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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#1
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141237/influence-of-sewage-treatment-plant-effluent-discharge-into-multipurpose-river-on-its-water-quality-a-quantitative-health-risk-assessment-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#2
Shumin Xiao, Sike Hu, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Wenwei Pan
Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the sources of pathogens discharged into surface water. An investigation was carried out over the duration of 12 months in Henan Province, China, to evaluate the health influence of municipal wastewater effluent discharge on water quality of the receiving water. A discharge-based quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was employed, taking into account the vegetables consumption habits of the Chinese, population subgroups with different immune statuses and ages, to evaluate the incremental disease burden from agricultural irrigation and swimming exposure scenarios associated with increased concentration of the protozoan Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the receiving river...
November 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138640/prevalence-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-and-schistosomiasis-in-preschool-age-children-in-mwea-division-kirinyaga-south-district-kirinyaga-county-and-their-potential-effect-on-physical-growth
#3
Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari, Amos K Mbugua, Gerald M Mkoji
Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC) through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131673/evaluation-of-parasite-egg-and-cyst-recovery-using-devices-designed-for-centrifugal-or-stationary-flotation
#4
Kelsea L Medeiros, Araceli Lucio-Forster, Dwight Douglas Bowman
Two new devices (OT, ST), were recently introduced for the recovery of parasite eggs and cysts for microscopic examination. These devices, two stationary flotation devices, and a standard double-centrifugal sugar-flotation were compared using common flotation solutions and methods recommended by the manufacturers for the recovery of hookworm, ascaridoid, and whipworm eggs from companion animal fecal samples. Additionally, the recovery of Giardia cysts in the OT device using a zinc sulfate versus sodium nitrate solution was evaluated...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130475/immunological-interaction-between-giardia-cyst-extract-and-experimental-toxoplasmosis
#5
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Lamees M Dawood, Yomna Zamzam
Toxoplasmosis is mostly associated with other intestinal parasitic infections especially Giardia due to shared mode of peroral infection. Toxoplasma and Giardia induce a strong T-helper 1- immune response. Our aim is to induce a protective immune response that results in significant impact on intestinal and extra-intestinal phases of Toxoplasma infection. This study was conducted in experimental animals and assessment of Giardia cyst extract effect on Toxoplasma infection was investigated by histopathological examination of small intestine and brain, Toxoplasma cyst count and iNOS staining of the brain, measurement of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues...
November 12, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127527/molecular-detection-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-canine-faecal-samples-contaminating-public-areas-in-northern-italy
#6
Giulia Simonato, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Rudi Cassini, Donato Traversa, Cinzia Tessarin, Angela Di Cesare, Mario Pietrobelli
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal pathogens of humans and animals. Dogs may be infected by zoonotic isolates of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. that, consequently, have high interest under public health perspective. This study estimated the occurrence of these protozoa in canine faeces polluting public areas of Padua municipality (Northern Italy), towards a potential evaluation of health risks for dogs and humans. A total of 705 canine stools was collected in green (n = 270) and urban (n = 435) areas and processed by duplex real-time PCR and real-time PCR SYBR® Green I for the detection of both protozoa...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121442/enteric-infections-in-young-children-are-associated-with-environmental-enteropathy-and-impaired-growth
#7
Christine Marie George, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Lauren Oldja, Shwapon Biswas, David Sack, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Nurul Amin Bhuiyan, Tahmina Parvin, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Mahmuda Akter, Shan Li, Gayathri Natarajan, Mohammad Shahnaij, Abu G Faruque, O Colin Stine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between fecal contamination in child play spaces, enteric infections, environmental enteropathy (EE), and impaired growth among young children. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 203 children 6-30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Stool samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp. Four fecal markers of intestinal inflammation were also measured: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, and calprotectin...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120997/waterborne-disease-outbreaks-associated-with-environmental-and-undetermined-exposures-to-water-united-states-2013-2014
#8
R Paul McClung, David M Roth, Marissa Vigar, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Laura A Cooley, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Kathleen E Fullerton, Jonathan S Yoder, Vincent R Hill
Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States are associated with a wide variety of water exposures and are reported annually to CDC on a voluntary basis by state and territorial health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). A majority of outbreaks arise from exposure to drinking water (1) or recreational water (2), whereas others are caused by an environmental exposure to water or an undetermined exposure to water. During 2013-2014, 15 outbreaks associated with an environmental exposure to water and 12 outbreaks with an undetermined exposure to water were reported, resulting in at least 289 cases of illness, 108 hospitalizations, and 17 deaths...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114494/giardiasis-mimicking-celiac-disease-in-a-patient-of-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#9
Kumar Saurabh, Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Daisy Khera, Poonam Elhence
An adolescent boy presented to pediatrics outpatient department with complaints of recurrent diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and pedal edema since 3-4 months, with no relief even after taking treatment. His investigation revealed decreased serum IgA, IgG, and IgM levels with hypoproteinemia. Duodenal biopsy showed features of celiac disease (CD), but tissue transglutaminase IgA was negative. In stool examination, plenty of Giardia lamblia cysts and eggs of Hymenolepis nana were present. He improved on treatment and remained asymptomatic for 4 months...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114134/epidemiological-investigation-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-dog-populations-in-basra-province-southern-iraq
#10
Khawla B N Al-Jassim, Yasser S Mahmmod, Zainab M Salem, Azmi Al-Jubury
