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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#1
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo C Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic CART neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day 21 (PN21) and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936143/assessment-of-readiness-of-academic-emergency-departments-in-the-central-region-of-saudi-arabia-to-receive-a-sick-child
#2
Fahad Saleh Alhajjaj, Abdullah Saleh Aldamigh
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the readiness of general emergency departments (EDs) in academic hospitals in the central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to manage pediatric patients using an international tool: The American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, and Emergency Nurses Association guidelines, which include facilities, personnel, safety, and other components. METHODS: We assessed eligible centers during multiple visits from January 2016 to May 2016 in which we inspected the EDs and conducted interviews with their respective leadership in which we independently recorded our observations...
July 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934420/higher-prevalence-and-faster-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-middle-aged-individuals-compared-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-uninfected-controls
#3
Katherine W Kooij, Liffert Vogt, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Marc van der Valk, Rosan A van Zoest, Abraham Goorhuis, Maria Prins, Frank A Post, Peter Reiss
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute. Methods: We compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934080/could-ebt-machines-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-purchases-at-new-york-city-green-carts
#4
Andrew Breck, Kamila Kiszko, Olivia Martinez, Courtney Abrams, Brian Elbel
INTRODUCTION: Residents of some low-income neighborhoods have limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables. In 2008, New York City issued new mobile fruit and vegetable cart licenses for neighborhoods with inadequate availability of fresh produce. Some of these carts were equipped with electronic benefit transfer (EBT) machines, allowing them to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This article examines the association between type and quantities of fruits and vegetables purchased from mobile fruit and vegetable vendors and consumer characteristics, including payment method...
September 21, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931681/insights-into-the-impact-of-cd8-immune-modulation-on-hiv-evolutionary-dynamics-in-distinct-anatomical-compartments-using-siv-infected-macaque-models-of-aids-progression
#5
Brittany Rife Magalis, David J Nolan, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
A thorough understanding of the role of HIV intra-host evolution in AIDS pathogenesis has been limited by the need for longitudinally sampled viral sequences from the vast target space within the host, which are often difficult to obtain from human subjects. CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provide an increasingly utilized model of pathogenesis due to similar clinical manifestations as HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression, as well as characteristic rapid disease onset...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926641/impact-of-monotherapy-on-hiv-1-reservoir-immune-activation-and-co-infection-with-epstein-barr-virus
#6
Maria Raffaella Petrara, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Riccardo Freguja, Francesco Carmona, Silvia Sanavia, Marisa Zanchetta, Paola Del Bianco, Anita De Rossi
OBJECTIVES: Although monotherapy (mART) effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) over the same period of time were included in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926410/outcomes-for-hiv-associated-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-the-modern-cart-era
#7
Caroline Besson, Remi Lancar, Sophie Prevot, Michele Algarte-Genin, Pierre Delobel, Fabrice Bonnet, Marie-Caroline Meyohas, Marialuisa Partisani, Lucie Oberic, Jean Gabarre, Cécile Goujard, François Boue, Paul Coppo, Regis Costello, Houria Hendel-Chavez, Nawel Mekerri, Gabriella Dos Santos, Christian Recher, Richard Delarue, Rene-Olivier Casasnovas, Yassine Taoufik, Nicolas Mounier, Dominique Costagliola
