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Muscle energy technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#1
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758956/prediction-of-human-gait-trajectories-during-the-ssp-using-a-neuromusculoskeletal-modeling-a-challenge-for-parametric-optimization
#2
Mohammadali Rahmati Seyed, Rostami Mostafa, Beigzadeh Borhan
The parametric optimization techniques have been widely employed to predict human gait trajectories; however, their applications to reveal the other aspects of gait are questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not the gait prediction model is able to justify the movement trajectories for the higher average velocities. A planar, seven-segment model with sixteen muscle groups was used to represent human neuro-musculoskeletal dynamics. At first, the joint angles, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activations were predicted and validated for normal average velocity (1...
April 27, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752569/widespread-expression-of-perilipin-5-in-normal-human-tissues-and-in-diseases-is-restricted-to-distinct-lipid-droplet-subpopulations
#3
Merita Hashani, Hagen Roland Witzel, Lena Maria Pawella, Judith Lehmann-Koch, Jens Schumacher, Gunhild Mechtersheimer, Martina Schnölzer, Peter Schirmacher, Wilfried Roth, Beate Katharina Straub
Diseases associated with the accumulation of lipid droplets are increasing in western countries. Lipid droplet biogenesis, structure and degradation are regulated by proteins of the perilipin family. Perilipin 5 has been shown to regulate basal lipolysis in oxidative tissues. We examine perilipin 5 in normal human tissues and in diseases using protein biochemical and microscopic techniques. Perilipin 5 was constitutively located at small lipid droplets in skeletal myocytes, cardiomyocytes and brown adipocytes...
May 11, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739863/effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-ampk-modulation-on-the-regulation-of-whole-body-lipid-metabolism
#4
Milena Schonke, Julie Massart, Juleen R Zierath
Metabolic flexibility, the capacity to adapt to fuel availability for energy production, is crucial for maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis. An inability to adequately promote fatty acid utilization is associated with lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues and contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In vivo assays to quantify whole-body lipid oxidation in mouse models of insulin resistance are lacking. We describe a method for assessing whole-body fatty acid oxidation in vivo , as well as tissue-specific lipid uptake in conscious mice...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681709/mitochondrial-donation-a-boon-or-curse-for-the-treatment-of-incurable-mitochondrial-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Nishtha Saxena, Nancy Taneja, Prakriti Shome, Shalini Mani
Mitochondria are present in all human cells and vary in number from a few tens to many thousands. As they generate the majority of a cell's energy supply which power every part of our body, and hence, their number varies in different cells as per the energy requirement of the cell. Mitochondria have their own separate DNA, which carries total 13 genes. All of these 13 genes are involved in energy production. For normal functioning of cells, the mitochondria need to be healthy. Unhealthy mitochondria can cause severe medical disorders known as mitochondrial disease...
January 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652876/rehabilitation-of-sucking-and-swallowing-alterations-in-premature-newborn-at-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#6
Edda Aguilar-Vázquez, M Lucía Pérez-Padilla, M de Lourdes Martín-López, Adriana Abigail Romero-Hernández
Over the last 20 years, 640 premature newborns with alterations in suction-deglution have been taken care of in the neonatal intensive care unit at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, using techniques for patients with immaturity, and neurological, gastrointestinal, cardiologic and respiratory pathologies. This descriptive study includes the treatment employed mainly in premature newborns during this period. Suction, swallowing and breathing coordination are some of the most complex abilities that premature newborns face, due to their anatomofunctional immaturity and improper sensoriomotor integration for the high energy requirements they must meet...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628296/reduction-of-muscle-contractions-during-irreversible-electroporation-therapy-using-high-frequency-bursts-of-alternating-polarity-pulses-a-laboratory-investigation-in-an-ex-vivo-swine-model
#7
Michael B Sano, Richard E Fan, Kai Cheng, Yamil Saenz, Geoffrey A Sonn, Gloria L Hwang, Lei Xing
PURPOSE: To compare the intensity of muscle contractions in irreversible electroporation (IRE) treatments when traditional IRE and high-frequency IRE (H-FIRE) waveforms are used in combination with a single applicator and distal grounding pad (A+GP) configuration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ex vivo in situ porcine model was used to compare muscle contractions induced by traditional monopolar IRE waveforms vs high-frequency bipolar IRE waveforms. Pulses with voltages between 200 and 5,000 V were investigated, and muscle contractions were recorded by using accelerometers placed on or near the applicators...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627608/effect-of-wheelchair-stroke-pattern-on-upper-extremity-muscle-fatigue
#8
Brittany Bickelhaupt, Sakiko Oyama, Jonathan Benfield, Keith Burau, Shuko Lee, Michelle Trbovich
BACKGROUND: Shoulder dysfunction is common in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) with an incidence of up to 63%1 . Dysfunction is a result of muscle imbalances, specifically denervated rotator cuff muscles that are repetitively used during manual wheelchair propulsion. OBJECTIVE: To determine which arm stroke technique, pump (P) or semicircular (SC), is most energy efficient for long periods of propulsion. DESIGN: A small randomized study with repeated-measures observations...
