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Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito, Glenn R Cunningham, Frances J Hayes, Howard N Hodis, Alvin M Matsumoto, Peter J Snyder, Ronald S Swerdloff, Frederick C Wu, Maria A Yialamas
Objective: To update the "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Androgen Deficiency Syndromes" guideline published in 2010. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of 10 medical content experts and a clinical practice guideline methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nikolaos Dagres, Tze-Fan Chao, Guilherme Fenelon, Luis Aguinaga, Daniel Benhayon, Emelia J Benjamin, T Jared Bunch, Lin Yee Chen, Shih-Ann Chen, Francisco Darrieux, Angelo de Paola, Laurent Fauchier, Andreas Goette, Jonathan Kalman, Lalit Kalra, Young-Hoon Kim, Deirdre A Lane, Gregory Y H Lip, Steven A Lubitz, Manlio F Márquez, Tatjana Potpara, Domingo Luis Pozzer, Jeremy N Ruskin, Irina Savelieva, Wee Siong Teo, Hung-Fat Tse, Atul Verma, Shu Zhang, Mina K Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jamie McCann, Tae-Soo Jang, Jiri Macas, Gerald M Schneeweiss, Nicholas J Matzke, Petr Novák, Tod F Stuessy, José L Villaseñor, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Allopolyploidy has played an important role in the evolution of the flowering plants. Genome mergers are often accompanied by significant and rapid alterations of genome size and structure via chromosomal rearrangements and altered dynamics of tandem and dispersed repetitive DNA families. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and bioinformatic methods allow for a comprehensive investigation of the repetitive component of plant genomes. Interpretation of evolutionary dynamics following allopolyploidization requires both the knowledge of parentage and the age of origin of an allopolyploid...
March 19, 2018: Systematic Biology
Emily O Wakefield, Ashley Pantaleao, Jill M Popp, Lourdes P Dale, James P Santanelli, Mark D Litt, William T Zempsky
Objectives: Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominately affects Black Americans. This is the first study of its kind to describe the racial bias experiences of youth with SCD and their reactions to these experiences. Methods: Participants were 20 youth with SCD (ages 13-21 years) who were asked to describe any racial bias events they experienced, as recorded on the Perception of Racism in Children and Youth measure (PRaCY). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by two independent raters using a conventional content analysis approach...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Erika L Rangel, Douglas S Smink, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Gifty Kwakye, Marguerite Changala, Adil H Haider, Gerard M Doherty
Importance: Although family priorities influence specialty selection and resident attrition, few studies describe resident perspectives on pregnancy during surgical training. Objective: To directly assess the resident experience of childbearing during training. Design, Setting, and Participants: A self-administered 74-question survey was electronically distributed in January 2017 to members of the Association of Women Surgeons, to members of the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv, and through targeted social media platforms...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Hannah Brooks, Grant E Haines, M Carly Lin, S Laurie Sanderson
Vortical cross-step filtration in suspension-feeding fish has been reported recently as a novel mechanism, distinct from other biological and industrial filtration processes. Although crossflow passing over backward-facing steps generates vortices that can suspend, concentrate, and transport particles, the morphological factors affecting this vortical flow have not been identified previously. In our 3D-printed models of the oral cavity for ram suspension-feeding fish, the angle of the backward-facing step with respect to the model's dorsal midline affected vortex parameters significantly, including rotational, tangential, and axial speed...
2018: PloS One
Peter Ueda, Thomas Wai-Chun Lung, Yuan Lu, Joshua A Salomon, Kazem Rahimi, Philip Clarke, Goodarz Danaei
BACKGROUND: The updated national guidelines for cardiovascular risk assessment and lipid modification in the UK and US expand the indications for statin therapy in primary prevention to adults with moderate risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but many adults at high CVD risk remain untreated in both countries. We set out to identify treatment gaps in English and American adults at moderate and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to estimate the number of CVD events that would be prevented from expanding statin therapy to those who are currently untreated...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas Z Muller, Peter Hans Matthews, Virginia Wiltshire-Gordon
This paper calculates the distribution of an adjusted measure of income that deducts damages due to exposure to air pollution from reported market income in the United States from 2011 to 2014. The Gini coefficient for this measure of adjusted income is 0.682 in 2011, as compared to 0.482 for market income. By 2014, we estimate that the Gini for adjusted income fell to 0.646, while the market income Gini did not appreciably change. The inclusion of air pollution damage acts like a regressive tax: with air pollution, the bottom 20% of households lose roughly 10% of the share of income, while the top 20% of households gain 10%...
