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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336217/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#1
REVIEW
Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi, Magali Chabé, Simone M Cacciò
Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329069/giardiasis-and-subsequent-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-using-health-insurance-data
#2
Jolene H Nakao, Sarah A Collier, Julia W Gargano
Background.: Giardia intestinalis is the most commonly reported human intestinal parasite in the United States. Increased incidence of chronic gastrointestinal complaints has been reported after some giardiasis outbreaks. We examined the relationship between giardiasis diagnosis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis. Methods.: We used the 2006-2010 MarketScan commercial insurance database. Persons with at least 1 giardiasis diagnosis were individually matched on age group, sex, and enrollment length in months to 5 persons without a giardiasis diagnosis...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316423/comparison-and-evaluation-of-four-methods-for-extracting-dna-from-giardia-duodenalis-cysts-for-pcr-targeting-the-tpi-gene
#3
Akram Sepahvand, Nader Pestehchian, Hossein Ali Yousefi, Reza Pahlavan Gharehbaba
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan and the common cause of gastrointestinal diseases in human. This parasite can be seen in two different forms in its life cycle including as cyst and trophozoite. Due to presence of resistant cyst wall, DNA extraction inhibitors along with artifact in stool specimens, this study was performed aiming to evaluate four methods for DNA extraction from G. duodenalis cysts. Seventy G. duodenalis positive stool specimens that were confirmed by light microscope were included in this study...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#4
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290266/improved-diagnosis-of-trichuris-trichiura-by-using-a-bead-beating-procedure-on-ethanol-preserved-stool-samples-prior-to-dna-isolation-and-the-performance-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-intestinal-parasites
#5
Maria M M Kaisar, Eric A T Brienen, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Jaco J Verweij, Taniawati Supali, Lisette VAN Lieshout
For the majority of intestinal parasites, real-time PCR-based diagnosis outperforms microscopy. However, the data for Trichuris trichiura have been less convincing and most comparative studies have been performed in populations with low prevalence. This study aims to improve detection of T. trichuria DNA in human stool by evaluating four sample preparation methods. Faecal samples (n = 60) were collected at Flores island, Indonesia and examined by microscopy. Aliquots were taken and a bead-beating procedure was used both on directly frozen stool and on material preserved with 96% ethanol...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286754/prokaryotic-expression-of-%C3%AE-13-giardin-gene-and-its-intracellular-localization-in-giardia-lamblia
#6
Xingang Yu, Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi, Sheng Wu, Weida Pan, Xianli Shi, Wei Hu, Liping Tan, Kangxin Li, Zhen Wang, Guoqing Li
To study prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization of α-13 giardin in Giardia lamblia trophozoites, α-13 giardin gene was amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression by using IPTG and autoinduction expression system (ZYM-5052). The target protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and purified by Ni-NTA Resin. Rabbits were immunized with purified fusion proteins for preparation of polyclonal antibody; then the intracellular location of α-13 giardin was determined by fluorescence immunoassay...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285331/evaluating-next-generation-sequencing-for-direct-clinical-diagnostics-in-diarrhoeal-disease
#7
K G Joensen, A L Ø Engsbro, O Lukjancenko, R S Kaas, O Lund, H Westh, F M Aarestrup
The accurate microbiological diagnosis of diarrhoea involves numerous laboratory tests and, often, the pathogen is not identified in time to guide clinical management. With next-generation sequencing (NGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of NGS-based diagnostics through direct sequencing of faecal samples. Fifty-eight clinical faecal samples were obtained from patients with diarrhoea as part of the routine diagnostics at Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284996/first-survey-of-cryptosporidium-giardia-and-enterocytozoon-in-diarrhoeic-children-from-wuhan-china
#8
Tao Wang, Yingying Fan, Anson V Koehler, Guangxu Ma, Tao Li, Min Hu, Robin B Gasser
Intestinal protozoan pathogens cause significant diarrhoeal diseases in children. However, to date, there has been limited genetic study of the intestinal pathogens Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in humans in China, with the exception of research in a small number of cities/provinces. In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterise these protistan parasites from 500 children with a history of diarrhoea in Wuhan and environs, Hubei province, China. Genomic DNAs from faecal samples were screened for the particular protists by PCR utilising regions in the small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA, the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60), the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) and/or the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes as genetic markers...
March 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279129/association-of-enteric-parasitic-infections-with-intestinal-inflammation-and-permeability-in-asymptomatic-infants-of-s%C3%A3-o-tom%C3%A3-island
#9
Marisol Garzón, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Jorge Seixas, Ana Luísa Papoila, Marta Alves, Filipa Ferreira, Ana Reis
The cumulative effect of repeated asymptomatic enteric infections on intestinal barrier is not fully understood in infants. We aimed to evaluate the association between previous enteric parasitic infections and intestinal inflammation and permeability at 24-months of age, in asymptomatic infants of São Tomé Island. A subset of infants from a birth cohort, with intestinal parasite evaluations in at least four points of assessment, was eligible. Intestinal inflammatory response and permeability were assessed using fecal S100A12 and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), respectively...
March 10, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274291/an-audit-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-detection-in-scottish-national-health-service-diagnostic-microbiology-laboratories
#10
C L Alexander, S Currie, K Pollock, A Smith-Palmer, B L Jones
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed...
