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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776820/mechanical-interaction-between-neighboring-muscles-in-human-upper-limb-evidence-for-epimuscular-myofascial-force-transmission-in-humans
#2
Yasuhide Yoshitake, Daiki Uchida, Kosuke Hirata, Dean L Mayfield, Hiroaki Kanehisa
To confirm the existence of epimuscular myofascial force transmission in humans, this study examined if manipulating joint angle to stretch the muscle can alter the shear modulus of a resting adjacent muscle, and whether there are regional differences in this response. The biceps brachii (BB: manipulated muscle) and the brachialis (BRA: resting adjacent muscle) were deemed suitable for this study because they are neighboring, yet have independent tendons that insert onto different bones. In order to manipulate the muscle length of BB only, the forearm was passively set at supination, neutral, and pronation positions...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767303/the-neural-signatures-of-egocentric-bias-in-normative-decision-making
#3
Chunliang Feng, Xue Feng, Li Wang, Lili Wang, Ruolei Gu, Aiping Ni, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Zhihao Li, Yue-Jia Luo
Bargaining parties often disagree on what fair is, due to the reason that people are prone to believe that what favors oneself is fair, i.e., an egocentric bias. In this study, we investigated the neural signatures underlying egocentric bias in fairness decision-making, conjoining an adapted ultimatum game (UG) with event-related fMRI and functional connectivity. Participants earned monetary rewards with a partner in a production stage, wherein their contributions to the earnings were manipulated. Afterwards, the joint earnings were randomly divided, and the distribution was presented simultaneously with contribution information to participants, who accepted/rejected distributions of earnings as the same manner in standard UG...
May 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762101/stimulus-familiarity-and-expectation-jointly-modulate-neural-activity-in-the-visual-ventral-stream
#4
Mariya E Manahova, Pim Mostert, Peter Kok, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen, Floris P de Lange
Prior knowledge about the visual world can change how a visual stimulus is processed. Two forms of prior knowledge are often distinguished: stimulus familiarity (i.e., whether a stimulus has been seen before) and stimulus expectation (i.e., whether a stimulus is expected to occur, based on the context). Neurophysiological studies in monkeys have shown suppression of spiking activity both for expected and for familiar items in object-selective inferotemporal cortex. It is an open question, however, if and how these types of knowledge interact in their modulatory effects on the sensory response...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760552/patients-receiving-chiropractic-care-in-a-neurorehabilitation-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#5
Robert D Vining, Stacie A Salsbury, W Carl Cooley, Donna Gosselin, Lance Corber, Christine M Goertz
Objectives: Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Design: Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750557/frequency-dependence-and-ecological-drift-shape-coexistence-of-species-with-similar-niches
#6
Erik I Svensson, Miguel A Gómez-Llano, Anais Rivas Torres, Hanna M Bensch
The coexistence of ecologically similar species might be counteracted by ecological drift and demographic stochasticity, both of which erode local diversity. With niche differentiation, species can be maintained through performance trade-offs between environments, but trade-offs are difficult to invoke for species with similar ecological niches. Such similar species might then go locally extinct due to stochastic ecological drift, but there is little empirical evidence for such processes. Previous studies have relied on biogeographical surveys and inferred process from pattern, while experimental field investigations of ecological drift are rare...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747668/magnitude-processing-of-symbolic-and-non-symbolic-proportions-an-fmri-study
#7
Julia Mock, Stefan Huber, Johannes Bloechle, Julia F Dietrich, Julia Bahnmueller, Johannes Rennig, Elise Klein, Korbinian Moeller
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that processing proportion magnitude is associated with activation in the intraparietal sulcus. Thus, brain areas associated with the processing of numbers (i.e., absolute magnitude) were activated during processing symbolic fractions as well as non-symbolic proportions. Here, we investigated systematically the cognitive processing of symbolic (e.g., fractions and decimals) and non-symbolic proportions (e.g., dot patterns and pie charts) in a two-stage procedure...
