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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#2
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408215/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-potential-clinical-impact-of-blood-borne-and-enteric-protozoan-parasites-in-native-mammals-from-northern-australia
#3
Amanda Barbosa, Andrea Reiss, Bethany Jackson, Kristin Warren, Andrea Paparini, Graeme Gillespie, Danielle Stokeld, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
A molecular survey was conducted to provide baseline information on the prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impacts of blood-borne and enteric protozoans in native wild mammals from the Northern Territory (NT). A total of 209 blood and 167 faecal samples were collected from four target species; the northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) and brush-tailed rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus). Blood samples were screened by PCR at the 18S rRNA gene for trypanosomes, piroplasms and haemogregarines, with faecal samples tested for Cryptosporidium spp...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403147/cryptosporidium-spp-and-giardia-spp-in-feces-and-water-and-the-associated-exposure-factors-on-dairy-farms
#4
Roberta Dos Santos Toledo, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Jonatas Campos de Almeida, Liza Ogawa, Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos Dos Santos, Maíra Moreira Dos Santos, Filipe Aguera Pinheiro, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, João Luis Garcia, Roberta Lemos Freire
The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in animal feces and drinking water on dairy farms and to identify a possible relation between the exposure factors and the presence of these parasites. Fecal samples from cattle and humans and water samples were collected on dairy farms in Paraná, Brazil. Analysis of (oo)cysts in the feces was performed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate. Test-positive samples were subjected to nested PCR amplification of the 18SSU ribosomal RNA gene for identification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and of the gp60 gene for subtyping of Cryptosporidium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402185/giardiasis-outbreak-associated-with-asymptomatic-food-handlers-in-new-york-state-2015
#5
Mary Figgatt, Kimberly Mergen, Deborah Kimelstein, Danielle M Mahoney, Alexandra Newman, David Nicholas, Kristen Ricupero, Theresa Cafiero, Daniel Corry, Julius Ade, Philip Kurpiel, Susan Madison-Antenucci, Madhu Anand
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan that causes a gastrointestinal illness called giardiasis. Giardiasis outbreaks in the United States are most commonly associated with waterborne transmission and are less commonly associated with food, person-to-person, and zoonotic transmission. During June to September 2015, an outbreak of 20 giardiasis cases occurred and were epidemiologically linked to a local grocery store chain on Long Island, New York. Further investigation revealed three asymptomatic food handlers were infected with G...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400860/multiple-etiologies-of-infectious-diarrhea-and-concurrent-infections-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-based-screening-study-in-odisha-india
#6
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396548/click-chemistry-facilitated-structural-diversification-of-nitrothiazoles-nitrofurans-and-nitropyrroles-enhances-antimicrobial-activity-against-giardia-lamblia
#7
Wan Jung Kim, Keith Korthals, Suhua Li, Christine Le, Jaroslaw Kalisiak, K Barry Sharpless, Valery V Fokin, Yukiko Miyamoto, Lars Eckmann
Giardia lamblia is an important and ubiquitous cause of diarrheal disease. The primary agents in the treatment of giardiasis are nitroheterocyclic drugs, particularly the imidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole, and the thiazole, nitazoxanide. Although these drugs are generally effective, treatment failures occur in up to 20% of cases and resistance has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Prior work had suggested that side chain modifications of the imidazole core can lead to effective new 5-nitroimidazole drugs that can combat nitro drug resistance, but the full potential of nitroheterocycles other than imidazole to yield effective new antigiardial agents has not been explored...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396324/giardia-alters-commensal-microbial-diversity-throughout-the-murine-gut
#8
N R Barash, J G Maloney, S M Singer, S C Dawson
Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified protozoan cause of intestinal infection. Over one billion people are estimated to have acute or chronic giardiasis, with infection rates approaching 90% in endemic areas. Despite its significance in global health, the mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with giardiasis remain unclear as the parasite neither produces a known toxin nor induces a robust inflammatory response. Giardia colonization and proliferation in the small intestine of the host may, however, disrupt the ecological homeostasis of gastrointestinal commensal microbes and contribute to diarrheal disease associated with giardiasis...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396264/causal-pathways-from-enteropathogens-to-environmental-enteropathy-findings-from-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#9
Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy (EE), the adverse impact of frequent and numerous enteric infections on the gut resulting in a state of persistent immune activation and altered permeability, has been proposed as a key determinant of growth failure in children in low- and middle-income populations. A theory-driven systems model to critically evaluate pathways through which enteropathogens, gut permeability, and intestinal and systemic inflammation affect child growth was conducted within the framework of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) birth cohort study that included children from eight countries...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387527/quantitative-shedding-of-multiple-genotypes-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-by-deer-mice-peromyscus-maniculatus-in-a-major-agricultural-region-on-the-california-central-coast
#10
Christopher Kilonzo, Xunde Li, Tamara Vodoz, Chengling Xiao, Jennifer A Chase, Michele T Jay-Russell, Eduardo J Vivas, Edward R Atwill
Deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) are abundant and widely distributed rodents in North America that occupy diverse habitats, including agricultural landscapes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common parasites in wildlife including deer mice, which may play a role in on-farm contamination of produce. An important step in assessing the risk of produce contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia shed by deer mice is to determine the prevalence, levels, and genotypes of (oo)cysts in mouse feces. A total of 63 (30...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381477/association-between-enteropathogens-and-malnutrition-in-children-aged-6-23-mo-in-bangladesh-a-case-control-study
#11
James A Platts-Mills, Mami Taniuchi, Md Jashim Uddin, Shihab Uddin Sobuz, Mustafa Mahfuz, Sm Abdul Gaffar, Dinesh Mondal, Md Iqbal Hossain, M Munirul Islam, Am Shamsir Ahmed, William A Petri, Rashidul Haque, Eric R Houpt, Tahmeed Ahmed
Background: Early exposure to enteropathogens has been associated with malnutrition in children in low-resource settings. However, the contribution of individual enteropathogens remains poorly defined. Molecular diagnostics offer an increase in sensitivity for detecting enteropathogens but have not been comprehensively applied to studies of malnutrition.Objective: We sought to identify enteropathogens associated with malnutrition in Bangladesh.Design: Malnourished children [weight-for-age z score (WAZ) <-2] aged 6-23 mo in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and identified by active community surveillance were enrolled as cases, and normal-weight children (WAZ >-1) of the same age and from the same community were enrolled as controls...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374629/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-dogs-in-aydin-turkey
#12
Mehmet Gultekin, Kerem Ural, Nuran Aysul, Adnan Ayan, Canberk Balikci, Gurkan Akyildiz
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis among dogs in Aydin, Turkey. A total of 473 faecal samples from dogs were collected. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 18.8%. Higher infection rates were observed in dogs younger than three months old, from shelters, and with diarrhoea. Faecal samples of 89 dogs, diagnosed Giardia-positive by microscopy, were found positive by nested PCR. The β-giardin nested PCR assay revealed assemblage B in all samples (100%), whereas 38 of the samples were mixed with assemblage A (42%)...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373093/experimental-and-bioinformatic-characterization-of-cabp2933-an-ef-hand-protein-of-giardia-intestinalis
#13
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Eliana Calvo, Vanessa Gómez, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans. This parasite is a divergent eukaryote with a compact genome. The calcium ion is an essential messenger in cell signaling. Calcium's role as a messenger is mediated through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) that decode the message. The most important family of CaBPs is the EF-Hand protein family. In this study we have explored the role of EF-Hand protein CaBP2933. We analyzed its location, confirmed its ability to bind calcium and identified some of its interacting proteins...
