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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615330/the-visual-encoding-of-purely-proprioceptive-intermanual-tasks-is-due-to-the-need-of-transforming-joint-signals-not-to-their-inter-hemispheric-transfer
#1
Léo Arnoux, Sebastien Fromentin, Dario Farotto, Mathieu Beraneck, Joseph McIntyre, Michele Tagliabue
To perform goal-oriented hand movement humans combine multiple sensory signals (e.g. vision and proprioception) that can be encoded in various reference frames (body-centered and/or exo-centered). In a previous study we showed that when aligning a hand to a remembered target orientation the brain encodes both target and response in visual space when the target is sensed by one hand and the response is performed by the other, even though both are sensed only through proprioception. Here we ask whether such visual encoding is due i) to the necessity of transferring sensory information across the brain hemispheres or ii) to the necessity, due to the arms' anatomical mirror symmetry, of transforming the joint signals of one limb into the reference frame of the other...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605248/noncircular-chainrings-do-not-influence-maximum-cycling-power
#2
Chee-Hoi Leong, Steven J Elmer, James C Martin
Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across three chainring eccentricities (CON=1.0; LOWecc=1.13; HIGHecc=1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under three chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120rpm) under the same three chainring conditions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#3
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604542/outcome-of-dupuytren-contractures-after-collagenase-clostridium-histolyticum-injection-a-single-institution-experience
#4
Yin Kan Hwee, Daniel Park, Marisa Vinas, Christopher Litts, David Friedman
BACKGROUND: Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection is an alternative to surgery for patients with Dupuytren disease (DD) of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. The success of surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities for DD is reported to vary widely between 25% and 80% (J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:1439-1443; Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:44e-54e; J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:189-198; J Hand Surg Am. 2011:36:936-942; J Hand Surg Am...
June 9, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585902/negotiating-between-individual-and-joint-goals-in-ensemble-musical-performance
#5
Jennifer MacRitchie, Steffen A Herff, Andrea Procopio, Peter E Keller
Successful joint action requires negotiation, especially in the event of goal incongruence. This paper addresses goal incongruence in joint musical performance by manipulating the congruence of score instructions (congruent/incongruent) regarding tempo (speed) and dynamics (sound intensity) given to piano duos. The aim is to investigate how co-performers negotiate incongruent instructions for tempo and dynamics by balancing the prioritisation of individual goals versus the joint outcome, and how this negotiation is modulated by musical expertise and personality (locus of control)...
June 6, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579132/optimization-of-sagittal-and-coronal-planes-with-robotic-assisted-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Michael A Gaudiani, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Jayesh V Baviskar, Mrinal Sharma, Anil S Ranawat
BACKGROUND: One of the anatomic goals of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is optimizing in the coronal and sagittal plane. Accurate alignments of both planes have been correlated to functional outcome and range of motion. There is a paucity of evidence on the accuracy of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in balancing biplanar knee alignment - specifically sagittal plane alignment. Because robotic assisted UKA has an advantage of more accurately manipulating sagittal plane for optimal alignment and kinematics based on pre-operative and intraoperative CT planning we assessed the accuracy...
June 1, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577298/cx43-suppresses-evx1-expression-to-regulate-joint-initiation-in-the-regenerating-fin
#7
Gabrielle Dardis, Robert Tryon, Quynh Ton, Stephen L Johnson, M Kathryn Iovine
BACKGROUND: How joints are correctly positioned in the vertebrate skeleton remains poorly understood. From our studies on the regenerating fin, we have evidence that the gap junction protein Cx43 suppresses joint formation by suppressing the expression of the evx1 transcription factor. Joint morphogenesis proceeds through at least two discrete stages. First, cells that will produce the joint condense in a single row on the bone matrix ("initiation"). Second, these cells separate coincident with articulation of the bone matrix...
