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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520785/prospective-evidence-for-independent-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-limitation-of-grasshopper-chorthippus-curtipennis-growth-in-a-tallgrass-prairie
#1
Madison Rode, Nathan P Lemoine, Melinda D Smith
Insect herbivores play a pivotal role in regulating plant production and community composition, and their role in terrestrial ecosystems is partly determined by their feeding behavior and performance among plants of differing nutritional quality. Historically, nitrogen (N) has been considered the primary limiting nutrient of herbivorous insects, but N is only one of many potential nutrients important to insect performance. Of these nutrients, phosphorus (P) is perhaps the most important because somatic growth depends upon P-rich ribosomal RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513525/rehabilitation-effect-of-exercise-with-soft-tissue-manipulation-in-patients-with-lumbar-muscle-strain
#2
H Li, H Zhang, S Liu, Y Wang, D Gai, Q Lu, H Gan, Y Shi, W Qi
OBJECTIVE: To study the rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation therapy for patients with lumbar muscle strain. METHODS: Patients with lumbar muscle strain who met the inclusion criteria for study were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Conventional therapy (i.e., triple therapy of needle, moxibustion, and cupping jar) was implemented for control group patients with lumbar muscle strain, whereas the combination therapy of exercise with manipulation was implemented for experimental group patients with lumbar muscle strain...
May 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499991/an-interactive-simulator-for-imposing-virtual-musculoskeletal-dynamics
#3
Christopher Hasson
OBJECTIVE: Disease processes are often marked by both neural and muscular changes that alter movement control and execution, but these adaptations are difficult to tease apart because they occur simultaneously. This is addressed by swapping an individual's limb dynamics with a neurally-controlled facsimile using an interactive musculoskeletal simulator (IMS) that allows controlled modifications of musculoskeletal dynamics. This paper details the design and operation of the IMS, quantifies and describes human adaptation to the IMS, and determines whether the IMS allows users to move naturally, a prerequisite for manipulation experiments...
May 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498713/improved-sensing-with-a-single-qubit
#4
P Sekatski, M Skotiniotis, W Dür
We consider quantum metrology with arbitrary prior knowledge of the parameter. We demonstrate that a single sensing two-level system can act as a virtual multilevel system that offers increased sensitivity in a Bayesian single-shot metrology scenario, and that allows one to estimate (arbitrary) large parameter values by avoiding phase wraps. This is achieved by making use of additional degrees of freedom or auxiliary systems not participating in the sensing process. The joint system is manipulated by intermediate control operations in such a way that an effective Hamiltonian, with an arbitrary spectrum, is generated that mimics the spectrum of a multisystem interacting with the field...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494130/visualization-of-stereoscopic-anatomic-models-of-the-paranasal-sinuses-and-cervical-vertebrae-from-the-surgical-and-procedural-perspective
#5
Jian Chen, Andrew D Smith, Majid A Khan, Allan R Sinning, Marianne L Conway, Dongmei Cui
Recent improvements in three-dimensional (3D) virtual modeling software allows anatomists to generate high-resolution, visually appealing, colored, anatomical 3D models from computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, high-resolution CT images of a cadaver were used to develop clinically relevant anatomic models including facial skull, nasal cavity, septum, turbinates, paranasal sinuses, optic nerve, pituitary gland, carotid artery, cervical vertebrae, atlanto-axial joint, cervical spinal cord, cervical nerve root, and vertebral artery that can be used to teach clinical trainees (students, residents, and fellows) approaches for trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery and cervical spine injection procedure...
