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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911999/joint-effects-of-nutrient-addition-and-enemy-exclusion-on-exotic-plant-success
#1
Robert W Heckman, Justin P Wright, Charles E Mitchell
Worldwide, ecosystems are increasingly dominated by exotic plant species, a shift hypothesized to result from numerous ecological factors. Two of these, increased resource availability and enemy release, may act in concert to increase exotic success in plant communities (Resource-Enemy Release Hypothesis, R-ERH). To test this, we manipulated the availability of soil nutrients and access of vertebrate herbivores, insect herbivores, and fungal pathogens to intact grassland communities containing both native and exotic species...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891703/an-investigation-into-the-inhibitory-function-of-serotonin-in-diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-in-the-neuropathic-rat
#2
K Bannister, S Lockwood, L Goncalves, R Patel, A H Dickenson
BACKGROUND: Following neuropathy α2-adrenoceptor-mediated diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), whereby a noxious conditioning stimulus inhibits the activity of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons, are abolished, and spinal 5-HT7 receptor densities are increased. Here, we manipulate spinal 5-HT content in spinal nerve ligated (SNL) animals and investigate which 5-HT receptor mediated actions predominate. METHODS: Using in vivo electrophysiology we recorded WDR neuronal responses to von frey filaments applied to the hind paw before, and concurrent to, a noxious ear pinch (the conditioning stimulus) in isoflurane-anaesthetised rats...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891088/an-emg-interface-for-the-control-of-motion-and-compliance-of-a-supernumerary-robotic-finger
#3
Irfan Hussain, Giovanni Spagnoletti, Gionata Salvietti, Domenico Prattichizzo
In this paper, we propose a novel electromyographic (EMG) control interface to control motion and joints compliance of a supernumerary robotic finger. The supernumerary robotic fingers are a recently introduced class of wearable robotics that provides users additional robotic limbs in order to compensate or augment the existing abilities of natural limbs without substituting them. Since supernumerary robotic fingers are supposed to closely interact and perform actions in synergy with the human limbs, the control principles of extra finger should have similar behavior as human's ones including the ability of regulating the compliance...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890751/atlantoaxial-fixation-for-basilar-invagination-without-obvious-atlantoaxial-instability-group-b-basilar-invagination-outcome-analysis-of-63-surgically-treated-cases
#4
Atul Goel, Prashant Sathe, Abhidha Shah
BACKGROUND: The authors discuss the rationale of surgical treatment of Group B basilar invagination by atlantoaxial facet joint stabilization and segmental arthrodesis. MATERIAL: During the period January 2010 to April 2016, 63 patients having Group B basilar invagination were surgically treated. All patients had varying degree of myelopathy related functional disability. Fifty-two patients had both Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. All patients were treated by atlantoaxial plate and screw fixation with the techniques described by us in 1994 and 2004...
November 24, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888138/the-quality-of-placebos-used-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-lumbar-and-pelvic-joint-thrust-manipulation-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Aaron A Puhl, Christine J Reinhart, Jon B Doan, Howard Vernon
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been attributed with substantial non-specific effects. Accurate assessment of the non-specific effects of SMT relies on high-quality studies with low risk of bias that compare to appropriate placebos. PURPOSE: This review aims to characterize the types and qualities of placebo control procedures used in controlled trials of manually-applied, lumbar and pelvic (LP) SMT, and to evaluate the assessment of subject blinding and expectations...
