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G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Abidelfatah M Nasser, Neta-Lee Benisti, Naomi Ofer, Sivan Hovers, Yeshayahu Nitzan
Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Lorraine D Rodriguez-Rivera, Kevin J Cummings, Isaac McNeely, Jan S Suchodolski, Andrea V Scorza, Michael R Lappin, Brian T Mesenbrink, Bruce R Leland, Michael J Bodenchuk
The population size and geographic range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, the role of this invasive species in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic enteric pathogens is poorly understood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for infection. Fecal samples were collected from feral pigs in Texas from February 2014 through May 2015. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and genotyping of positive samples was performed...
October 20, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Camila Henriques Coelho, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva, Maíra Mazzoni Pucci, Angela Vieira Serufo, Haendel Goncalves Nogueira Oliveira Busatti, Maurício Durigan, Jonas Perales, Alex Chapeaurouge, Daniel Almeida da Silva E Silva, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Juliano Simões Toledo, Steven M Singer, Rosiane A Silva-Pereira, Ana Paula Fernandes
The zoonotic potential of giardiasis, as proposed by WHO since the late 70's, has been largely confirmed in this century. The genetic assemblages A and B of Giardia duodenalis are frequently isolated from human and canine hosts. Most of the assemblage A strains are not infective to adult mice, which can limit the range of studies regarding to biology of G. duodenalis, including virulence factors and the interaction with host immune system. This study aimed to determine the infectivity in mice of an assemblage A Giardia duodenalis strain (BHFC1) isolated from a dog and to classify the strain in sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII) through the phylogenetic analysis of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes...
2016: PloS One
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Tarnagda Grissoum, Aminata Kaboré, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Maureen N Kinyua, Ileana Wald, Fabricio Camacho-Céspedes, Ricardo Izurieta, Charles N Haas, Sarina J Ergas
Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Meng Qi, Haiyan Wang, Bo Jing, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is an important protozoan parasite. It is an established zoonotic pathogen and dairy calves have been implicated as one of the most important sources of human infection. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in dairy calves in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern China. FINDINGS: A total of 514 fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from dairy calves in 15 farms in Xinjiang, 13...
October 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Marie-Agnès Travers, Cissé Sow, Séverine Zirah, Christiane Deregnaucourt, Soraya Chaouch, Rayner M L Queiroz, Sébastien Charneau, Thibault Allain, Isabelle Florent, Philippe Grellier
Giardiasis, currently considered a neglected disease, is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis and is widely spread in human as well as domestic and wild animals. The lack of appropriate medications and the spread of resistant parasite strains urgently call for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Host microbiota or certain probiotic strains have the capacity to provide some protection against giardiasis. By combining biological and biochemical approaches, we have been able to decipher a molecular mechanism used by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to prevent Giardia growth in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Edgar E Caamal-Fuentes, Manlio Graniel-Sabido, Gonzalo J Mena-Rejón, Rosa E Moo-Puc
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done.The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zeynep Koloren, Onuralp Seferoğlu, Panagiotis Karanis
A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Valerio Iebba, Floriana Santangelo, Valentina Totino, Fabrizio Pantanella, Anatole Monsia, Veronica Di Cristanziano, David Di Cave, Serena Schippa, Federica Berrilli, Rossella D'Alfonso
INTRODUCTION: Literature data provide little information about protozoa infections and gut microbiota compositional shifts in humans. This preliminary study aimed to describe the fecal bacterial community composition of people from Côte d'Ivoire harboring Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Blastocystis hominis, in trying to discover possible alterations in their fecal microbiota structure related to the presence of such parasites. METHODOLOGY: Twenty fecal samples were collected from people inhabiting three different localities of Côte d'Ivoire for copromicroscopic analysis and molecular identification of G...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Fuhuang Li, Haiyan Wang, Zhenjie Zhang, Junqiang Li, Chenrong Wang, Jinfeng Zhao, Suhui Hu, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang, Ming Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Caroline Jacobson, Andrew Williams, Rongchang Yang, Una Ryan, Ian Carmichael, Angus J Campbell, Graham E Gardner
Associations between intensity and frequency of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding with growth, carcase weight and dressing% were investigated using a longitudinal study of 1182 lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight was recorded and faecal samples were collected on three sampling occasions; weaning (approximately 12 weeks of age), post-weaning (approximately 19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (approximately 29 weeks). Hot standard carcase weight (HSCW) and dressing% were measured at slaughter. Faecal samples were screened for presence and concentration of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Haemonchus oocysts using a quantitative PCR...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros, Paulo Henrique Exterchoter Weiss, Sandra Marcia Tietz Marques, Luiz Claudio Miletti
Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite that has distinct genetic groups. Human infections are mainly caused by assemblages A and B, although sporadic infections by assemblages C and D have also been reported. Animals can be infected by a wide range of assemblages (A to H). The aim of this study is to identify the assemblages and sub-assemblages of G. duodenalis with zoonotic features in fecal samples of school-aged children, and in dogs that coexist in the same households in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Miguel M Cabada, Maria Luisa Morales, Martha Lopez, Spencer T Reynolds, Elizabeth C Vilchez, Andres G Lescano, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Hector Hugo Garcia, Clinton A White
Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lucien W Gassie, James D Englehardt, Jian Wang, Nichole Brinkman, Jay Garland, Piero Gardinali, Tianjiao Guo
Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Jolanta Piekarska, Joanna Bajzert, Michał Gorczykowski, Magdalena Kantyka, Magdalena Podkowik
INTRODUCTION: Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Ana Laura Torres-Huerta, Rosa María Martínez-Miguel, María Luisa Bazán-Tejeda, Rosa María Bermúdez-Cruz
Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide protozoa known causing diarrhea in all vertebrates, humans among these. Homologous recombination is a mechanism that provides genomic stability. Two putative recombinases were identified in G. duodenalis genome: GdDMC1A and GdDMC1B. In this article, we describe the identification of conserved domains in GdDMC1A and GdDMC1B, such as: DNA binding domains (Helix-turn-helix motif, loops 1 and 2) and an ATPcap and Walker A and B motifs associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis, phylogenetic analyses among assemblages and three-dimensional structure modeling of these recombinases using bioinformatics tools...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Liliana Simões-Silva, Inês Correia, Joana Barbosa, Carla Santos-Araujo, Maria João Sousa, Manuel Pestana, Isabel Soares-Silva, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears...
September 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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