May 11, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487630/analysis-of-interrelationships-among-voluntary-and-prosthetic-leg-joint-parameters-using-cyclograms
#6
Farahiyah Jasni, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Nor Elleeiana Mohd Syah, Tze Y Chung, Noor Azuan Abu Osman
The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#7
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
May 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484007/body-sway-reflects-leadership-in-joint-music-performance
#8
Andrew Chang, Steven R Livingstone, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor
The cultural and technological achievements of the human species depend on complex social interactions. Nonverbal interpersonal coordination, or joint action, is a crucial element of social interaction, but the dynamics of nonverbal information flow among people are not well understood. We used joint music making in string quartets, a complex, naturalistic nonverbal behavior, as a model system. Using motion capture, we recorded body sway simultaneously in four musicians, which reflected real-time interpersonal information sharing...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477147/high-interspecimen-variability-in-engagement-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-an-in-vitro-cadaveric-study
#9
REVIEW
Robert N Kent, James F Boorman-Padgett, Ran Thein, Jelle P van der List, Danyal H Nawabi, Thomas L Wickiewicz, Carl W Imhauser, Andrew D Pearle
BACKGROUND: Anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction as an adjunct to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains a subject of clinical debate. This uncertainty may be driven in part by a lack of knowledge regarding where, within the range of knee motion, the ALL begins to carry force (engages). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the ALL engage in the ACL-intact knee; and (2) where within the range of anterior tibial translation occurring in the ACL-sectioned knee does the ALL engage? METHODS: A robotic manipulator was used to measure anterior tibial translation, ACL forces, and ALL forces in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees (10 donors; mean age, 41 ± 16 years; range, 20-64 years; eight male) in response to applied multiplanar torques...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474269/intra-operative-fiducial-based-ct-fluoroscope-image-registration-framework-for-image-guided-robot-assisted-joint-fracture-surgery
#10
Giulio Dagnino, Ioannis Georgilas, Samir Morad, Peter Gibbons, Payam Tarassoli, Roger Atkins, Sanja Dogramadzi
PURPOSE: Joint fractures must be accurately reduced minimising soft tissue damages to avoid negative surgical outcomes. To this regard, we have developed the RAFS surgical system, which allows the percutaneous reduction of intra-articular fractures and provides intra-operative real-time 3D image guidance to the surgeon. Earlier experiments showed the effectiveness of the RAFS system on phantoms, but also key issues which precluded its use in a clinical application. This work proposes a redesign of the RAFS's navigation system overcoming the earlier version's issues, aiming to move the RAFS system into a surgical environment...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466997/external-force-estimation-and-implementation-in-robotically-assisted-minimally-invasive-surgery
#11
Hongqiang Sang, Jintian Yun, Reza Monfaredi, Emmanuel Wilson, Hadi Fooladi, Kevin Cleary
BACKGROUND: Robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery can offer many benefits over open surgery and laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery. However, currently, there is no force sensing and force feedback. METHODS: This research was implemented using the da Vinci research kit. An external force estimation and implementation method was proposed based on dynamics and motor currents. The dynamics of the Patient Side Manipulator was modeled. The dynamic model was linearly parameterized...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455730/knee-abduction-affects-greater-magnitude-of-change-in-acl-and-mcl-strains-than-matched-internal-tibial-rotation-in-vitro
#12
Nathaniel A Bates, Rebecca J Nesbitt, Jason T Shearn, Gregory D Myer, Timothy E Hewett
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injures incur over USD 2 billion in annual medical costs and prevention has become a topic of interest in biomechanics. However, literature conflicts persist over how knee rotations contribute to ACL strain and ligament injury. To maximize the efficacy of ACL injury prevention, the effects of underlying mechanics need to be better understood. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We applied robotically controlled, in vivo-derived kinematic stimuli to the knee to assess ligament biomechanics in a cadaver model...