April 5, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610070/ultrafast-ultrasound-imaging-with-cascaded-dual-polarity-waves
#9
Yang Zhang, Yuexin Guo, Wei-Ning Lee
Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581385/advanced-body-composition-assessment-from-body-mass-index-to-body-composition-profiling
#10
Magnus Borga, Janne West, Jimmy D Bell, Nicholas C Harvey, Thobias Romu, Steven B Heymsfield, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard
This paper gives a brief overview of common non-invasive techniques for body composition analysis and a more in-depth review of a body composition assessment method based on fat-referenced quantitative MRI. Earlier published studies of this method are summarized, and a previously unpublished validation study, based on 4753 subjects from the UK Biobank imaging cohort, comparing the quantitative MRI method with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is presented. For whole-body measurements of adipose tissue (AT) or fat and lean tissue (LT), DXA and quantitative MRIs show excellent agreement with linear correlation of 0...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577779/a-review-in-gait-rehabilitation-devices-and-applied-control-techniques
#11
Silvia L Chaparro-Cárdenas, Alejandro A Lozano-Guzmán, Julian Andres Ramirez-Bautista, Antonio Hernández-Zavala
PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to analyse the different existing technologies for gait rehabilitation, focusing mainly in robotic devices. Those robots help the patient to recover a lost function due to neurological gait disorders, accidents or after injury. Besides, they facilitate the identification of normal and abnormal features by registering muscle activity providing the doctor important data where he can observe the evolution of the patient. METHOD: A deep literature review was realized using selected keywords considering not only the most common medical and engineering databases, but also other available sources that provide information on commercial and scientific gait rehabilitation devices...
March 25, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555834/multiplexed-optical-imaging-of-energy-substrates-reveals-that-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-activation
#12
REVIEW
Marcello Panagia, Howard H Chen, Dominique Croteau, Yin-Ching Iris Chen, Chongzhao Ran, Ivan Luptak, Lee Josephson, Wilson S Colucci, David E Sosnovik
BACKGROUND: Substrate utilization in tissues with high energetic requirements could play an important role in cardiometabolic disease. Current techniques to assess energetics are limited by high cost, low throughput, and the inability to resolve multiple readouts simultaneously. Consequently, we aimed to develop a multiplexed optical imaging platform to simultaneously assess energetics in multiple organs in a high throughput fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: The detection of 18F-Fluordeoxyglucose uptake via Cerenkov luminescence and free fatty acid uptake with a fluorescent C16 free fatty acid was tested...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553570/skeletal-muscle-neurovascular-coupling-oxidative-capacity-and-microvascular-function-with-one-stop-shop-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542838/anatomy-and-mechanical-properties-of-the-anal-sphincter-muscles-in-healthy-senior-volunteers
#14
T Brusa, D Abler, R Tutuian, C Gingert, J T Heverhagen, M Adamina, L E Brügger, P Büchler
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of age-related fecal incontinence is attributed to weakness or degeneration of the muscles composing the anal continence organ. However, the individual role of these muscles and their functional interplay remain poorly understood. METHODS: This study employs a novel technique based on the combination of MR imaging and FLIP measurements (MR-FLIP) to obtain anatomical and mechanical information simultaneously. Unlike previous methods used to assess the mechanics of the continence organ, MR-FLIP allows inter-individual comparisons and statistical analysis of the sphincter morpho-mechanical parameters...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541625/diagnostic-imaging-of-osteoporosis-and-sarcopenia-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Carmelo Messina, Gabriele Maffi, Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Luca Maria Sconfienza
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent two major health problems with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. The correlation between these diseases has been widely reported, leading to the development of the term "osteosarcopenia" to diagnose those patients suffering from both diseases. Several imaging methods for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis exist, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) being the most commonly used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Imaging technique other than DXA is represented by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541624/quantitative-imaging-techniques-for-the-assessment-of-osteoporosis-and-sarcopenia