June 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575530/the-skeletons-in-our-closet-e-learning-tools-and-what-happens-when-one-side-does-not-fit-all
#8
Sonya E Van Nuland, Kem A Rogers
In the anatomical sciences, e-learning tools have become a critical component of teaching anatomy when physical space and cadaveric resources are limited. However, studies that use empirical evidence to compare their efficacy to visual-kinesthetic learning modalities are scarce. The study examined how a visual-kinesthetic experience, involving a physical skeleton, impacts learning when compared with virtual manipulation of a simple two-dimensional (2D) e-learning tool, A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. Students from The University of Western Ontario, Canada (n = 77) participated in a dual-task study to: (1) investigate if a dual-task paradigm is an effective tool for measuring cognitive load across these different learning modalities; and (2) to assess the impact of knowledge recall and spatial ability when using them...
June 2, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575413/comprehensive-protocol-of-traceability-during-ivf-the-result-of-a-multicentre-failure-mode-and-effect-analysis
#9
L Rienzi, F Bariani, M Dalla Zorza, E Albani, F Benini, S Chamayou, M G Minasi, L Parmegiani, L Restelli, G Vizziello, A Nanni Costa
STUDY QUESTION: Can traceability of gametes and embryos be ensured during IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of a simple and comprehensive traceability system that includes the most susceptible phases during the IVF process minimizes the risk of mismatches. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mismatches in IVF are very rare but unfortunately possible with dramatic consequences for both patients and health care professionals. Traceability is thus a fundamental aspect of the treatment...
May 31, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573971/relationship-between-increased-in-vivo-meniscal-loads-and-abnormal-tibiofemoral-surface-alignment-in-acl-deficient-sheep-is-varied
#10
Jillian E Beveridge, Mohammad Atarod, Bryan J Heard, Etienne E J O'Brien, Cyril B Frank, Nigel G Shrive
The aim of this study was to quantify how abnormal dynamic tibiofemoral surface alignment affects the load bearing function of menisci in vivo. Using a sheep model of ACL deficiency, we tested the hypothesis that increased in vivo meniscal loads correlate with greater tibiofemoral surface alignment abnormality. Stifle kinematics were recorded using a bone-mounted instrumented spatial linkage in four sheep before, and at four and twenty weeks (w) after ACL transection. A parallel robotic manipulator was used to quantify stifle kinetics by reproducing each animal׳s in vivo kinematics and measuring tissue loads during gait...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566402/recurrence-of-frozen-shoulder-after-manipulation-under-anaesthetic-mua-the-results-of-repeating-the-mua
#11
D A Woods, K Loganathan
AIMS: Manipulation under anaesthetic (MUA) is a recognised form of treatment for patients with a frozen shoulder. However, not all patients benefit. Some have persistent or recurrent symptoms. There are no clear recommendations in the literature on the optimal management of recurrent frozen shoulder after a MUA. We aimed to address this issue in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed a prospectively collected, single-surgeon, consecutive series of patients who underwent MUA for frozen shoulder between January 1999 and December 2015...
June 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562207/social-and-nonsocial-relational-reasoning-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#12
Lucía Magis-Weinberg, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Iroise Dumontheil
Reasoning during social interactions requires the individual manipulation of mental representations of one's own traits and those of other people as well as their joint consideration (relational integration). Research using nonsocial paradigms has linked relational integration to activity in the rostrolateral pFC. Here, we investigated whether social reasoning is supported by the same general system or whether it additionally relies on regions of the social brain network, such as the medial pFC. We further assessed the development of social reasoning...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559755/multimodal-chiropractic-care-for-pain-and-disability-in-a-patient-diagnosed-with-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-hypermobility-type-a-case-report
#13
Richard G Strunk
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical response to multimodal chiropractic treatment of a patient diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT), and chronic pain. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 22-year-old woman presented with severe chronic neck and low back pain, headaches, and bilateral hand pain and stiffness. In addition to these pain complaints, the patient had a family history of EDS, weekly or daily recurring joint dislocations, and upper and lower extremity joint hypermobility...
