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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239658/loss-of-immune-homeostasis-dictates-shiv-rebound-after-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Christopher W Peterson, Clarisse Benne, Patricia Polacino, Jasbir Kaur, Cristina E McAllister, Abdelali Filali-Mouhim, Willi Obenza, Tiffany A Pecor, Meei-Li Huang, Audrey Baldessari, Robert D Murnane, Ann E Woolfrey, Keith R Jerome, Shiu-Lok Hu, Nichole R Klatt, Stephen DeRosa, Rafick P Sékaly, Hans-Peter Kiem
The conditioning regimen used as part of the Berlin patient's hematopoietic cell transplant likely contributed to his eradication of HIV infection. We studied the impact of conditioning in simian-human immunodeficiency virus-infected (SHIV-infected) macaques suppressed by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The conditioning regimen resulted in a dramatic, but incomplete depletion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD20(+) B cells, increased T cell activation and exhaustion, and a significant loss of SHIV-specific Abs...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239376/a-mature-nk-profile-at-the-time-of-hiv-primary-infection-is-associated-with-an-early-response-to-cart
#2
Françoise Gondois-Rey, Antoine Chéret, Françoise Mallet, Ghislain Bidaut, Samuel Granjeaud, Camille Lécuroux, Mickaël Ploquin, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Christine Rouzioux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Andrea De Maria, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Daniel Olive
Natural killer (NK) cells are major effectors of the innate immune response. Despite an overall defect in their function associated with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, their role in primary HIV infection is poorly understood. We investigated the modifications of the NK cell compartment in patients from the ANRS-147-Optiprim trial, a study designed to examine the benefits of intensive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients with acute or early primary HIV infection. Multiparametric flow cytometry combined with bioinformatics analyses identified the NK phenotypes in blood samples from 30 primary HIV-infected patients collected at inclusion and after 3 months of cART...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238767/evaluation-of-the-cart-peptide-expression-in-morphine-sensitization-in-male-rats
#3
Atefeh Bakhtazad, Nasim Vousooghi, Behzad Garmabi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
The importance of Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in reinforcing effects of addictive drugs specially alcohol and psychostimulants has been stablished. Involvement of CART peptide in rewarding effects of opioids in brain has recently been reported. Here we have studied the expression of CART mRNA and peptide in the reward pathway in morphine-induced sensitization phenomenon and also evaluated the peptide level fluctuations in CSF and plasma. Male Wistar rats received 7-day morphine injection (20mg/kg) and then after a 7-day washout period, a challenge dose of 10mg/kg morphine was administered and locomotor activity and oral stereotypical behaviors were recorded...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237718/endogenous-beta-cell-cart-regulates-insulin-secretion-and-transcription-of-beta-cell-genes
#4
L Shcherbina, A Edlund, J L S Esguerra, M Abels, Y Zhou, E Ottosson-Laakso, C B Wollheim, O Hansson, L Eliasson, N Wierup
Impaired beta-cell function is key to the development of type 2 diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide with insulinotropic and glucagonostatic properties. Here we studied the role of endogenous CART in beta-cell function. CART silencing in INS-1 (832/13) beta-cells reduced insulin secretion and production, ATP levels and beta-cell exocytosis. This was substantiated by reduced expression of several exocytosis genes, as well as reduced expression of genes important for insulin secretion and processing...
