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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732393/microrna-30a-suppresses-tumor-progression-by-blocking-ras-raf-mek-erk-signaling-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Kun Zhou, Xiaoyu Luo, Yu Wang, Dachun Cao, Gang Sun
Emerging reports suggest microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in the progression of malignant tumors. MiR-30a is downregulated in a variety of cancers and acts as a tumor suppressing gene. However, the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-30a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. Hereby, in this study, we detected that miR-30a expression was significantly down-regulated in both HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues, and we also observed that miR-30a expression was lower in HCC cell lines than that of normal controls...
July 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724936/an-engineered-protein-antagonist-of-k-ras-b-raf-interaction
#2
Monique J Kauke, Michael W Traxlmayr, Jillian A Parker, Jonathan D Kiefer, Ryan Knihtila, John McGee, Greg Verdine, Carla Mattos, K Dane Wittrup
Ras is at the hub of signal transduction pathways controlling cell proliferation and survival. Its mutants, present in about 30% of human cancers, are major drivers of oncogenesis and render tumors unresponsive to standard therapies. Here we report the engineering of a protein scaffold for preferential binding to K-Ras G12D. This is the first reported inhibitor to achieve nanomolar affinity while exhibiting specificity for mutant over wild type (WT) K-Ras. Crystal structures of the protein R11.1.6 in complex with K-Ras WT and K-Ras G12D offer insight into the structural basis for specificity, highlighting differences in the switch I conformation as the major defining element in the higher affinity interaction...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724426/high-expression-of-ets2-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-may-guide-treatment-decisions
#3
Lin Fu, Huaping Fu, Qingyun Wu, Yifan Pang, Keman Xu, Lei Zhou, Jianlin Qiao, Xiaoyan Ke, Kailin Xu, Jinlong Shi
BACKGROUND: ETS2 is a downstream effector of the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway, which plays a critical role in the development of malignant tumor. However, the clinical impact of ETS2 expression in AML remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prognostic significance of ETS2 expression using two relatively large cohorts of AML patients. RESULTS: In the first cohort, compared to low expression of ETS2 (ETS2 (low)), high expression of ETS2 (ETS2 (high)) showed significant shorter OS, EFS and RFS in the current treatments including the allogeneic HCT group (n = 72) and the chemotherapy group (n = 100)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724377/combination-therapy-for-melanoma-with-braf-mek-inhibitor-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-a-mathematical-model
#4
Xiulan Lai, Avner Friedman
BACKGROUND: The B-raf gene is mutated in up to 66% of human malignant melanomas, and its protein product, BRAF kinase, is a key part of RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway of cancer cell proliferation. BRAF-targeted therapy induces significant responses in the majority of patients, and the combination BRAF/MEK inhibitor enhances clinical efficacy, but the response to BRAF inhibitor and to BRAF/MEK inhibitor is short lived. On the other hand, treatment of melanoma with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, such as anti-PD-1, has lower response rate but the response is much more durable, lasting for years...
July 19, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718440/selective-targeting-of-rsk-isoforms-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Kimberly A Casalvieri, Christopher J Matheson, Donald S Backos, Philip Reigan
The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase family (RSK1-4) is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that act as downstream effectors of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. The RSKs phosphorylate a range of substrates involved in transcription, translation, cell cycle regulation, and cell survival. Although the RSKs have a high degree of sequence homology, their functional differences in cancer are of great interest. Current RSK inhibitors target more than one RSK isoform, and this may limit their efficacy as anticancer agents...
April 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694330/phosphorylation-of-the-c-raf-n-region-promotes-raf-dimerization
#6
Maho Takahashi, Yanping Li, Tara J Dillon, Yumi Kariya, Philip J S Stork
Activation of Raf kinases by the small GTPase Ras requires two major sets of phosphorylations. One set lies within the activation loop and the other lies within the N-terminal acidic region (N-region). In the most abundant isoform of Raf, C-Raf, N-region phosphorylations occur on serine 338 (S338) and tyrosine 341 (Y341), and are thought to provide allosteric activation of the Raf dimer. We show that the phosphorylation of these N-region sites does not require C-Raf dimerization, but rather, they precede dimerization...
