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Yan-Ling Yin, Hui-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Dan Chen, Sha Jing, Hao-Xian Wu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is an important zoonotic parasite that parasitizes the gastro-intestines of humans and animals, with diarrhea as the most common clinical symptom. The goat has been indicated as one of the most important reservoirs of G. duodenalis for humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1311 faecal specimens were examined, and the overall prevalence was 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Raziyeh Kasaei, David Carmena, Ali Jelowdar, Molouk Beiromvand
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan that infects humans and several animal species. Giardiasis causing more than 200 million symptomatic infections globally is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in developing countries. Based on molecular studies mainly targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene locus of the parasite, eight assemblages (A to H) have been identified in humans and other animal species. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the frequency and molecular diversity of G...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Eleuza Rodrigues Machado, Núbia Oliveira Matos, Sinione Morais Rezende, Daniela Carlos, Thauana Cristina Silva, Leônia Rodrigues, Maria Jarlene Rodrigues Almeida, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2) were analyzed using two parasitological methods...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Zhijun Zhong, Yinan Tian, Wei Li, Xiangming Huang, Lei Deng, Suizhong Cao, Yi Geng, Hualin Fu, Liuhong Shen, Haifeng Liu, Guangneng Peng
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184913.].
2018: PloS One
Alua Omarova, Kamshat Tussupova, Ronny Berndtsson, Marat Kalishev, Kulyash Sharapatova
Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people's health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pisit Suntaravitun, Amornrat Dokmaikaw
Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Dibyendu Raj, Punam Chowdhury, Rituparna Sarkar, Yumiko Saito-Nakano, Keinosuke Okamoto, Shanta Dutta, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sandipan Ganguly
Giardia lamblia , an anaerobic, amitochondriate protozoan parasite causes parasitic infection giardiasis in children and young adults. It produces pyruvate, a major metabolic product for its fermentative metabolism. The current study was undertaken to explore the effects of pyruvate as a physiological antioxidant during oxidative stress in Giardia by cysteine-ascorbate deprivation and further investigation upon the hypothesis that oxidative stress due to metabolism was the reason behind the cytotoxicity. We have estimated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation due to cysteine-ascorbate deprivation in Giardia ...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Magali Muniz Barreto, Rosemary de Jesus Andrade, Fernando Sodré, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, José Mauro Peralta, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lucia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Katyelle Rafael, Ariella A Marchioro, Cristiane M Colli, Bruna T Tiyo, Fernanda F Evangelista, Renata C Bezagio, Ana L Falavigna-Guilherme
Background: In order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and its genotypes in vegetables that are consumed raw, we analyzed samples cultivated with organic or chemical fertilizer, sold in street markets and from community vegetable gardens in an urban area located in Southern Brazil. Methods: We analyzed 130 samples of vegetables such as crisp lettuce, regular lettuce, kale, chicory and rocket, from street markets, and 130 from community gardens...
March 6, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mariana Felgueira Pavanelli, Cristiane Maria Colli, Mônica Lúcia Gomes, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'Ana
AIMS: Giardiasis is one of the major causes of diarrhea worldwide and its symptoms vary in intensity, which can be attributed to different parasite assemblages. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of infection caused by assemblages AII and BIV ofGiardia duodenalis on the response of the small intestine, microbiota, and behavioral parameters in mice. MAIN METHODS: Swiss mice were infected with assemblages AII and BIV of G. duodenalis for 15 days...
March 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
N I Bi-Xian, S Ming-Xue, X U Xiang-Zhen, W Xiao-Ting, D Yang, J Xiao-Lin
Objective To know the contamination status of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for producing hygiene and safety drinking water. Methods A total of 28 water plants of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province were selected, and the source water (10 L), chlorinated water (100 L) and tap water (100 L) were collected separately in each site. The water samples were then treated by filtration, washing, centrifuging concentration, immune magnetic separation, and immunofluorescent assay, to detect the numbers of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts...
