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Cardiac perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#1
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550903/hemodynamic-effects-of-the-abdominal-aortic-and-junctional-tourniquet-in-a-hemorrhagic-swine-model
#2
Jason M Rall, James D Ross, Michael S Clemens, Jennifer M Cox, Theresea A Buckley, Jonathan J Morrison
BACKGROUND: Torso hemorrhage constitutes a leading cause of battlefield mortality. The Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet (AAJT) uses a pneumatic bladder to compress the aorta reducing pelvic and lower extremity perfusion; however, concern exists over the risk of caval compression exacerbating hypotension after application. METHODS: Male swine (70-90 kg) were randomized into four groups of 10: presence or absence of hemorrhage and AAJT placement. After a 40% hemorrhage, a 15-min period of hypovolemia was observed before the AAJT application...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550160/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-exacerbates-chronic-cardiac-dysfunction
#3
Takuma Tsuda, Mikito Takefuji, Nina Wettschureck, Kazuhiko Kotani, Ryota Morimoto, Takahiro Okumura, Harmandeep Kaur, Shunsuke Eguchi, Teruhiro Sakaguchi, Sohta Ishihama, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Kazumasa Unno, Kunihiro Matsushita, Shizukiyo Ishikawa, Stefan Offermanns, Toyoaki Murohara
Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to effectively pump blood and maintain tissue perfusion. Despite numerous therapeutic advancements over previous decades, the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure remains poor, emphasizing the need to identify additional pathophysiological factors. Here, we show that corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (Crhr2) is a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and continuous infusion of the Crhr2 agonist, urocortin 2 (Ucn2), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548693/hemodynamic-impact-of-the-c-pulse-cardiac-support-device-a-one-dimensional-arterial-model-study
#4
Daimé Campos Arias, Francisco Londono, Tania Rodríguez Moliner, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Nikos Stergiopulos, Patrick Segers
The C-Pulse is a novel extra-aortic counter-pulsation device to unload the heart in patients with heart failure. Its impact on overall hemodynamics, however, is not fully understood. In this study, the function of the C-Pulse heart assist system is implemented in a one-dimensional (1-D) model of the arterial tree, and central and peripheral pressure and flow waveforms with the C-Pulse turned on and off were simulated. The results were studied using wave intensity analysis and compared with in vivo data measured non-invasively in three patients with heart failure and with invasive data measured in a large animal (pig)...
May 26, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547666/effects-of-caffeine-intake-prior-to-stress-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-perfusion-imaging-on-regadenoson-versus-adenosine-induced-hyperemia-as-measured-by-t1-mapping
#5
R van Dijk, D Kuijpers, T A M Kaandorp, P R M van Dijkman, R Vliegenthart, P van der Harst, M Oudkerk
The antagonistic effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors are a possible cause of false-negative stress perfusion imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of coffee intake <4 h prior to stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in regadenoson- versus adenosine-induced hyperemia as measured with T1-mapping. 98 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease referred for either adenosine or regadenoson perfusion CMR were included in this analysis. Twenty-four patients reported coffee consumption <4 h before CMR (15 patients with adenosine, and 9 patients with regadenoson); 74 patients reported no coffee intake (50 patients with adenosine, and 24 patients with regadenoson)...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546762/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-clinical-implications-in-the-evaluation-of-connective-tissue-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Sophie Mavrogeni, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Genovefa Kolovou
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is a recently developed noninvasive, nonradiating, operator-independent technique that has been successfully used for the evaluation of congenital heart disease, valvular and pericardial diseases, iron overload, cardiomyopathies, great and coronary vessel diseases, cardiac inflammation, stress-rest myocardial perfusion, and fibrosis. Rheumatoid arthritis and other spondyloarthropathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory myopathies, mixed connective tissue diseases (CTDs), systemic sclerosis, vasculitis, and sarcoidosis are among CTDs with serious cardiovascular involvement; this is due to multiple causative factors such as myopericarditis, micro/macrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and finally heart failure...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545351/assessing-coronary-blood-flow-physiology-in-the-cardiac-catheterisation-laboratory
#7
Sethumadhavan Vijayan, David S Barmby, Ian R Pearson, Andrew G Davies, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Mohan Sivananthan
Contemporary management of coronary disease focuses on the treatment of stenoses in the major epicardial vessels. However, myocardial blood flow is known to be contingent on a range of factors in addition to the patency of the epicardial vessels. These include anatomical and physiological factors such as the extent of myocardium supplied by the vessel, systemic blood pressure, the natural variation in vascular tone in response to physiological needs which allows for coronary autoregulation and pathological factors such as the presence of downstream obstruction to flow due to disease of the small coronary vessels or myocardium...