OBJECTIVE: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains among the most frequent malignancies in persons living with HIV (PLWHIV). Survival among patients with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent NHL subtype, has improved markedly in recent years. We aimed to analyze characteristics and outcomes of DLBCL in HIV-infected patients in the era of modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN: PLWHIV with lymphoma were prospectively enrolled in the French ANRS-CO16 Lymphovir cohort between 2008 and 2015...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926406/risk-factors-for-anal-hsil-in-hiv-positive-msm-is-targeted-screening-possible
#8
Matthijs L Siegenbeek van Heukelom, Elske Marra, Henry J C de Vries, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Jan M Prins
OBJECTIVE: HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) are at increased risk for developing anal squamous cell carcinoma (aSCC). Detection of precursor lesions of anal cancer (anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; HSIL) is cumbersome and expensive. Our objective was to identify potential risk factors for anal HSIL in HIV-positive MSM to develop more stringent screening criteria. DESIGN: We studied a cohort of MSM screened by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) at three HIV clinics in Amsterdam, the Netherlands...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926397/time-to-first-positive-hiv-1-dna-pcr-may-differ-with-antiretroviral-regimen-in-infants-infected-with-non-b-subtype-hiv-1
#9
Raji Balasubramanian, Mary Glenn Fowler, Kenneth Dominguez, Shahin Lockman, Pat A Tookey, Nicole Ngo Giang Huong, Steven Nesheim, Michael D Hughes, Marc Lallemant, Jennifer Tosswill, Nathan Shaffer, Gayle Sherman, Paul Palumbo, David E Shapiro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of type and timing of prophylactic maternal and infant antiretroviral regimen with time to first positive HIV-1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, in non-breastfed HIV-infected infants from populations infected predominantly with HIV-1 non-B subtype virus. DESIGN: Analysis of combined data on non-breastfed HIV-infected infants from prospective cohorts in Botswana, Thailand and the United Kingdom (n = 405). METHODS: Parametric models appropriate for interval-censored outcomes estimated the time to first positive PCR according to maternal or infant antiretroviral regimen category and timing of maternal antiretroviral initiation, with adjustment for covariates...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924987/influence-of-a-gas-exchange-correction-procedure-on-resting-metabolic-rate-and-respiratory-quotient-in-humans
#10
Jose E Galgani, Mauricio A Castro-Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a gas exchange correction protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), assessed by a Vmax Encore 29n metabolic cart (SensorMedics Co., Yorba Linda, California) in overnight fasted and fed humans, and to assess the predictive power of body size for corrected and uncorrected RMR. METHODS: Healthy participants (23 M/29 F; 34 ± 9 years old; 26.3 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) ) ingested two 3-hour-apart glucose loads (75 g)...
September 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919987/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-influences-the-immune-tolerogenic-microenvironment-in-antiretroviral-therapy-refractory-kaposi-s-sarcoma-a-pilot-study
#11
Salvinia Mletzko, David J Pinato, Rebecca C Robey, Alessia Dalla Pria, Peter Benson, Nesrina Imami, Mark Bower
Upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a mechanism of immune escape utilized by a variety of tumors. PD-L1 expression in tumor cells or in the surrounding infiltrate correlates with clinical responsiveness to novel therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint. In the context of HIV-1 infection, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is largely responsive to restoration of immunity following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but there is a subset that is not. We hypothesized that this subset of cART-refractory KS may utilize the PD-L1 pathway of immune escape...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#12
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916401/cart-cell-free-and-concentrated-ascites-reinfusion-therapy-against-malignancy-related-ascites
#13
REVIEW
Tetsuya Ito, Norio Hanafusa
A standard strategy against ascites, a common symptom observed in cirrhotic and cancer patients, includes restriction of sodium intake and use of a diuretic. Paracentesis is a widely applied method against refractory ascites that do not react to such treatment. However, emerging fatigue and hemodynamic instability are possibly attributable to a loss of protein included in ascites. Cell-free and Concentrated Ascites Reinfusion Therapy (CART) is also applied against refractory ascites. CART comprises three processes...