November 22, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877141/involvement-of-technical-reasoning-more-than-functional-knowledge-in-development-of-tool-use-in-childhood
#6
Chrystelle Remigereau, Arnaud Roy, Orianne Costini, François Osiurak, Christophe Jarry, Didier Le Gall
It is well-known that even toddlers are able to manipulate tools in an appropriate manner according to their physical properties. The ability of children to make novel tools in order to solve problems is, however, surprisingly limited. In adults, mechanical problem solving (MPS) has been proposed to be supported by "technical reasoning skills," which are thought to be involved in every situation requiring the use of a tool (whether conventional or unusual). The aim of this study was to investigate the typical development of real tool use (RTU) skills and its link with technical reasoning abilities in healthy children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875984/plastid-nucleotide-resolution-analysis-of-next-generation-sequencing-and-genomics-data
#7
Joshua G Dunn, Jonathan S Weissman
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) informs many biological questions with unprecedented depth and nucleotide resolution. These assays have created a need for analytical tools that enable users to manipulate data nucleotide-by-nucleotide robustly and easily. Furthermore, because many NGS assays encode information jointly within multiple properties of read alignments - for example, in ribosome profiling, the locations of ribosomes are jointly encoded in alignment coordinates and length - analytical tools are often required to extract the biological meaning from the alignments before analysis...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869622/acl-deficiency-increases-forces-on-the-medial-femoral-condyle-and-the-lateral-meniscus-with-applied-rotatory-loads
#8
Lucas S McDonald, James Boorman-Padgett, Robert Kent, Kyle Stone, Thomas L Wickiewicz, Andrew D Pearle, Carl W Imhauser
BACKGROUND: The articular surfaces and menisci act with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to stabilize the knee joint. Their role in resisting applied rotatory loads characteristic of instability events is unclear despite commonly observed damage to these intra-articular structures in the acute and chronic ACL injury settings. METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were mounted to a robotic manipulator. Combined valgus and internal rotation torques were applied in the presence and absence of a 300-N compressive load...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867296/micropositioning-and-control-of-an-underactuated-platform-for-microscopic-applications
#9
Kihan Park, Jaydev P Desai
For automation of biological experiments at the micro-scale, highly precise manipulator equipped with a microscope is required. However, current micropositioning stages have several limitations, such as: 1) manual operation, 2) lack of rotational capability, 3) incompatibility with a microscope, and 4) small range of motion (RoM). This research aims to develop a microscope compatible XYθ micropositioning stage with large RoM for phenotyping multiple biological samples rapidly for various microscopic applications...
December 2016: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858533/revisiting-the-differences-between-irreducible-and-reducible-atlantoaxial-dislocation-in-the-era-of-direct-posterior-approach-and-c1-2-joint-manipulation
#10
Arsikere N Deepak, Pravin Salunke, Sushanta K Sahoo, Prashant K Prasad, Niranjan K Khandelwal
OBJECTIVE The current management of atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) focuses on the C1-2 joints, commonly approached through a posterior route. The distinction between reducible AAD (RAAD) and irreducible AAD (IrAAD) seems to be less important in modern times. The roles of preoperative traction and dynamic radiographs are questionable. This study evaluated whether differentiating between the 2 groups is important in today's era. METHODS Ninety-six consecutive patients with congenital AAD (33 RAAD and 63 IrAAD), who underwent surgery through a posterior approach alone, were studied...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857638/changes-in-muscle-spasticity-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-after-spinal-manipulation-case-series
#11
Oleh Kachmar, Taras Voloshyn, Mykhailo Hordiyevych
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case series was to report quantitative changes in wrist muscle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy after 1 spinal manipulation (SM) and a 2-week course of treatment. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, aged 7 to 18 years, with spastic forms of cerebral palsy and without fixed contracture of the wrist, were evaluated before initiation of treatment, after 1 SM, and at the end of a 2-week course of treatment. Along with daily SM, the program included physical therapy, massage, reflexotherapy, extremity joint mobilization, mechanotherapy, and rehabilitation computer games for 3 to 4 hours' duration...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832043/construct-validity-for-a-cost-effective-arthroscopic-surgery-simulator-for-resident-education
#12
Gregory Lopez, David F Martin, Rick Wright, James Jung, Peter Hahn, Nickul Jain, Daniel N Bracey, Ranjan Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopy is one of the most challenging surgical skills to assess and teach. Although basic psychomotor arthroscopic skills, such as triangulation and object manipulation, are incorporated into many simulation exercises, they are not always individually taught or objectively evaluated. In addition, arthroscopic instruments, arthroscopy cameras, and the cadaver or joint models necessary for practice are costly. METHODS: A low-cost arthroscopic simulator was created to practice triangulation, probing, horizon changes, suture management, and object manipulation...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831714/aging-and-memory-as-discrimination-influences-of-encoding-specificity-cue-overload-and-prior-knowledge
#13
Stephen P Badham, Marie Poirier, Navina Gandhi, Anna Hadjivassiliou, Elizabeth A Maylor
From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness...
