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Cardiac perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098197/dantrolene-versus-amiodarone-for-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-randomized-double-blinded-experimental-study
#1
Thomas Wiesmann, Dennik Freitag, Wolfgang Dersch, Daphne Eschbach, Marc Irqsusi, Thorsten Steinfeldt, Hinnerk Wulf, Carsten Feldmann
Dantrolene was introduced for treatment of malignant hyperthermia. It also has antiarrhythmic properties and may thus be an alternative to amiodarone for the treatment of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Aim of this study was to compare the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with dantrolene and amiodarone in a pig model of cardiac arrest. VF was induced in anesthetized pigs. After 8 min of untreated VF, chest compressions and ventilation were started and one of the drugs (amiodarone 5 mg kg(-1), dantrolene 2...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093803/novel-ecg-synchronized-pulsatile-ecls-system-with-various-heart-rates-and-cardiac-arrhythmias-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Shigang Wang, Shannon B Spencer, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study is to evaluate electrocardiography (ECG)-synchronized pulsatile flow under varying heart rates and different atrial and ventricular arrhythmias in a simulated extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The ECLS circuit consisted of an i-cor diagonal pump and console, an iLA membrane ventilator, and an 18 Fr arterial cannula. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 35%). An ECG simulator was used to trigger pulsatile flow and to generate selected cardiac rhythms...
January 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091969/quality-of-life-as-predictor-for-the-development-of-cardiac-ischemia-in-high-risk-asymptomatic-diabetic-patients
#3
Philip Haaf, Myriam Ritter, Leticia Grize, Matthias E Pfisterer, Michael J Zellweger
BACKGROUND: Ischemia induced by psychological stress and depression is a common phenomenon in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated the quality of life (QoL) of diabetic patients screened for CAD and assessed the prognostic value of mental and physical QoL scores to predict the development of new cardiac ischemia. METHODS: Prospective multicentre outcome study. The study comprised 400 asymptomatic diabetic patients without history or symptoms of CAD...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091727/intrinsic-cardiac-ganglia-and-acetylcholine-are-important-in-the-mechanism-of-ischaemic-preconditioning
#4
J M J Pickard, N Burke, S M Davidson, D M Yellon
This study aimed to investigate the role of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system in the mechanism of classical myocardial ischaemic preconditioning (IPC). Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 35-min regional ischaemia and 60-min reperfusion. IPC was induced as three cycles of 5-min global ischaemia-reperfusion, and provided significant reduction in infarct size (IS/AAR = 14 ± 2% vs control IS/AAR = 48 ± 3%, p < 0.05). Treatment with the ganglionic antagonist, hexamethonium (50 μM), blocked IPC protection (IS/AAR = 37 ± 7%, p < 0...
March 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087819/electrophysiologic-effects-of-the-ik1-inhibitor-pa-6-are-modulated-by-extracellular-potassium-in-isolated-guinea-pig-hearts
#5
Gregory S Hoeker, Mark A Skarsfeldt, Thomas Jespersen, Steven Poelzing
The pentamidine analog PA-6 was developed as a specific inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) antagonist, because established inhibitors either lack specificity or have side effects that prohibit their use in vivo. We previously demonstrated that BaCl2, an established IK1 inhibitor, could prolong action potential duration (APD) and increase cardiac conduction velocity (CV). However, few studies have addressed whether targeted IK1 inhibition similarly affects ventricular electrophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PA-6 on cardiac repolarization and conduction in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087358/vascular-calcification-abrogates-the-nicorandil-mediated-cardio-protection-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-rat-heart
#6
Sriram Ravindran, Jeyashri Murali, Sunil Kumar Amirthalingam, Senthilkumar Gopalakrishnan, Gino A Kurian
The present study was aimed to determine the efficacy of nicorandil in treating cardiac reperfusion injury with an underlying co-morbidity of vascular calcification (VC). Adenine diet was used to induce VC in Wistar rat and the heart was isolated to induce global ischemia reperfusion (IR) by Langendorff method, with and without the nicorandil (7.5mg/kg) pre-treatment and compared with those fed on normal diet. The adenine-treated rats displayed abnormal ECG changes and altered mitochondrial integrity compared to a normal rat heart...