March 31, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372543/giardia-intestinalis-mitosomes-undergo-synchronized-fission-but-not-fusion-and-are-constitutively-associated-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#14
Luboš Voleman, Vladimíra Najdrová, Ásgeir Ástvaldsson, Pavla Tůmová, Elin Einarsson, Zdeněk Švindrych, Guy M Hagen, Jan Tachezy, Staffan G Svärd, Pavel Doležal
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria of opisthokonts undergo permanent fission and fusion throughout the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the dynamics of the mitosomes, the simplest forms of mitochondria, in the anaerobic protist parasite Giardia intestinalis, a member of the Excavata supergroup of eukaryotes. The mitosomes have abandoned typical mitochondrial traits such as the mitochondrial genome and aerobic respiration and their single role known to date is the formation of iron-sulfur clusters...
April 3, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367140/transcriptomics-indicates-active-and-passive-metronidazole-resistance-mechanisms-in-three-seminal-giardia-lines
#15
Brendan R E Ansell, Louise Baker, Samantha J Emery, Malcolm J McConville, Staffan G Svärd, Robin B Gasser, Aaron R Jex
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes 200-300 million episodes of diarrhoea annually. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a front-line anti-giardial, but treatment failure is common and clinical resistance has been demonstrated. Mtz is thought to be activated within the parasite by oxidoreductase enzymes, and to kill by causing oxidative damage. In G. duodenalis, Mtz resistance involves active and passive mechanisms. Relatively low activity of iron-sulfur binding proteins, namely pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxins, and nitroreductase-1, enable resistant cells to passively avoid Mtz activation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366929/strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states-of-america-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Laia Jimena Vazquez Guillamet, Zane Saul, Goran Miljkovich, Gabriel Alejandro Vilchez, Nikolai Mendonca, Venkata Gourineni, Nicholas Lillo, Marguerite Pinto, Aurengzaib Baig, Louie Mar Gangcuangco
BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366863/proteomic-and-functional-analyses-reveal-pleiotropic-action-of-the-anti-tumoral-compound-nbdhex-in-giardia-duodenalis
#17
Serena Camerini, Alessio Bocedi, Serena Cecchetti, Marialuisa Casella, Miriam Carbo, Veronica Morea, Edoardo Pozio, Giorgio Ricci, Marco Lalle
Giardiasis, a parasitic diarrheal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, affects one billion people worldwide. Treatment relies only on a restricted armamentarium of drugs. The disease burden and the increase in treatment failure highlight the need for novel, safe and well characterized drug options. The antitumoral compound NBDHEX is effective in vitro against Giardia trophozoites and inhibits glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Aim of this work was to search for additional NBDHEX protein targets. The intrinsic NBDHEX fluorescence was exploited in a proteomic analysis to select and detect modified proteins in drug treated Giardia...
March 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366172/the-effects-of-phosphanegold-i-thiolates-on-the-biological-properties-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-belonging-to-the-t4-genotype
#18
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Farhat Abjani, Chien Ing Yeo, Edward R T Tiekink, Naveed Ahmed Khan
BACKGROUND: Gold compounds have shown promise in the treatment of non-communicable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, and are considered of value as anti-microbial agents against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and have anti-parasitic properties against Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania infantinum, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica. They are known to affect enzymatic activities that are required for the cellular respiration processes...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364239/use-of-translation-blocking-morpholinos-for-gene-knockdown-in-giardia-lamblia
#19
Jana Krtková, Alexander R Paredez
Giardia lamblia, a major parasite, is an emerging model organism due to its compact genomic arrangement and composition. The most popular reverse genetic technique, RNAi, is ineffective in Giardia. In contrast, protein depletion by translation blocking morpholinos is suitable for most gene targets and provides up to 80% depletion of the target protein. The method is fast, reliable, and specific. After antisense morpholino oligomer delivery into Giardia trophozoites by electroporation, the cells can be used for many subsequent analyses 8-48 h after treatment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362140/occurrence-of-giardia-in-swedish-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes
#20
John J Debenham, Hanne Landuyt, Karin Troell, Kristoffer Tysnes, Lucy J Robertson
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal protozoan capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in a range of vertebrate hosts. It is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Understanding the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in animals is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals it infects. We investigated the occurrence of G. duodenalis in wild Swedish red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ), with the aim of providing preliminary information on how this abundant predator might be involved in the transmission and epidemiology of G...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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