#16
REVIEW
Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Alessandro Napoli, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
Bone and muscle are two deeply interconnected organs and a strong relationship between them exists in their development and maintenance. The peak of both bone and muscle mass is achieved in early adulthood, followed by a progressive decline after the age of 40. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries resulted in an increase of degenerative diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and are associated with a significant increase in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525407/skeletal-muscle-o-glcnac-transferase-is-important-for-muscle-energy-homeostasis-and-whole-body-insulin-sensitivity
#17
Hao Shi, Alexander Munk, Thomas S Nielsen, Morgan R Daughtry, Louise Larsson, Shize Li, Kasper F Høyer, Hannah W Geisler, Karolina Sulek, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Taylor Fisher, Marianne M Andersen, Zhengxing Shen, Ulrik K Hansen, Eric M England, Zhiyong Cheng, Kurt Højlund, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Xiaoyong Yang, Matthew W Hulver, Richard F Helm, Jonas T Treebak, David E Gerrard
OBJECTIVE: Given that cellular O-GlcNAcylation levels are thought to be real-time measures of cellular nutrient status and dysregulated O-GlcNAc signaling is associated with insulin resistance, we evaluated the role of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that mediates O-GlcNAcylation, in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We assessed O-GlcNAcylation levels in skeletal muscle from obese, type 2 diabetic people, and we characterized muscle-specific OGT knockout (mKO) mice in metabolic cages and measured energy expenditure and substrate utilization pattern using indirect calorimetry...
May 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493802/ultrasound-guided-serratus-anterior-plane-block-combined-with-the-two-incision-technique-for-subcutaneous-icd-implantation
#18
Andrea Droghetti, Erika Basso Ricci, Paolo Scimia, Fabiola Harizai, Massimiliano Marini
BACKGROUND: The standard technique for implanting a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) requires three incisions and the pocket of the device is created in the subcutaneous tissue of the left lateral thoracic wall. However, a two-incision technique may be adopted, in which the cranial parasternal region is avoided and the device is positioned more deeply, completely under the latissimus dorsi muscle. This can also be combined with ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block (US-SAPB) for intraoperative anesthesia and perioperative analgesia...
March 1, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486332/optimization-of-a-single-insertion-electrode-array-for-the-creation-of-clinically-relevant-ablations-using-high-frequency-irreversible-electroporation
#19
Michael B Sano, Matthew R DeWitt, Stephanie D Teeter, Lei Xing
High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) is an emerging ablation modality, delivering rapid bursts of bipolar microsecond-duration electrical pulses to non-thermally ablate tissue including tumors. With advantages over current electroporation techniques including mitigation of muscle stimulation and reduced susceptibility to heterogeneous tissue properties, H-FIRE may produce more uniform and predictable ablations and can potentially be delivered with a single applicator device. However, the resulting ablations tend to be smaller than those provided with equivalent energy monopolar pulse protocols...
April 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460451/muscles-and-fascial-elements-of-the-antebrachium-and-manus-of-the-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana-blumenbach-1797-starring-comparative-and-functional-considerations
#20
R M Nagel, G Forstenpointner, J T Soley, G E Weissengruber
The structure of the limbs of elephants is unusual among mammals. In African elephants (Loxodonta africana, Blumenbach 1797), the front limbs serve to support the greatest part of the body mass of the largest land animal. In this study, we present new and detailed anatomical data regarding muscular and specific fascial structures of the lower front limb which were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques. The muscles and tendons of the forearm (antebrachium) and hand (manus) are tightly surrounded by thick, highly elastic fascial layers which fuse with the lacertus (lac...
June 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
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