May 24, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543266/evaluation-of-pre-reconstruction-interpolation-methods-for-iterative-reconstruction-of-radial-k-space-data
#8
Ye Tian, K C Erb, Ganesh Adluru, Devavrat Likhite, Apoorva Pedgaonkar, Michael Blatt, Srikant Kamesh Iyer, John Roberts, Edward DiBella
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of three different pre-reconstruction interpolation methods to convert non-Cartesian k-space data to Cartesian samples such that iterative reconstructions can be performed more simply and more rapidly. METHODS: Phantom as well as cardiac perfusion radial datasets were reconstructed by four different methods. Three of the methods used pre-reconstruction interpolation once followed by a fast Fourier transform (FFT) at each iteration. The methods were: bilinear interpolation of nearest-neighbor points (BINN), 3-point interpolation, and a multi-coil interpolator called GRAPPA Operator Gridding (GROG)...
May 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541158/noninvasive-optical-monitoring-of-critical-closing-pressure-and-arteriole-compliance-in-human-subjects
#9
Wesley B Baker, Ashwin B Parthasarathy, Kimberly P Gannon, Venkaiah C Kavuri, David R Busch, Kenneth Abramson, Lian He, Rickson C Mesquita, Michael T Mullen, John A Detre, Joel H Greenberg, Daniel J Licht, Ramani Balu, W Andrew Kofke, Arjun G Yodh
The critical closing pressure ( CrCP) of the cerebral circulation depends on both tissue intracranial pressure and vasomotor tone. CrCP defines the arterial blood pressure ( ABP) at which cerebral blood flow approaches zero, and their difference ( ABP -  CrCP) is an accurate estimate of cerebral perfusion pressure. Here we demonstrate a novel non-invasive technique for continuous monitoring of CrCP at the bedside. The methodology combines optical diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of pulsatile cerebral blood flow in arterioles with concurrent ABP data during the cardiac cycle...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540215/myocardial-flow-reserve-mfr-with-positron-emission-tomography-pet-computed-tomography-ct-clinical-impact-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#10
REVIEW
Maria Cecilia Ziadi
In recent years, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has emerged as a robust tool for the diagnosis, risk stratification and management of patients with known or established coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac PET/CT imaging affords key advantages compared to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) that encompass: (I) improved diagnostic accuracy; (II) decreased radiation exposure due to the utilization of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, and importantly; (III) the ability to quantify noninvasively myocardial blood flow (MBF) in absolute terms, that is in ml per minute per gram of tissue...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540212/infarct-characterization-using-ct
#11
REVIEW
Ludovico La Grutta, Patrizia Toia, Erica Maffei, Filippo Cademartiri, Roberto Lagalla, Massimo Midiri
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The incidence is not expected to diminish, despite better prevention, diagnosis and treatment, because of the ageing population in industrialized countries and unhealthy lifestyles in developing countries. Nowadays it is highly requested an imaging tool able to evaluate MI and viability. Technology improvements determined an expansion of clinical indications from coronary plaque evaluation to functional applications (perfusion, ischemia and viability after MI) integrating additional phases and information in the mainstream examination...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540211/delayed-enhancement-cardiac-computed-tomography-for-the-assessment-of-myocardial-infarction-from-bench-to-bedside
#12
REVIEW
Gaston A Rodriguez-Granillo
A large number of studies support the increasingly relevant prognostic value of the presence and extent of delayed enhancement (DE), a surrogate marker of fibrosis, in diverse etiologies. Gadolinium and iodinated based contrast agents share similar kinetics, thus leading to comparable myocardial characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac computed tomography (CT) at both first-pass perfusion and DE imaging. We review the available evidence of DE imaging for the assessment of myocardial infarction (MI) using cardiac CT (CTDE), from animal to clinical studies, and from 16-slice CT to dual-energy CT systems (DECT)...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540208/myocardial-ct-perfusion-imaging-for-ischemia-detection
#13
REVIEW
Patricia Carrascosa, Carlos Capunay
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) plays an important role in many specific scenarios such as in symptomatic patients with intermediate pretest of coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as in the triage of patients with acute chest pain with TIMI risk ≤2. However, it cannot detect the presence of associated ischemia, which is critical for clinical decision making among patients with moderate to severe stenosis. Although functional information can be obtained with different non-invasive tools, cardiac CT is the unique modality that can perform a comprehensive evaluation of coronary anatomy plus the functional significance of lesions...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537039/investigation-of-dose-reduction-in-cardiac-perfusion-spect-via-optimization-and-choice-of-the-image-reconstruction-strategy
#14
Albert Juan Ramon, Yongyi Yang, P Hendrik Pretorius, Piotr J Slomka, Karen L Johnson, Michael A King, Miles N Wernick
BACKGROUND: We investigated the extent to which the administered dose (activity) level can be reduced without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy for three reconstruction strategies for SPECT-myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). METHODS: We optimized the parameters of the three reconstruction strategies for perfusion-defect detection over a range of simulated administered dose levels using a set of hybrid studies (derived from 190 subjects) consisting of clinical SPECT-MPI data modified to contain realistic simulated lesions...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536944/fluid-responsiveness-predicted-by-transcutaneous-partial-pressure-of-oxygen-in-patients-with-circulatory-failure-a-prospective-study