2018: PloS One
Joanna X Wu, Chad B Wilsey, Lotem Taylor, Gregor W Schuurman
Birds in U.S. national parks find strong protection from many longstanding and pervasive threats, but remain highly exposed to effects of ongoing climate change. To understand how climate change is likely to alter bird communities in parks, we used species distribution models relating North American Breeding Bird Survey (summer) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (winter) observations to climate data from the early 2000s and projected to 2041-2070 (hereafter, mid-century) under high and low greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP8...
2018: PloS One
Maria Ángeles Pérez-Albacete Martínez, Carlos Pérez-Albacete Martínez, José Eduardo Maté Sánchez De Val, María Luisa Ramos Oltra, Manuel Fernández Domínguez, Jose Luis Calvo Guirado
The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration and crestal bone height in implants with a triangular cervical design in comparison with a standard rounded cervical design. The control group consisted of 24 implants with a standard cervical design, and the test group of 24 implants with a triangular cervical design. The implants were inserted in healed bone in six American Foxhounds. Crestal bone height and tissue thickness in the cervical portion were measured after 12 weeks healing. Data analysis found mean crestal bone loss of: 0...
March 21, 2018: Materials
Alex Antonio Florindo, Ligia Vizeu Barrozo, Gavin Turrell, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza Barbosa, William Cabral-Miranda, Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar, Moisés Goldbaum
Cities that support cycling for transportation reap many public health benefits. However, the prevalence of this mode of transportation is low in Latin American countries and the association with facilities such as bike paths and train/subway stations have not been clarified. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between bike paths, train/subway stations and cycling for transportation in adults from the city of Sao Paulo. We used data from the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). Cycling for transportation was evaluated by a questionnaire and bike paths and train/subway stations were geocoded using the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses in 1500-m buffers...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kenneth E Thorpe, Peter Joski, Kenton J Johnston
Antibiotic-resistant infections are a global health care concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 23,000 Americans with these infections die each year. Rising infection rates add to the costs of health care and compromise the quality of medical and surgical procedures provided. Little is known about the national health care costs attributable to treating the infections. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimated the incremental health care costs of treating a resistant infection as well as the total national costs of treating such infections...
March 21, 2018: Health Affairs
Tania M Jenkins
The United States relies on international and osteopathic medical graduates ("non-USMDs") to fill one third of residency positions because of a shortage of American MD graduates ("USMDs"). Non-USMDs are often informally excluded from top residency positions, while USMDs tend to fill the most prestigious residencies. Little is known, however, about whether the training in these different settings is comparable or how it impacts patients. Drawing on 23 months of ethnographic fieldwork and 123 interviews, I compare training at two internal medicine programs: a community hospital staffing 90% non-USMDs and a university hospital staffing 99% USMDs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Research
Terese T Horlocker, Erik Vandermeuelen, Sandra L Kopp, Wiebke Gogarten, Lisa R Leffert, Honorio T Benzon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Maria Jose Escalante, Jose Maria Ceriani-Cernadas, Ivonne D'Apremont, Aldo Bancalari, Veronica Webb, Larisa Genes, Luis Villarroel, Elizabeth Munoz, Jose L Tapia
OBJECTIVE: The main aim is to determine the incidence and associated factors of late onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (500-1500 g), from the NEOCOSUR Network during years 2001-2013. Secondary objectives are to describe the microbiology of the first and second episode of LOS and to study the association between catheter dwell time and LOS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Demographic information and outcome data are prospectively and routinely collected across the Network using predefined diagnostic criteria and online data entry...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Arthur H Owora
Contradictory evidence exists on the role of Major depression disorder (MDD) as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, particularly regarding the effect of MDD presence versus pattern of illness. The objective of this study was to examine whether MDD status and pattern of illness differentially predict HIV disease progression. Retrospective cohort data from a six-year follow-up of HIV patients at an outpatient clinic were analyzed. MDD trajectories were identified by latent class growth analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to examine their relation to low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μL) during follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ali I Musani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Vinay Prabhu, Douglas Kondziolka, Travis C Hill, Carolina G Benjamin, Matthew S Shinseki, John G Golfinos, J Thomas Roland, Girish M Fatterpekar
BACKGROUND: Hearing preservation is a goal for many patients with vestibular schwannoma. We examined pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and posttreatment hearing outcome after stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS: From 2004 to 2014, a cohort of 125 consecutive patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) treated via stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) were retrospectively reviewed. MRIs containing three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state or equivalent within 1 year before treatment were classified by two radiologists for pretreatment characteristics...
March 20, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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