August 30, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912658/a-systematic-method-to-detect-the-metabolic-threshold-from-gas-exchange-during-incremental-exercise
#14
Brett A Dolezal, Thomas W Storer, Eric V Neufeld, Stephanie Smooke, Chi-Hong Tseng, Christopher B Cooper
Incremental exercise consists of three domains of exercise intensity demarcated by two thresholds. The first of these thresholds, derived from gas exchange measurements, is defined as the metabolic threshold (V̇O2θ) above which lactate accumulates. Correctly and reliably identified, V̇O2θ is a non-invasive, sub-maximal marker of aerobic function with practical value. This investigation compared variability in selection of V̇O2θ among interpreters with different levels of experience as well as from auto-detection algorithms employed by a commercially available metabolic cart (MC)...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910359/prevalence-and-determinants-of-oral-infection-by-human-papillomavirus-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#15
Francesca Rollo, Alessandra Latini, Barbara Pichi, Manuela Colafigli, Maria Benevolo, Ilenia Sinopoli, Isabella Sperduti, Valentina Laquintana, Giulia Fabbri, Mirko Frasca, Antonio Cristaudo, Massimo Giuliani, Maria Gabriella Donà
BACKGROUND: Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: We evaluated oral HPV prevalence and determinants of infection in cancer-free HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited among attendees of an STI/HIV centre...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905252/human-and-equipment-resources-for-difficult-airway-management-airway-education-programs-and-capnometry-use-in-japanese-emergency-departments-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#16
Yuko Ono, Koichi Tanigawa, Kazuaki Shinohara, Tetsuhiro Yano, Kotaro Sorimachi, Ryota Inokuchi, Jiro Shimada
BACKGROUND: Although human and equipment resources, proper training, and the verification of endotracheal intubation are vital elements of difficult airway management (DAM), their availability in Japanese emergency departments (EDs) has not been determined. How ED type and patient volume affect DAM preparation is also unclear. We conducted the present survey to address this knowledge gaps. METHODS: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted from April to September 2016...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904745/genome-editing-of-the-hiv-co-receptors-ccr5-and-cxcr4-by-crispr-cas9-protects-cd4-t-cells-from-hiv-1-infection
#17
Zhepeng Liu, Shuliang Chen, Xu Jin, Qiankun Wang, Kongxiang Yang, Chenlin Li, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Panpan Hou, Shuai Liu, Shaoshuai Wu, Wei Hou, Yong Xiong, Chunyan Kong, Xixian Zhao, Li Wu, Chunmei Li, Guihong Sun, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: The main approach to treat HIV-1 infection is combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although cART is effective in reducing HIV-1 viral load and controlling disease progression, it has many side effects, and is expensive for HIV-1 infected patients who must remain on lifetime treatment. HIV-1 gene therapy has drawn much attention as studies of genome editing tools have progressed. For example, zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 have been utilized to successfully disrupt the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 or CXCR4, thereby restricting HIV-1 infection...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904086/cognitive-trajectories-over-4-years-among-hiv-infected-women-with-optimal-viral-suppression
#18
Leah H Rubin, Pauline M Maki, Gayle Springer, Lorie Benning, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Maria C Villacres, Xiong Jiang, Adaora A Adimora, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, David E Vance, Hector Bolivar, Christine Alden, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent viral suppression alters cognitive trajectories among HIV-infected (HIV+) women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by investigating performance longitudinally in uninfected (HIV-) and 3 groups of HIV+ women: those with consistent viral suppression after continuous cART use (VS), those without consistent virologic suppression despite continuous cART use (NVS), and those without consistent virologic suppression after intermittent cART use (Int NVS)...
September 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902678/brief-report-high-need-to-switch-cart-or-comedication-with-the-initiation-of-daas-in-elderly-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#19
Elise J Smolders, Colette Smit, Clara T M M de Kanter, Anton S M Dofferiiof, Joop E Arends, Kees Brinkman, Bart Rijnders, Marc van der Valk, Peter Reiss, David M Burger
BACKGROUND: To describe the use of nonantiretroviral comedication and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients coinfected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to predict the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against HCV. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, using the Dutch, nationwide ATHENA observational HIV cohort database. All patients with a known HIV/HCV coinfection on January 1, 2015, were included...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901909/usefulness-of-%C3%A3-la-carte-antigens-for-bird-fancier-s-lung-serodiagnosis-total-dropping-extract-and-or-dropping-s-microflora-antigens
#20
Adeline Rouzet, Gabriel Reboux, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Paul De Vuyst, Audrey Laboissière, Benoit Valot, Laurence Millon, Sandrine Roussel
Bird fancier's lung (BFL) is a pulmonary disease caused by inhalation of avian proteins. The involvement of the microorganisms of droppings has been assumed in the past and this idea still persists today. Our study aimed to compare by immunoprecipitation assay the detection of antibodies against both droppings and microorganisms in the sera of patients (n=15) and asymptomatic exposed controls (n=18). We found that 14/15 BFL patients had negative serological results for isolated microorganisms of the droppings, only one positive against Enterobacter sakasakii...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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