February 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236279/oas-gene-family-expression-is-associated-with-hiv-related-neurocognitive-disorders
#5
C Sanfilippo, M R Pinzone, D Cambria, A Longo, M Palumbo, R Di Marco, F Condorelli, G Nunnari, L Malaguarnera, M Di Rosa
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are common in HIV-infected individuals, even in the combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) era. Several mechanisms are involved in neuronal damage, including chronic inflammation immune activation. Mammalian 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) genes are produced in response to interferon (IFN), mainly by monocytes, and exert their antiviral functions by activation of RNase L that degrades viral and cellular RNAs. In this study, we aimed at exploring OAS gene family RNA expression in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (SIVE), in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and in HIV-associate dementia (HAD)...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235612/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antiviral-regimens-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-french-anrs-co13-hepavih-cohort
#6
Lionel Piroth, Linda Wittkop, Karine Lacombe, Eric Rosenthal, Camille Gilbert, Patrick Miailhes, Patrizia Carrieri, Julie Chas, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Anne Gervais, Stéphanie Dominguez, Didier Neau, David Zucman, Eric Billaud, Philippe Morlat, Hugues Aumaitre, Caroline Lascoux-Combe, Anne Simon, Olivier Bouchaud, Elina Teicher, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Laurent Alric, Daniel Vittecoq, François Boué, Claudine Duvivier, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Laure Esterle, François Dabis, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few data are available on the use of new oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens to treat HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in real-life settings. METHODS: HIV/HCV-coinfected patients enrolled in the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH observational cohort were included if they began an all-oral DAA-based regimen before 1 May 2015 (12-week regimens) or 1 February 2015 (24-week regimens). Treatment success (SVR12) was defined by undetectable HCV-RNA 12 weeks after treatment cessation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228053/hiv-related-pneumococcal-disease-prevention-in-adults
#7
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson, Theresa Rossouw
HIV-infected persons are particularly susceptible to the development of severe pneumococcal disease, even in the setting of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), due to slow, incomplete recovery of anti-pneumococcal host defenses. This risk is increased by avoidable aspects of lifestyle, particularly smoking, which intensify immunosuppression. Clearly, more effective preventive measures are needed to counter this threat. Areas covered: This is a detailed review of the published literature focusing on currently available strategies for prevention of pneumococcal infection in HIV-infected patients, including cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, cART, pneumococcal vaccination, and smoking cessation strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226871/identifying-depressed-patients-with-and-without-suicidal-ideation-by-finger-photo-plethysmography
#8
A H Khandoker, V Luthra, Y Abouallaban, S Saha, K I Ahmed, R Mostafa, N Chowdhury, H F Jelinek, A H Khandoker, V Luthra, Y Abouallaban, S Saha, K I Ahmed, R Mostafa, N Chowdhury, H F Jelinek, A H Khandoker, R Mostafa, H F Jelinek, N Chowdhury, Y Abouallaban, S Saha, K I Ahmed, V Luthra
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a serious mental disorder that if untreated not only affects physical health but also has a high risk of suicide. While the neurophysiological phenomena that contribute to the formation of Suicidal Ideation (SI) are still ill-defined, clear links between MDD and cardiovascular disease have been reported. The aim of this study is to extract suitable features from arterial pulse signals with a view to predicting SI within MDD and control groups. Sixteen unmedicated MDD patients with a history of SI (MDDSI+), sixteen without SI (MDDSI-) and twenty-nine healthy subjects (CONT) were recruited at a psychiatric clinic in the UAE...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226649/heart-rate-independent-qt-variability-component-can-detect-subclinical-cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-in-diabetes
#9
Mohammad H Imam, Chandan K Karmakar, Ahsan H Khandoker, Herbert F Jelinek, M Palaniswami, Mohammad H Imam, Chandan K Karmakar, Ahsan H Khandoker, Herbert F Jelinek, M Palaniswami, Ahsan H Khandoker, Herbert F Jelinek, Chandan K Karmakar, Mohammad H Imam, M Palaniswami
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) may lead to life threatening arrhythmia due to denervation of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system innervating the heart. CAN is a frequently under diagnosed complication of diabetes, because a patient can have asymptomatic CAN for several years before it is clinically apparent. However, detection of CAN at the early or subclinical stage leads to more effective treatment outcomes. Cardiac autonomic reflex tests (CART) (i.e. Ewing test battery) are normally used for the detection and staging of CAN...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222098/multicenter-study-of-skin-rashes-and-hepatotoxicity-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-plus-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-in-taiwan
#10
Pei-Ying Wu, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chun-Eng Liu, Yi-Chien Lee, Chia-Jui Yang, Mao-Song Tsai, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Shih-Ping Lin, De-Yu Lin, Ning-Chi Wang, Yi-Chieh Lee, Hsin-Yun Sun, Hung-Jen Tang, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVES: Two nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus 1 non-NRTI (nNRTI) remain the preferred or alternative combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients in Taiwan. The three most commonly used nNRTIs are nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and rilpivirine (RPV). This study aimed to determine the incidences of hepatotoxicity and skin rashes within 4 weeks of initiation of cART containing 1 nNRTI plus 2 NRTIs. METHODS: Between June, 2012 and November, 2015, all antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive adult patients initiating nNRTI-containing cART at 8 designated hospitals for HIV care were included in this retrospective observational study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219696/irisin-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus-effects-of-irisin-injections-on-feeding-behavior-and-expression-of-appetite-regulators-uncoupling-proteins-and-lipoprotein-lipase-and-fasting-induced-changes-in-fndc5-expression
#11
Zahndra Diann Butt, Jessica Dalton Hackett, Hélène Volkoff
Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. In mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. To examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fish, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of irisin on feeding behavior, glucose levels and the mRNA expressions of appetite regulators (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, agouti related protein AgRP, orexin), UCPs and lipoprotein lipase LPL and brain factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor , BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase TH) were assessed in brain, white muscle and intestine...