January 10, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081214/cold-pressor-stress-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-myocardial-flow-reserve-is-not-useful-for-detection-of-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-women-with-signs-and-symptoms-of-ischemia-and-no-obstructive-cad
#7
Sofy Landes, Sherwin Dela Cruz, Janet Wei, Ahmed AlBadri, Chrisandra Shufelt, Puja Mehta, Louise E Thomson, Marcio A Diniz, Xiao Zhang, John W Petersen, R David Anderson, Carl J Pepine, Daniel S Berman, C Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial function testing using acetylcholine is not routinely available, while non-pharmacological cold pressor testing (CPT) is considered an endothelial stressor. Noninvasive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) can detect coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). We evaluated if CPT stress CMRI MPRI could detect invasive coronary endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Coronary reactivity testing was performed in 189 women with symptoms and signs of ischemic but no obstructive coronary artery disease as previously described plus CPT stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079228/attenuated-recovery-of-contractile-function-in-aging-hearts-following-global-ischemia-reperfusion-role-of-extracellular-hsp27-and-tlr4
#8
Lihua Ao, Yufeng Zhai, Chunhua Jin, Joseph C Cleveland, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
BACKGROUND: While cardiac functional recovery is attenuated in the elderly following cardiac surgery with obligatory global myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. We observed previously that human and mouse myocardium releases heat shock protein (HSP) 27 during global I/R. Extracellular HSP27 induces myocardial inflammatory response and plays a role in post-ischemic cardiac dysfunction in adult mouse hearts. OBJECTIVE: This study was to determine the role of extracellular HSP27 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the attenuated functional recovery in aging mouse hearts following global I/R...
December 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077904/regadenoson-in-myocardial-perfusion-study-first-institutional-experiences-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#9
Nermina Beslic, Renata Milardovic, Amera Sadija, Sejla Ceric, Zeljka Raic
INTRODUCTION: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used in the evaluation of known and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Imaging of heart in stress and rest enables the comparison of myocardial uptake of radiotracer in proportion to the needs and coronary flow, which is used for detection of perfusion defects. Exercise stress and pharmacologic agents are used for the stressing purpose. Novel pharmacologic stressor regadenoson is A2A selective adenosine agonist, which selectively binds to the adenosine receptors in coronary arteries causing coronary dilatation...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077821/ascending-aortic-constriction-promotes-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-in-neonatal-rats
#10
Zhenhua Wang, Sebastian Schmull, Hui Zheng, Jianggui Shan, Rongjiang Zou, Song Xue
Adult heart suffering from increased workload will undergo myocardial hypertrophy, subsequent cardiomyocyte (CM) death, and eventually heart failure. However, the effect of increasing afterload on the neonatal heart remains unknown. We performed ascending aortic constriction (AAC) in neonatal rats 8-12 hours after birth (P0, P indicates postpartum). Seven days after surgery, in vivo heart function was evaluated using cardiac ultrasonography. Haematoxylineosin and Masson staining were used to assess CM diameter and collagen deposition...
January 11, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074817/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-refractory-cardiac-arrest
#11
REVIEW
Steven A Conrad, Peter T Rycus
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30-60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072755/strategies-for-an-expanded-use-of-kidneys-from-elderly-donors
#12
María José Pérez-Sáez, Nuria Montero, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Marta Crespo, Julio Pascual
The old-for-old allocation policy used for kidney transplantation (KT) has confirmed the survival benefit compared to remaining listed on dialysis. Shortage of standard donors has stimulated the development of strategies aimed to expand acceptance criteria, particularly of kidneys from elderly donors. We have systematically reviewed the literature on those different strategies. In addition to the review of outcomes of expanded criteria donor (ECD) or advanced age kidneys, we assessed the value of the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) policy, preimplantation biopsy, dual KT, machine perfusion and special immunosuppressive protocols...