May 17, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Mengistu Damitie, Zeleke Mekonnen, Tadesse Getahun, Dante Santiago, Luc Leyns
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a species complex consisting of multiple genetically distinct assemblages. The species imposes a major public health crisis on developing countries. However, the molecular diversity, transmission dynamics and risk factors of the species in these countries are indeterminate. This study was conducted to determine the molecular epidemiology of G. duodenalis infection in asymptomatic individuals in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: From March to June 2014, fresh stool samples were collected from 590 randomly selected individuals...
March 5, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Norhidayu Sahimin, Benacer Douadi, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Jerzy M Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
The influx of low skilled workers from socioeconomically deprived neighbouring countries to Malaysia has raised concerns about the transmission of communicable gastrointestinal diseases such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis to the local population. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of both diseases and the genetic diversity of these pathogens in the migrant population. Microscopic examination of faecal samples from 388 migrant workers involved in five working sectors were screened and 10...
March 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
A R Khosravi, P Mansouri, Z Saffarian, G Vahedi, D Nikaein
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Some immunologic and hormonal abnormalities have been associated with CMC. The factors that predispose host to CMC infection could be autosomal or acquisitive. The disease usually occurs in childhood. Here, we reviewed the published literature on chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and a four years old girl is presented with CMC. She had a history of recurrent thrush and otomycosis since the age of one. Candida albicans was detected in skin scraping and biopsy samples...
February 27, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Birhane Berhe, Gessessew Bugssa, Sena Bayisa, Megbaru Alemu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
M K Mahato, D K Singh, H B Rana, K P Acharya
Livestock farming has been an integral part of Nepalese agriculture systems since time immemorial. Giardia duodenalis is a cosmopolitan intestinal parasite present in a wide range of hosts. Very little or no information is reported on the prevalence of giardiasis in livestock of Nepal. This study was done during Jan 18 to July 19, 2014 to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Giardia duodenalis infection in dairy cattle of Chitwan, Nepal. A total of 96 fresh fecal samples were collected from various dairy pocket areas and were transferred to collection bottles with 10% formalin...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Lina Paola Orejarena Ávila, Erika Marcela Inguilan Benavides, Leonardo Padilla Sanabria, Delia Piedad Recalde-Reyes, Carlos Andrés Rodríguez-Salazar, Jhon Carlos Castaño-Osorio
Fasciolosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease, which affects humans and animals; diagnosed through noncommercial immunoassay tests that cannot be used on the field. Thereby, establishing the optimal conditions to develop a latex agglutination technique with IgG and IgM antibodies directed against excretion/secretion antigens of Fasciola sp. is a priority. Latex particles were sensitized with IgG and IgM antibodies directed against excretion/secretion antigens of Fasciola sp. The specificity of the antibodies was determined against antigens of different helminths and protozoa; the sensitivity and specificity of the test was evaluated against a previously standardized direct ELISA...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Thibault Allain, Soraya Chaouch, Myriam Thomas, Marie-Agnès Travers, Isabelle Valle, Philippe Langella, Philippe Grellier, Bruno Polack, Isabelle Florent, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, a disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain in a large number of mammal species. Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal parasitic diseases in the world and thus a high veterinary, and public health concern. It is well-established that some probiotic bacteria may confer protection against this parasite in vitro and in vivo and we recently documented the implication of bile-salt hydrolase (BSH)-like activities from strain La1 of Lactobacillus johnsonii as mediators of these effects in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhang Le-Sheng, Wang Yan-Juan, Cao Jian-Ping
Giardia lamblia is an important intestinal protozoan which can cause diarrhea in humans. The detection of Giardia infection is performed through the detection methods of pathogen, immunoassay and molecular biology. Currently, the immunodiagnostic methods have good application and development prospect because of high sensitivity and specificity, simple and convenient, and time saving. In this article, we review the main progress and application of immunodiagnostic methods for Giardia infection.
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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