of the brain and the immune system. Intestinal microbes can protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Hence, the maintenance of homeostasis between the gut microbiota and the rest of the body is crucial for health, with dysbiosis affecting disease...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286011/prevalence-of-zoonotic-and-non-zoonotic-genotypes-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-cats-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Sebastián Ramírez-Ocampo, Juan David Cotte-Alzate, Ángel A Escobedo, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
There are no meta-analyses specifically describing the prevalence of zoonotic and non-zoonotic genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in cats, which would be useful in defining the importance of cats as a source of zoonotic transmission. We performed a systematic review of the literature in three databases (PubMed, Scopus and SciELO) to assess the proportion of cats that were infected with specific G. intestinalis genotypes. A meta-analysis using a random effects model was performed to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279086/giardia-in-a-selected-population-of-dogs-and-cats-in-germany-diagnostics-coinfections-and-assemblages
#13
M F Sommer, P Rupp, M Pietsch, A Kaspar, P Beelitz
Infections with the zoonotic endoparasite Giardia duodenalis are widely spread among dogs and cats worldwide. Since the question whether the infection might be transmitted from domestic animals to their owners is still an important topic, a reliable detection of patent Giardia infections and the determination of the associated Giardia assemblages is of major concern. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dogs and cats living in Germany using different diagnostic tests and to identify the Giardia assemblages of infected animals...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274467/the-incidence-of-clostridioides-difficile-and-clostridium-perfringens-netf-positive-strains-in-diarrheic-dogs
#14
Amanda Nadia Diniz, Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Maja Rupnik, Vicki Adams, Thomas L Stent, Julian I Rood, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs. Also, the presence of other common canine enteropathogens was examined. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens positive for the NetF-encoding gene (netF) were detected in 11 (11.9%) and seven (7.6%) diarrheic dogs, respectively. Three dogs were diagnosed simultaneously with toxigenic C. difficile and netF-positive C. perfringens...
December 20, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273058/goats-in-the-city-prevalence-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-extensively-reared-goats-in-northern-india
#15
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Nina Myhr, Rajinder Singh Bajwa, Himanshu Joshi, Anil Kumar, Lucy J Robertson
BACKGROUND: Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur...
December 22, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261753/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-giardia-intestinalis-in-racehorses-from-the-sichuan-province-of-southwestern-china
#16
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Xuehan Liu, Yijun Chai, Xue Luo, Yuan Song, Wuyou Wang, Chao Gong, Xiangming Huang, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Min He, Ya Wang, Yue Zhang, Kongju Wu, Suizhong Cao, Guangneng Peng
Giardia intestinalis, a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasite, is one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhea in both humans and animals worldwide. Although G. intestinalis has been detected in many animals, information regarding its prevalence and genotype in Chinese racehorses is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of G. intestinalis in racehorses and performed molecular characterization of the pathogen to assess its zoonotic potential. Two hundred and sixty-four racehorse fecal samples from six equestrian clubs located in different regions of the Sichuan province of southwestern China were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260648/enteroparasites-in-preschool-children-on-the-pacific-region-of-nicaragua
#17
Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Mónica Gozalbo, Aleyda Pavón, Paloma Escobedo, Rafael Toledo, Jose-Guillermo Esteban
The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the prevalence of enteroparasites in preschool children originating from the seven departments of the Pacific region in Nicaragua. One stool sample of each of 1,217 children, from 6 months to 5 years of age, was collected and personal data were recorded on delivery of the container. Samples fixed in 10% formalin were processed by a formol-acetate concentration and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The overall prevalence of enteroparasite infections was 68...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260483/prophylactic-potential-of-synbiotic-lactobacillus-casei-and-inulin-in-malnourished-murine-giardiasis-an-immunological-and-ultrastructural-study
#18
Geeta Shukla, Anuj Sharma, Ruchika Bhatia, Mridul Sharma
Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts...
December 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260297/highly-sensitive-and-specific-detection-of-giardia-duodenalis-entamoeba-histolytica-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-human-stool-samples-by-the-bd-max%C3%A2-enteric-parasite-panel
#19
Marijo Parčina, Ingrid Reiter-Owona, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Valerija Vojvoda, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Achim Hoerauf, Ralf Ignatius
Detection of intestinal protozoan parasites by light microscopy is cumbersome, needs experienced personnel, and may lack sensitivity and/or specificity as compared with molecular-based stool assays. Here, we evaluated the BD MAX™ Enteric Parasite Panel, i.e., a multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and cryptosporidia (Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis), by examining 200 positive human stool samples (138 × G. duodenalis, 27 × E. histolytica, 35 × Cryptosporidium spp...
December 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246779/towards-enhanced-automated-elution-systems-for-waterborne-protozoa-using-megasonic-energy
#20
B Horton, F Katzer, M P Y Desmulliez, H L Bridle
Continuous and reliable monitoring of water sources for human consumption is imperative for public health. For protozoa, which cannot be multiplied efficiently in laboratory settings, concentration and recovery steps are key to a successful detection procedure. Recently, the use of megasonic energy was demonstrated to recover Cryptosporidium from commonly used water industry filtration procedures, forming thereby a basis for a simplified and cost effective method of elution of pathogens. In this article, we report the benefits of incorporating megasonic sonication into the current methodologies of Giardia duodenalis elution from an internationally approved filtration and elution system used within the water industry, the Filta-Max®...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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