April 28, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451870/association-between-serum-and-synovial-fluid-dickkopf-1-levels-with-radiographic-severity-in-primary-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#13
Theologis Thomas, Efstathopoulos Nikolaos, Nikolaou Vasileios, Charikopoulos Ioannis, Papapavlos Ioannis, Kokkoris Panayiotis, Papatheodorou Athanasios, Nasiri-Ansari Narjes, Kassi Eva
Primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) contributes to disability among middle-aged and elderly people. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) and sclerostin are inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway implicated in regulation of cartilage homeostasis and bone formation, respectively. We aim to investigate the association between the serum(s) and synovial fluid (SF) Dkk-1 and sclerostin levels and disease severity in patients with primary knee OA. Forty patients aged 56-87 years with primary knee OA and 20 healthy individuals were recruited...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449888/increasing-presurgery-sleep-reduces-postsurgery-pain-and-analgesic-use-following-joint-replacement-a-feasibility-study
#14
Timothy A Roehrs, Thomas Roth
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether presurgery sleep extension in short-sleeping volunteers scheduled for total knee/hip replacement surgery would reduce postsurgery pain and analgesic use. METHODS: Eighteen short sleepers, defined by sleep times below the national mean (ie, ≤7 h) nightly, were randomized to one week of a 2-h nightly extension of their time in bed (EXT) or maintenance of their habitual time in bed (HAB) prior to knee or hip replacement surgery...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448919/mechanochemical-mechanism-of-integrin-clustering-modulated-by-nanoscale-ligand-spacing-and-rigidity-of-extracellular-substrates
#15
Jing Yu, Jianyong Huang, John A Jansen, Chunyang Xiong, X Frank Walboomers
Experimental findings indicate that cell function and behavior such as cell growth, division, migration and differentiation, are subtly regulated via integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Cell adhesion is influenced by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates, as cell adhesion drops greatly when the ligand spacing is larger than ~60nm, and cell adhesion is stronger on stiff than soft substrates. However, how nanoscale ligand spacing and substrate stiffness jointly affect integrin clustering and hence nascent cell adhesion remains to be elucidated...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448851/accurate-3d-reconstruction-of-bony-surfaces-using-ultrasonic-synthetic-aperture-techniques-for-robotic-knee-arthroplasty
#16
William Kerr, Philip Rowe, Stephen Gareth Pierce
Robotically guided knee arthroplasty systems generally require an individualized, preoperative 3D model of the knee joint. This is typically measured using Computed Tomography (CT) which provides the required accuracy for preoperative surgical intervention planning. Ultrasound imaging presents an attractive alternative to CT, allowing for reductions in cost and the elimination of doses of ionizing radiation, whilst maintaining the accuracy of the 3D model reconstruction of the joint. Traditional phased array ultrasound imaging methods, however, are susceptible to poor resolution and signal to noise ratios (SNR)...
April 19, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435584/intra-articular-entrapment-of-medial-epicondyle-fracture-fragment-in-elbow-joint-dislocation-causing-ulnar-neuropraxia-a-case-report
#17
J Syed, A R Zamri, S Jamaluddin, J K Ruben, M Gopindran
Traumatic elbow dislocations in children are rare but most of them are complex dislocations, and in such dislocations, medial humerus epicondyle fractureis the most common associated injury. Fracture incarceration in the elbow joint occurs in 5-18% of medial humerus epicondyle fractures but ulnar neuropraxia is very rare. Open reduction internal fixation is indicated in medial humerus epicondyle fracture with fracture incarceration, ulnar neuropraxia, marked instability or open fracture. Operative treatment options include fragment excision and sutures, closed or open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation, open reduction and suture fixation, open reduction and smooth pin fixation, and open reduction and screw fixation...
March 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422959/molecular-regionalization-of-the-developing-amphioxus-neural-tube-challenges-major-partitions-of-the-vertebrate-brain
#18
Beatriz Albuixech-Crespo, Laura López-Blanch, Demian Burguera, Ignacio Maeso, Luisa Sánchez-Arrones, Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Ildiko Somorjai, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Eduardo Puelles, Paola Bovolenta, Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez, Luis Puelles, Manuel Irimia, José Luis Ferran
All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422662/use-of-accelerometers-in-the-control-of-practical-prosthetic-arms
#19
Peter Kyberd, Adrian Poulton
Accelerometers can be used to augment the control of powered prosthetic arms. They can detect the orientation of the joint and limb and the controller can correct for the amount of torque required to move the limb. They can also be used to create a platform, with a fixed orientation relative to gravity for the object held in the hand. This paper describes three applications for this technology, in a powered wrist and powered arm. By adding sensors to the arm making these data available to the controller, the input from the user can be made simpler...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421179/synergy-based-bilateral-port-a-universal-control-module-for-tele-manipulation-frameworks-using-asymmetric-master-slave-systems
#20
Anais Brygo, Ioannis Sarakoglou, Giorgio Grioli, Nikos Tsagarakis
Endowing tele-manipulation frameworks with the capability to accommodate a variety of robotic hands is key to achieving high performances through permitting to flexibly interchange the end-effector according to the task considered. This requires the development of control policies that not only cope with asymmetric master-slave systems but also whose high-level components are designed in a unified space in abstraction from the devices specifics. To address this dual challenge, a novel synergy port is developed that resolves the kinematic, sensing, and actuation asymmetries of the considered system through generating motion and force feedback references in the hardware-independent hand postural synergy space...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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