May 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746383/angle-specific-isokinetic-metrics-highlight-strength-training-needs-of-elite-youth-soccer-players
#8
Steven J Eustace, Richard M Page, Matt Greig
Eustace, SJ, Page, RM, and Greig, M. angle specific isokinetic metrics highlight strength training needs of elite youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to assess traditional and angle-specific isokinetic strength of eccentric knee flexors (eccKFs) and concentric knee extensors (conKEs) between senior professional and youth soccer players. Thirty-four male soccer players (17 senior and 17 youth) were recruited for bilateral assessments at 180, 270, and 60°·s...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709582/differential-effects-of-sustained-and-transient-effort-triggered-by-reward-a-combined-eeg-and-pupillometry-study
#9
Mariam Kostandyan, Klaas Bombeke, Thomas Carsten, Ruth M Krebs, Wim Notebaert, C Nico Boehler
In instrumental task contexts, incentive manipulations such as posting reward on successful performance usually trigger increased effort, which is signified by effort markers like increased pupil size. Yet, it is not fully clear under which circumstances incentives really promote performance, and which role effort plays therein. In the present study, we compared two schemes of associating reward with a Flanker task, while simultaneously acquiring electroencephalography (EEG) and pupillometry data in order to explore the contribution of effort-related processes...
April 28, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705077/do-joint-mobilizations-assist-in-the-recovery-of-lateral-elbow-tendinopathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Ann M Lucado, R Barry Dale, Joshua Vincent, Joseph M Day
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. INTRODUCTION: No consensus exists as to which are the most effective methods to treat the symptoms associated with lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). Research has suggested that joint mobilizations may assist in the recovery of patients with LET. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine if joint mobilizations are effective in improving pain, grip strength, and disability in adults with LET. METHODS: Searches in 3 databases were performed to identify relevant clinical trials...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701850/safeguarding-the-anomalous-vertebral-artery-while-dissecting-drilling-and-instrumentation-of-c1-2-joint-for-congenital-atlantoaxial-dislocation-2-dimensional-operative-video
#11
Pravin Salunke, Sushanta K Sahoo
The pathology in congenital atlantoaxial instability is usually in C1-2 joints. Addressing the joints appears to be the most rationale approach. The joints are usually approached posteriorly, manipulated, and fused. Understanding the normal and abnormal anatomy is important. Normally, the third segment of the vertebral artery courses lateral to the C1-2 joint. However, in about 20% of the cases with complex congenital craniovertberal junction anomalies the artery crosses the joint posteriorly. The artery in such cases may be injured while joint manipulation and instrumentation with disastrous consequences...
April 26, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701040/-clinical-therapeutic-effects-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-treated-with-the-assisted-therapy-of-acupuncture-at-the-points-detected-with-thermosensitive-moxibustion-in-zhuang-medicine
#12
An Huang, Yuzhou Pang, Qianqian Tang, Jing Xu, Jiyong Lin, Jianying Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects and safety on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with acupuncture at the points detected with thermosensitive moxibustion in Zhuang medicine combined with western medication. METHODS: A total of 168 RA patients in compliance with the inclusive criteria were collected and randomized into an observation group and a control group, 84 cases in each one. In the control group, in reference to the updated guideline of new drugs by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) in 2013, the medication scheme was formulated for oral administration, methotrexate tablet 7...