#15
Jingyuan Xu, Xiao Peng, Chun Pan, Shixia Cai, Xiwen Zhang, Ming Xue, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Significant effort has been devoted to defining parameters for predicting fluid responsiveness. Our goal was to study the feasibility of predicting fluid responsiveness by transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PtcO2) in the critically ill patients. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Shock patients who presented with at least one clinical sign of inadequate tissue perfusion, defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or a decrease >40 mmHg in previously hypertensive patients or the need for vasopressive drugs; urine output <0...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536472/quantifying-the-area-at-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-in-vivo-using-arterial-spin-labeling-cardiac-magnetic-resonance
#16
Rachel K Dongworth, Adrienne E Campbell-Washburn, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Heerajnarain Bulluck, Thomas Roberts, Anthony N Price, Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Roger J Ordidge, David L Thomas, Derek M Yellon, Mark F Lythgoe, Derek J Hausenloy
T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (T2-CMR) of myocardial edema can quantify the area-at-risk (AAR) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and has been used to assess myocardial salvage by new cardioprotective therapies. However, some of these therapies may reduce edema, leading to an underestimation of the AAR by T2-CMR. Here, we investigated arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion CMR as a novel approach to quantify the AAR following AMI. Adult B6sv129-mice were subjected to in vivo left coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes followed by 72 hours reperfusion...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528579/phosphodiesterase-type-5-inhibition-may-reduce-diastolic-function-in-women-with-ischemia-but-no-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Michael D Nelson, Puja K Mehta, Janet Wei, Behzad Sharif, Louise E J Thomson, Daniel Berman, Debiao Li, C Noel Bairey Merz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, is prevalent in women, and associated with increased risk for major cardiovascular events. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is prevalent in these patients, and associated with impaired diastolic function. Despite our general understanding, however, optimal treatment of this cohort remains elusive. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, we performed an open-label treatment trial to assess whether phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition improves coronary microvascular perfusion and diastolic function in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia but no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526706/cardiac-hyporesponsiveness-in-severe-sepsis-is-associated-with-nitric-oxide-dependent-activation-of-g-protein-receptor-kinase
#18
Daniela Dal-Secco, Silvia DalBó, Natalia E S Lautherbach, Fábio N Gava, Mara Rubia Nunes Celes, Patricia Oliveira Benedet, Adriana H Souza, Juliana Akinaga, Vanessa Lima, Katiussia P Silva, Luiz Ricardo A Kiguti, Marcos A Rossi, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, André Sampaio Pupo, Fernando Queiroz Cunha, Jamil Assreuy
G protein-coupled receptor kinase isoform 2 (GRK2) has a critical role in physiological and pharmacological responses to endogenous and exogenous substances. Sepsis causes an important cardiovascular dysfunction in which nitric oxide (NO) has a relevant role. The present study aimed to assess the putative effect of inducible NO synthase (NOS-2)-derived NO on the activity of GRK2 in the context of septic cardiac dysfunction. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to severe septic injury by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526086/comparison-of-fluid-balance-and-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-effects-of-sodium-lactate-versus-sodium-bicarbonate-versus-0-9-nacl-in-porcine-endotoxic-shock-a-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#19
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Anne-Frédérique Dessein, Joseph Vamecq, Jean-Claude Vienne, Dries Dobbelaere, Karine Mention, Claire Douillard, Patrice Maboudou, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercé Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Julien Poissy, Daniel Mathieu, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate has been shown to improve hemodynamics and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to confirm a beneficial effect on fluid balance with sodium lactate infusion and to specify whether the advantage of lactate is related to a negative chloride balance, its particular metabolism, or simply its energy load. METHODS: This was an interventional, randomized, open-label, controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "large white" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin...
May 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526033/effects-of-exenatide-on-cardiac-function-perfusion-and-energetics-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-cardiomyopathy-a-randomized-controlled-trial-against-insulin-glargine
#20
Weena J Y Chen, Michaela Diamant, Karin de Boer, Hendrik J Harms, Lourens F H J Robbers, Albert C van Rossum, Mark H H Kramer, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Paul Knaapen
BACKGROUND: Multiple bloodglucose-lowering agents have been linked to cardiovascular events. Preliminary studies showed improvement in left ventricular (LV) function during glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist administration. Underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and oxidative metabolism in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with LV systolic dysfunction as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, effects of 26-weeks of exenatide versus insulin glargine administration on cardiac function, perfusion and oxidative metabolism in T2DM patients with LV dysfunction were explored...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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