The understanding of the epidemiology of canine parasitic infections is necessary for an efficient control program to minimize the risk of zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in Basra province, Southern Iraq, and (2) to identify the association of epidemiological characteristics (age, breed, gender, and feed type) of dogs with the parasitic infections. A total of 93 fecal samples, collected in the period from December 2014 to June 2015, were examined macroscopically and microscopically for the presence of worm eggs and protozoal oocysts, using centrifugal flotation method...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111195/giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-rural-communities-in-yemen-a-community-based-assessment-of-the-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors
#11
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among rural communities among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 605 stool samples were collected and screened for the presence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) cysts and/or trophozoites by using three different diagnostic methods: direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, and trichrome staining. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental characteristics of the participants...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103276/intestinal-parasite-infections-among-inhabitants-in-yanbian-prefecture-jilin-province-china
#12
Myoung-Ro Lee, Hee-Eun Shin, Byung-Suk Chung, Sang-Eun Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Liji Xu, Chen Long Nan, Mi-Yeoun Park, Shin-Hyeong Cho
To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in Yanbian Prefecture, Jilin Province, China, epidemiological surveys were conducted on a collaboration basis between the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Yanbian Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 8,396 (males 3,737 and females 4,659) stool samples were collected from 8 localities and examined with the formalin-ether sedimentation technique, and additionally examined with the cellotape anal swab to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103267/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-environmental-water-contamination-in-a-rural-village-of-northern-lao-pdr
#13
Alexis Ribas, Chloé Jollivet, Serge Morand, Boupha Thongmalayvong, Silaphet Somphavong, Chern-Chiang Siew, Pei-Jun Ting, Saipin Suputtamongkol, Viengsaene Saensombath, Surapol Sanguankiat, Boon-Huan Tan, Phimpha Paboriboune, Kongsap Akkhavong, Kittipong Chaisiri
A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#14
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099754/rnai-mediated-specific-gene-silencing-as-a-tool-for-the-discovery-of-new-drug-targets-in-giardia-lamblia-evaluation-using-the-nadh-oxidase-gene
#15
Jaime Marcial-Quino, Saúl Gómez-Manzo, Francisco Fierro, Yadira Rufino-González, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Edgar Sierra-Palacios, America Vanoye-Carlo, Abigail González-Valdez, Angélica Torres-Arroyo, Jesús Oria-Hernández, Horacio Reyes-Vivas
The microaerophilic protozoan Giardia lamblia is the agent causing giardiasis, an intestinal parasitosis of worldwide distribution. Different pharmacotherapies have been employed against giardiasis; however, side effects in the host and reports of drug resistant strains generate the need to develop new strategies that identify novel biological targets for drug design. To support this requirement, we have designed and evaluated a vector containing a cassette for the synthesis of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which can silence expression of a target gene through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway...
November 3, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090610/coagulation-flocculation-dissolved-air-flotation-and-filtration-in-the-removal-of-giardia-spp-and-cryptosporidium-spp-from-water-supply
#16
Fernando César Andreoli, Lyda Patricia Sabogal-Paz
Removing protozoa from a water supply using coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation and filtration on a bench scale was evaluated. Flocculation in calcium carbonate with and without immunomagnetic separation was chosen to detect Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the studied samples. Analytical quality of assays of the detection protocol of target organisms was performed and the results were compared to the criteria established in Method 1623.1 from the US Environmental Protection Agency...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081771/giardia-duodenalis-infections-in-humans-and-other-animals-in-china
#17
REVIEW
Junqiang Li, Haiyan Wang, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang
Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic pathogen in both public and veterinary health, and has been genotyped into at least eight assemblages (A-H), each with a distinct host range. In recent years, this intestinal protozoan parasite has been identified widely in humans and various other animals, and has even been recorded in environmental contaminants. Along with whole genome sequencing of G. duodenalis, multilocus sequence typing is increasingly being used to characterize G. duodenalis isolates. Here, we review the epidemiology, genotyping, and subtyping of G...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080954/microbiological-risk-infection-assessment-using-qmra-in-agriculture-systems-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-west-africa
#18
Parfait K Kouamé, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Kouassi Dongo, Christian Zurbrügg, Jean Biémi, Bassirou Bonfoh
Poor wastewater management that results from a lack of appropriate sanitation infrastructure contributes to increasing health risks in urban areas in Côte d'Ivoire. We assessed the health risks associated with the use of wastewater for watering salad destined for human consumption, to help local authorities in developing appropriate risk mitigation measures for Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We applied a stochastic approach based on quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), focusing on wastewater for farming activities and salad consumption at the household level...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080768/multilocus-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-tibetan-sheep-and-yaks-in-qinghai-china
#19
Yue Jin, Jilan Fei, Jinzhong Cai, Xiaolan Wang, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal protozoon in mammals. Although many studies have been reported on the distribution of G. duodenalis genotypes in sheep and cattle raised under intensive farming, few studies are available on the distribution of G. duodenalis in Tibetan sheep and yaks, which are raised free ranging in a continental plateau climate. In this study, 495 fecal specimens from Tibetan sheep and 605 from yaks were collected from eight counties in Qinghai, China and analyzed for G. duodenalis by PCR targeting the β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070070/molecular-investigation-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-pre-and-post-weaned-calves-in-hubei-province-china
#20
Yingying Fan, Tao Wang, Anson V Koehler, Min Hu, Robin B Gasser
BACKGROUND: The protistan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia can cause significant intestinal diseases in animals and humans. Cattle, particularly calves, carrying these protists can be significant reservoirs for human infections and disease. However, little is known about the genetic make-up of Cryptosporidium and Giardia populations in cattle and other ruminants in some regions of China. RESULTS: In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to genetically characterise these protists in faecal samples from a total of 339 pre- and post-weaned calves from four distinct locations in Hubei Province using markers in the large (LSU) or small (SSU) subunits of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes...
October 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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