June 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559752/clinical-validation-of-pain-management-manipulative-therapy-for-knee-osteoarthritis-with-the-squeeze-hold-technique-a-case-series
#14
Masaaki Nakajima
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case series was to describe the short-term and long-term clinical effects of a manual technique for treating osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain. METHODS: This study measured of the immediate effect and long-term effect by using a case series of different groups of subjects. Knee OA and activity restriction in patients were evaluated by using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) Grading Scale and the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) index...
June 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559670/manual-therapy-and-eccentric-exercise-in-the-management-of-achilles-tendinopathy
#15
Dhinu J Jayaseelan, Michael Kecman, Daniel Alcorn, Josiah D Sault
Chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is an overuse condition seen among runners. Eccentric exercise can decrease pain and improve function for those with chronic degenerative tendon changes; however, some individuals have continued pain requiring additional intervention. While joint mobilization and manipulation has not been studied in the management in Achilles tendinopathy, other chronic tendon dysfunction, such as lateral epicondylalgia, has responded well to manual therapy (MT). Three runners were seen in physical therapy (PT) for chronic AT...
May 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559666/thrust-joint-manipulation-utilization-by-u-s-physical-therapists
#16
Emilio J Puentedura, Rebecca Slaughter, Sean Reilly, Erwin Ventura, Daniel Young
STUDY DESIGN: Online survey study. OBJECTIVE: To determine physical therapists' utilization of thrust joint manipulation (TJM) and their comfort level in using TJM between the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions of the spine. We hypothesized that physical therapists who use TJM would report regular use and comfort providing it to the thoracic and lumbar spines, but not so much for the cervical spine. BACKGROUND: Recent surveys of first professional physical therapy degree programs have found that TJM to the cervical spine is not taught to the same degree as to the thoracic and lumbar spines...
May 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559375/stable-and-dynamic-coding-for-working-memory-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Eelke Spaak, Kei Watanabe, Shintaro Funahashi, Mark G Stokes
Working memory (WM) provides the stability necessary for high-level cognition. Influential theories typically assume that WM depends on the persistence of stable neural representations, yet increasing evidence suggests that neural states are highly dynamic. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to explore the population dynamics in primate lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during three variants of the classic memory-guided saccade task (recorded in 4 animals). We observed the hallmark of dynamic population coding across key phases of a working memory task: sensory processing, memory encoding, and response execution...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558859/acute-memory-and-psychotomimetic-effects-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-both-joint-and-individually-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, J X Xia, N D C Shaban, H V Curran
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research. METHOD: The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannabis, placebo) × 2 (tobacco, placebo) crossover design...
May 31, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553421/irreducible-anterior-shoulder-dislocation-with-interposition-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-and-greater-tuberosity-fracture-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Konstantinos Pantazis, Andreas Panagopoulos, Irini Tatani, Basilis Daskalopoulos, Ilias Iliopoulos, Minos Tyllianakis
BACKGROUND: Failure of closed manipulative reduction of an acute anterior shoulder dislocation is seldom reported in the literature and is usually due to structural blocks such as soft tissue entrapment (biceps, subscapularis, labrum), bony fragments (glenoid, greater tuberosity) and severe head impaction (Hill-Sachs lesion). CASE REPORT: We present a case of an irreducible anterior shoulder dislocation in a 57-year-old male patient after a road-traffic accident...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549353/crowding-visual-awareness-and-their-respective-neural-loci
#20
Kilho Shin, Susana T L Chung, Bosco S Tjan
In peripheral vision, object identification can be impeded when a target object is flanked by other objects. This phenomenon of crowding has been attributed to basic processes associated with image encoding by the visual system, but the neural origin of crowding is not known. Determining whether crowding depends on subjective awareness of the flankers can provide information on the neural origin of crowding. However, recent studies that manipulated flanker awareness have yielded conflicting results. In the current study, we suppressed flanker awareness with two methods: interocular suppression (IOS) and adaptation-induced blindness (AIB)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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