November 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830101/low-energy-traumatic-obturator-hip-dislocation-with-ipsilateral-femoral-shaft-fracture-in-a-patient-with-omolateral-knee-arthroplasty
#14
G Gazzotti, L Patrizio, S Dall'Aglio, E Sabetta
Ipsilateral obturator hip dislocation and femoral shaft fracture are rare. We report such a case in an older woman after a low-energy injury. She had a knee prostheses in the same limb. The patient was treated by open manipulative reduction of the luxation without opening joint and open reduction and internal fixation of the femur with angular stability plate and screws. We could not find a similar case in the literature. An early diagnosis of the dislocation is crucial in order to obtain good results. Great awareness and radiologic examination are fundamental to achieve precocious diagnosis of both these rare combined injuries, as treatment in these cases is considered an emergency...
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826655/sharing-tasks-or-sharing-actions-evidence-from-the-joint-simon-task
#15
Motonori Yamaguchi, Helen J Wall, Bernhard Hommel
In a joint Simon task, a pair of co-acting individuals divide labors of performing a choice-reaction task in such a way that each actor responds to one type of stimuli and ignores the other type that is assigned to the co-actor. It has been suggested that the actors share the mental representation of the joint task and perform the co-actor's trials as if they were their own. However, it remains unclear exactly which aspects of co-actor's task-set the actors share in the joint Simon task. The present study addressed this issue by manipulating the proportions of compatible and incompatible trials for one actor (inducer actor) and observing its influences on the performance of the other actor (diagnostic actor) for whom there were always an equal proportion of compatible and incompatible trials...
November 8, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825603/experimental-study-of-the-optimal-angle-for-arthrodesis-of-fingers-based-on-kinematic-analysis-with-tip-pinch-manipulation
#16
Paul Arauz, Sue Ann Sisto, Imin Kao
To evaluate the appropriate angle for arthrodesis of the index finger proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, the functional range of motion (ROM) of the joints and manipulabilities at three selected tip-pinch manipulation postures of the finger were studied experimentally under imposed PIP joint arthrodesis angles. A kinematic model of the index finger was used in experiments which involved three postures. Experiments were conducted using seven healthy subjects in tip-pinch manipulation tasks to obtain the measurements of finger motions under imposed angles of joint constraint, including the functional ROM of the joints and the three criteria of kinematic manipulability...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812397/ecology-and-management-of-kudzu-bug-hemiptera-plataspidae-in-southeastern-soybeans
#17
Sriyanka Lahiri, Dominic D Reisig
Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%...
January 2016: Journal of Integrated Pest Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809923/functional-electrical-stimulation-of-gluteus-medius-reduces-the-medial-joint-reaction-force-of-the-knee-during-level-walking
#18
Lance Rane, Anthony Michael James Bull
BACKGROUND: By altering muscular activation patterns, internal forces acting on the human body during dynamic activity may be manipulated. The magnitude of one of these forces, the medial knee joint reaction force (JRF), is associated with disease progression in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA), suggesting utility in its targeted reduction. Increased activation of gluteus medius has been suggested as a means to achieve this. METHODS: Motion capture equipment and force plate transducers were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data for 15 healthy subjects during level walking, with and without the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to gluteus medius...
November 3, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803649/two-photon-holographic-stimulation-of-reachr
#19
Emmanuelle Chaigneau, Emiliano Ronzitti, Marta A Gajowa, Gilberto J Soler-Llavina, Dimitrii Tanese, Anthony Y B Brureau, Eirini Papagiakoumou, Hongkui Zeng, Valentina Emiliani
Optogenetics provides a unique approach to remotely manipulate brain activity with light. Reaching the degree of spatiotemporal control necessary to dissect the role of individual cells in neuronal networks, some of which reside deep in the brain, requires joint progress in opsin engineering and light sculpting methods. Here we investigate for the first time two-photon stimulation of the red-shifted opsin ReaChR. We use two-photon (2P) holographic illumination to control the activation of individually chosen neurons expressing ReaChR in acute brain slices...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799692/ipsilateral-patterns-of-the-rotational-range-of-motion-of-the-hip-in-healthy-japanese-adults
#20
Heonoo Han, Akira Kubo, Kazuo Kurosawa, Shizuka Maruichi, Masahiro Ishizaka, Kaori Sadakiyo, Takahiro Nomura, Kaoru Honzawa
[Purpose] This study aimed to categorize the internal and external rotation range of motion (ROM) of ipsilateral hip joints into specific patterns based on the differences between them, and clarify the distribution of these patterns. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 222 healthy Japanese medical students (162 males, 60 females) with a mean age of 21.2 ± 4.0 years were enrolled. The ROM of internal and external rotation at the hip were randomly measured with the subjects in the prone position. Thereafter, the difference between internal and external rotations was assessed...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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