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071786/functional-and-cardioprotective-effects-of-simultaneous-and-individual-activation-of-protein-kinase-a-and-epac
#13
Igor Khaliulin, Mark Bond, Andrew F James, Zara Dyar, Raheleh Amini, Jason L Johnson, M-Saadeh Suleiman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myocardial cAMP elevation confers cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. cAMP activates two independent signalling pathways, PKA and Epac. This study investigated the cardiac effects of activating PKA and/or Epac and their involvement in cardioprotection against I/R. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Hearts extracted from male rats were used either for determination of PKA and PKC activation or perfused in the Langendorff mode for either cardiomyocytes isolation or used to monitor functional activity at basal levels and after 30 min global ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068947/urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-the-evaluation-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-and-aki-in-very-preterm-neonates-a-cohort-study
#14
Anna Sellmer, Bodil H Bech, Jesper V Bjerre, Michael R Schmidt, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Gitte Esberg, Søren Rittig, Tine B Henriksen
BACKGROUND: A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is frequently found in very preterm neonates and is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A shunt across a PDA can result in an unfavorable distribution of the cardiac output and may in turn result in poor renal perfusion. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (U-NGAL) is a marker of renal ischemia and may add to the evaluation of PDA. Our primary aim was to investigate if U-NGAL is associated with PDA in very preterm neonates...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065673/spectral-analysis-of-reflex-cutaneous-vasodilatation-during-passive-heat-stress
#15
Matthew M Mallette, Gary J Hodges, Gregory W McGarr, David A Gabriel, Stephen S Cheung
Previous work has demonstrated that spectral analysis is a useful tool to non-invasively ascertain the mechanisms of control of the cutaneous circulation. The majority of work using spectral analysis has focused on local control mechanisms, with none examining reflex control. Skin blood flow was analysed using spectral analysis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm of 7 males and 7 females during passive heat stress, with mean forearm and local temperature at the site of measurement maintained at thermoneutral (33°C) to minimize the effect of local control mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065672/monitoring-microvascular-perfusion-variations-with-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-using-a-view-based-temporal-template-method
#16
Mohammad Zaheer Ansari, Eun-Jeung Kang, Mioara D Manole, Jens P Dreier, Anne Humeau-Heurtier
PURPOSE: Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) continues to gain an increased interest in clinical and research studies to monitor microvascular perfusion. Due to its high spatial and temporal resolutions, LSCI may lead to a large amount of data. The analysis of such data, as well as the determination of the regions where the perfusion varies, can become a lengthy and tedious task. We propose here to analyze if a view-based temporal template method, the motion history image (MHI) algorithm, may be of use in detecting the perfusion variations locations...
January 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063261/isolated-heart-models-for-studying-cardiac-electrophysiology-a-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#17
Jie Ming Yeo, Vivian Tse, Judy Kung, Hiu Yu Lin, Yee Ting Lee, Joseph Kwan, Bryan P Yan, Gary Tse
Experimental models used in cardiovascular research range from cellular to whole heart preparations. Isolated whole hearts show higher levels of structural and functional integration than lower level models such as tissues or cellular fragments. Cardiovascular diseases are multi-factorial problems that are dependent on highly organized structures rather than on molecular or cellular components alone. This article first provides a general introduction on the animal models of cardiovascular diseases. It is followed by a detailed overview and a historical perspective of the different isolated heart systems with a particular focus on the Langendorff perfusion method for the study of cardiac arrhythmias...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060771/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-comparison-of-a-tailored-magnetic-particle-imaging-blood-pool-tracer-with-resovist
#18
Michael Gerhard Kaul, Tobias Mummert, Caroline Jung, Johannes Salamon, Amit Khandhar, R Matthew Ferguson, Scott Kemp, Harald Ittrich, Kannan Krishnan, Gerhard Adam, Tobias Knopp
Optimizing tracers for individual imaging techniques is an active field of research. The purpose of this study was to perform in vitro and in vivo magnetic particle imaging (MPI) measurements using a new monodisperse and size-optimized tracer, LS-008, and to compare it with the performance of Resovist, the standard MPI tracer. In vitro measurements were performed in concerns of concentration and amount of tracer in a phantom. In vivo studies were carried out in healthy FVB mice. The first group (n=3) received 60µL LS-008 (87mM) and the second (n=3) diluted Resovist of the same concentration and volume...
January 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060289/high-resolution-optical-mapping-of-the-mouse-sino-atrial-node
#19
Di Lang, Alexey V Glukhov
Sino-atrial node (SAN) dysfunctions and associated complications constitute important causes of morbidity in patients with cardiac diseases. The development of novel pharmacological therapies to cure these patients relies on the thorough understanding of both normal physiology and pathophysiology of the SAN. Among the studies of cardiac pacemaking, the mouse SAN is widely used due to its feasibility for modifications in the expression of different genes that encode SAN ion channels or calcium handling proteins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058674/quantitative-myocardial-blood-flow-imaging-with-integrated-time-of-flight-pet-mr
#20
Tanja Kero, Jonny Nordström, Hendrik J Harms, Jens Sörensen, Håkan Ahlström, Mark Lubberink
BACKGROUND: The use of integrated PET-MR offers new opportunities for comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function. However, little is known on the quantitative accuracy of cardiac PET imaging with integrated time-of-flight PET-MR. The aim of the present work was to validate the GE Signa PET-MR scanner for quantitative cardiac PET perfusion imaging. Eleven patients (nine male; mean age 59 years; range 46-74 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent (15)O-water PET scans at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia on a GE Discovery ST PET-CT and a GE Signa PET-MR scanner...
December 2017: EJNMMI Physics
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