February 20, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219090/quality-of-life-outcomes-of-patients-following-patellofemoral-stabilization-surgery-the-influence-of-trochlear-dysplasia
#12
Laurie Anne Hiemstra, Sarah Kerslake, Mark R Lafave
Trochlear dysplasia is a well-described risk factor for recurrent patellofemoral instability. Despite its clear association with the incidence of patellofemoral instability, it is unclear whether the presence of high-grade trochlear dysplasia influences clinical outcome after patellofemoral stabilization. The purpose of this study was to assess whether trochlear dysplasia influenced patient-reported, disease-specific outcomes in surgically treated patellar instability patients, when risk factors were addressed in accordance with the à la carte surgical approach to the treatment of patellofemoral instability...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215744/cart-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-psychostimulants-correlations-between-psychostimulant-and-cart-peptide-effects
#13
Martin O Job, Michael J Kuhar
In this study, we reexamined the effect of Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART) peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212259/robotic-rectal-resection-with-a-single-docking-technique-thanks-to-the-rotation-of-the-r3-arm
#14
Benedetta Pesi, Mario Annecchiarico, Stefano Amore Bonapasta, Alessandro Nerini, Federico Perna, Lapo Bencini, Michele Di Marino, Andrea Coratti
BACKGROUND: Robotic surgery for rectal resection presents some advantages compared with the traditional technique; however, it also presents some limitations, especially due to the multiple changes of surgical fields. We describe a new technique to perform low-anterior resection using single docking with the rotation of the third arm and our perioperative results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients who underwent low-anterior rectal robotic resection with single-docking technique using robotic daVinci SI (Surgical Intuitive System) were included in the study...
February 20, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210784/novel-aids-therapies-based-on-gene-editing
#15
REVIEW
Kamel Khalili, Martyn K White, Jeffrey M Jacobson
HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2.6 million children. Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the 1990s, treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. However, while people with HIV can expect to live a normal life span with cART, lifelong medication is required and cardiovascular, renal, liver, and neurologic diseases are still possible, which continues to prompt research for a cure for HIV...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#16
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198713/cd1d-restricted-natural-killer-t-cells-are-preserved-in-indian-long-term-non-progressors-ltnps
#17
Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita Kulkarni, Madhuri Thakar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status and their proliferation ability in 32 long term non progressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive cART along with 35 HIV-1 negative subjects using multicolor flowcytometry...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195558/elevated-pre-treatment-il-18-level-is-associated-with-hbeag-seroconversion-in-hiv-hbv-coinfection
#18
Yijia Li, Jing Xie, Huanling Wang, Yang Han, Nidan Wang, Chloe L Thio, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is associated with better outcomes. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) controls hepatitis B replication in a mouse model. However, its role in treatment response in HIV/HBV co-infected patients is unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 35 treatment-naïve, HBeAg positive, HIV/HBV co-infected patients. HBV DNA, HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification (qHBsAg), HBeAg quantification (qHBeAg) and IL-18 levels were measured prior to, at 24 and 48 weeks of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
February 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192820/estrogen-maintains-skeletal-muscle-in-septic-rats-associated-with-altering-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-neuropeptides
#19
Chenyan Zhao, Jun Li, Minhua Cheng, Jialing Shi, Juanhong Shen, Tao Gao, Fengchan Xi, Wenkui Yu
Muscle wasting is one of the main contributors to the worse outcomes in sepsis. Whether estrogen could alleviate muscle wasting induced by sepsis remains unclear. This study was designed to test the effect of estrogen on muscle wasting and its relationship with central alteration in sepsis. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, sepsis group, and estrogen treated sepsis group. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) or saline, followed by subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg) or saline...
February 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190366/predictors-of-remote-practice-location-in-the-first-seven-cohorts-of-james-cook-university-mbbs-graduates
#20
Torres Woolley, Tarun Sen Gupta, Maria Bellei
INTRODUCTION: This article describes factors predicting James Cook University (JCU) medical graduates undertaking at least 1 year of remote practice. The cross-sectional design involved point-in-time (2015) analysis of the JCU medical school's ongoing longitudinal graduate tracking database. Participants were the first seven cohorts of graduates from the JCU medical school who had completed at least their postgraduate year (PGY) 4 in Australia (<i>n</i>=529); that is, PGY 4 to PGY 10 graduates...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
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