March 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273080/geospatial-distribution-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-and-its-association-with-social-determinants
#11
Clarissa Perez Faria, Graziela Maria Zanini, Gisele Silva Dias, Sidnei da Silva, Marcelo Bessa de Freitas, Ricardo Almendra, Paula Santana, Maria do Céu Sousa
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270802/molecular-epidemiology-of-giardia-blastocystis-and-cryptosporidium-among-indigenous-children-from-the-colombian-amazon-basin
#12
Angie Sánchez, Marina Munoz, Natalia Gómez, Juan Tabares, Laura Segura, Ángela Salazar, Cristian Restrepo, Miguel Ruíz, Patricia Reyes, Yuchen Qian, Lihua Xiao, Myriam C López, Juan D Ramírez
The incidence and prevalence of intestinal parasites in children is most likely due to lack of natural or acquired resistance and differences in behavior and habits closely related to environmental and socioeconomic determinants. The most important protozoa that parasitize humans are Giardia, Entamoeba, Blastocystis, and Cryptosporidium. These parasites present wide intraspecific genetic diversity and subsequently classified into assemblages and subtypes. The Amazon basin is the largest in the world and is the fifth freshwater reserve on the planet...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267780/the-eurasian-otter-lutra-lutra-as-a-potential-host-for-rickettsial-pathogens-in-southern-italy
#13
Mario Santoro, Nicola D'Alessio, Anna Cerrone, Maria Gabriella Lucibelli, Giorgia Borriello, Gaetano Aloise, Clementina Auriemma, Nunzia Riccone, Giorgio Galiero
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261296/gastrointestinal-disorders-next-to-respiratory-infections-as-leading-symptoms-of-x-linked-agammaglobulinemia-in-children-34-year-experience-of-a-single-center
#14
Malgorzata Pac, Ewa A Bernatowska, Jarosław Kierkuś, Józef P Ryżko, Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk, Teresa Jackowska, Bożena Mikołuć
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections constitute the most frequent manifestation of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). There are not many papers elucidating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in such patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders and IBD compared to respiratory tract infections in XLA individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 1563 patients with primary immunodeficiencies diagnosed in the Department of Immunology, the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), 66 boys had a provisional diagnosis of agammaglobulinemia...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257952/in-vitro-immunomodulatory-effects-of-microemulsions-with-levamisole-delivery-systems-on-blood-phagocytes-interacting-with-giardia-lamblia
#15
Mara Rosa Gil Hernandes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque Moraes, Elton Brito Ribeiro, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Eduardo Luzía França
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is one of the main parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Antiparasitics administered to treat giardiasis are inefficient in 20% of the cases, usually because of parasite resistance and side effects. In this scenario, microemulsions are a promising pharmaceutical alternative as carriers of molecules with therapeutic action that stimulate the immune system...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255818/screening-of-protozoan-and-microsporidian-parasites-in-feces-of-great-cormorant-phalacrocorax-carbo
#16
Piotr Rzymski, Anna Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Piotr Klimaszyk, Piotr Solarczyk, Barbara Poniedziałek
The global population of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) is on the rise. These birds, characterized by rapid metabolism, can deposit large quantities of feces, and because they breed on the land but forage on water, both terrestrial and aquatic environments can be simultaneously affected by their activities. The contribution of great cormorants in the dispersal of bacterial and viral pathogens has been immensely studied; whereas, the occurrence of eukaryotic parasites such as protozoans and microsporidians in these birds is little known...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249214/lectin-magnetic-separation-lms-for-isolation-of-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-from-concentrated-water-samples-prior-to-detection-by-microscopy-or-qpcr
#17
Jemere Bekele Harito, Andrew T Campbell, Kristoffer Relling Tysnes, J P Dubey, Lucy J Robertson
Although standard methods for analyzing water samples for the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are available and widely used, equivalent methods for analyzing water samples for Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are lacking. This is partly due to the lack of a readily available, reliable immunomagnetic separation technique (IMS). Here we investigated the use of lectin-magnetic separation (LMS) for isolating T. gondii oocysts from water sample concentrates, with subsequent detection by microscopy or molecular methods...
February 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248680/giardia-duodenalis-genotypes-among-schoolchildren-and-their-families-and-pets-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-sinaloa-mexico
#18
Patricia Catalina García-Cervantes, María Elena Báez-Flores, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Yukifumi Nawa, María Del-Carmen De-la-Cruz-Otero, Mario N Martínez-Gordillo, Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho
INTRODUCTION: Giardiasis is a human health concern worldwide, especially among schoolchildren. Giardia duodenalis genotypes A and B are infective to humans, but their zoonotic potential remains controversial. In Mexico, the most prevalent genotype is A, but B was also detected in southeastern Mexico. In Sinaloa state, northwestern Mexico, giardiasis is highly prevalent, but Giardia genotypes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY: This study aimed to investigate the distribution and clinical-epidemiological correlation of G...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#19
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236495/microvesicles-released-from-giardia-intestinalis-disturb-host-pathogen-response-in-vitro
#20
Ingrid Evans-Osses, Andres Mojoli, Marta Monguió-Tortajada, Antonio Marcilla, Veronica Aran, Maria Amorim, Jameel Inal, Francesc E Borràs, Marcel I Ramirez
Giardia intestinalis (G.I), is an anaerobic protozoan and the aetiological agent of giardiasis, a diarrhoea present worldwide and associated with poverty. G.I has a simple life cycle alternating between cyst and trophozoite. Cysts are transmitted orally to the stomach and transform to trophozoites in the intestine by a multifactorial process. Recently, microvesicles (MVs) have been found to be released from a wide range of eukaryotic cells. We have observed a release of MVs during the life cycle of G.I., identifying MVs from active trophozoites and from trophozoites differentiating to the cyst form...
January 22, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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