March 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697660/-the-topographical-and-anatomical-characteristic-of-the-anterior-part-of-the-external-auditory-passage-and-the-tympanic-cavity
#13
M I Anikin, A A Bagautdinov, I I Kagan
The objective of the present work was to overview the currently available literature data on microtopographic anatomy of the anterior portion of the middle ear and the external auditory passage. Manipulations on these structures during miringoplasty surgery appear to be the most difficult and laborious operations because this space is anatomically very narrow and curved; moreover, it contains the important intimate structures of the middle ear and is located very close to the temporomandibular joint. The knowledge of microsurgical anatomy of the anterior part of the middle ear and the external auditory passage is paramount in the context of the improvement of the professional skills of the surgeons...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691281/loss-of-fgfr1-in-chondrocytes-inhibits-osteoarthritis-through-promoting-autophagic-activity-in-temporomandibular-joint
#14
Zuqiang Wang, Junlan Huang, Siru Zhou, Fengtao Luo, Qiaoyan Tan, Xianding Sun, Zhenhong Ni, Hangang Chen, Xiaolan Du, Yangli Xie, Lin Chen
Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is common degenerative disease with few effective disease-modifying treatments in clinic. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is implicated in articular cartilage homeostasis, but the functional roles of FGFR1 in TMJ OA remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that deletion of Fgfr1 in TMJ chondrocytes delayed the TMJ OA progression in age-associated spontaneous OA model and abnormal dental occlusion OA model. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Fgfr1 deficiency decreased the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13),A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5) , COL10A1, while increased aggrecan expression level in two TMJ OA models...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687960/bidirectional-scaling-of-vocal-variability-by-an-avian-cortico-basal-ganglia-circuit
#15
Jonathan B Heston, Joseph Simon, Nancy F Day, Melissa J Coleman, Stephanie A White
Behavioral variability is thought to be critical for trial and error learning, but where such motor exploration is generated in the central nervous system is unclear. The zebra finch songbird species offers a highly appropriate model in which to address this question. The male song is amenable to detailed measurements of variability, while the brain contains an identified cortico-basal ganglia loop that underlies this behavior. We used pharmacogenetic interventions to separately interrogate cortical and basal ganglia nodes of zebra finch song control circuitry...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681405/perturbation-velocity-affects-linearly-estimated-neuromechanical-wrist-joint-properties
#16
Asbjørn Klomp, Erwin de Vlugt, Jurriaan H de Groot, Carel G M Meskers, J Hans Arendzen, Frans C T van der Helm
The dynamic behavior of the wrist joint is governed by nonlinear properties, yet applied mathematical models, used to describe the measured input-output (perturbation-response) relationship, are commonly linear. Consequently, the linearly estimated model parameters will depend on properties of the applied perturbation properties (such perturbation amplitude and velocity). We aimed to systematically address the effects of perturbation velocity on linearly estimated neuromechanical parameters. Using a single axis manipulator ramp and hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681126/structural-and-molecular-study-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-of-modern-humans-homo-sapiens-and-common-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#17
J M Potau, A Casado, M de Diego, N Ciurana, J Arias-Martorell, G Bello-Hellegouarch, M Barbosa, F J de Paz, J F Pastor, A Pérez-Pérez
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675967/shrub-range-expansion-alters-diversity-and-distribution-of-soil-fungal-communities-across-an-alpine-elevation-gradient
#18
Courtney G Collins, Jason E Stajich, Sören E Weber, Nuttapon Pombubpa, Jeffrey M Diez
Global climate and land use change are altering plant and soil microbial communities worldwide, particularly in arctic and alpine biomes where warming is accelerated. The widespread expansion of woody shrubs into historically herbaceous alpine plant zones is likely to interact with climate to affect soil microbial community structure and function, however our understanding of alpine soil ecology remains limited. This study aimed to 1) determine whether the diversity and community composition of soil fungi vary across elevation gradients and to 2) assess the impact of woody shrub expansion on these patterns...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672216/a-modular-soft-robotic-wrist-for-underwater-manipulation
#19
Shunichi Kurumaya, Brennan T Phillips, Kaitlyn P Becker, Michelle H Rosen, David F Gruber, Kevin C Galloway, Koichi Suzumori, Robert J Wood
This article presents the development of modular soft robotic wrist joint mechanisms for delicate and precise manipulation in the harsh deep-sea environment. The wrist consists of a rotary module and bending module, which can be combined with other actuators as part of a complete manipulator system. These mechanisms are part of a suite of soft robotic actuators being developed for deep-sea manipulation via submersibles and remotely operated vehicles, and are designed to be powered hydraulically with seawater...
April 19, 2018: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671944/review-article-isolated-proximal-tibiofibular-joint-dislocation
#20
REVIEW
Neil J Cunningham, Nicholas Farebrother, Jake Miles
Proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) dislocations are relatively rare injuries and this paper provides an up-to-date review and practical management approach for the assessment and management of these cases. Isolated PTFJ dislocations are a rare injury, accounting for less than 1% of all knee injuries. Thus, there does not appear to be a clear consensus on definitive management and post-reduction care in the literature. This paper provides a review of the literature, anatomical analysis of the PTFJ in the dislocated state, and a technique for reduction...
April 19, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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