July 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693259/rktg-overexpression-inhibits-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-of-human-leukemia-cells-via-suppression-of-the-erk-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways
#7
Yingdong Xu, Na Deng, Xiaoou Wang, Yinghui Chen, Guiji Li, Hua Fan
Raf kinase trapping to Golgi (RKTG) is reported to be a tumor suppressor in a number of solid tumors due to its negative modulation of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. However, the role of RKTG in the progression of leukemia remains unknown. In the present study, a human leukemia U937 cell line overexpressing RKTG was established, and the effect of RKTG on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human leukemia cells was analyzed. The results of the present study demonstrated that exogenous overexpression of RKTG significantly inhibited cell proliferation, which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693200/sorafenib-induced-alteration-of-protein-glycosylation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#8
Tianhua Liu, Riqiang Liu, Shu Zhang, Kun Guo, Qinle Zhang, Wei Li, Yinkun Liu
Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor and is effective in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unknown whether sorafenib induces the alteration of protein glycosylation. The present study treated HCC MHCC97L and MHCC97H cells with a 50% inhibitory concentration of sorafenib. Following this treatment, alteration of protein glycosylation was detected using a lectin microarray. Compared with the controls, the binding capacity of glycoproteins extracted from sorafenib-treated HCC cells to the lectins Bauhinia purpurea lectin, Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Euonymus europaeus lectin, Helix aspersa lectin, Helix pomatia lectin, Jacalin, Maclura pomifera lectin and Vicia villosa lectin were enhanced; while, the binding capacities to the lectins Caragana arborescens lectin, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin, Limulus polyphemus lectin, Maackia amurensis lecin I, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, Ricinus communis agglutinin 60, Sambucus nigra lectin and Solanum tuberosum lectin were reduced (spot intensity median/background intensity median ≥2, P<0...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685689/arylurea-derivatives-a-class-of-potential-cancer-targeting-agents
#9
Jia-Nian Chen, De-Wen Wu, Ting Li, Kang-Jian Yang, Li Cheng, Zu-Ping Zhou, Shi-Ming Pu, Wan-Hua Lin
Arylurea derivatives, an important class of small molecules, have received considerable attention in recent years due to their wide range of biological applications. Various molecular targeted agents with arylurea scaffold as potential enzyme/receptor inhibitors were constructed with the successful development of sorafenib and regorafenib. This review focuses on those arylureas possessing anti-cancer activities from 2010 to date. According to their different mechanisms of action, these arylureas are divided into the following six categories: (1) Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway inhibitors; (2) tumor angiogenesis inhibitors, their targets include vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), c-Kit, MET, and Smoothened (Smo); (3) PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway inhibitors; (4) cell cycle inhibitors, their targets include checkpoint kinases (Chks), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), Aurora, SUMO activating enzyme 1 (SUMO E1), tubulin, and DNA; (5) tumor differentiation, migration, and invasion inhibitors, their targets include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), LIM kinase (Limk), nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), and histone deacetylase (HDAC); (6) arylureas from the rational modification of natural products...
July 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674776/investigating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-computational-approach-classical-and-non-classical-pathways
#10
Ali Khalilimeybodi, Alireza Daneshmehr, Babak Sharif-Kashani
The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674184/steady-state-levels-of-phosphorylated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-1-2-determined-by-mortalin-hspa9-and-protein-phosphatase-1-alpha-in-kras-and-braf-tumor-cells
#11
Pui-Kei Wu, Seung-Keun Hong, Jong-In Park
Although deregulation of MEK/ERK activity is a key feature in cancer, high magnitude MEK/ERK activity can paradoxically induce growth inhibition. Therefore, additional mechanisms may exist to modulate MEK/ERK activity in favor of tumor cell proliferation. We previously reported that mortalin/HSPA9 can facilitate proliferation of certain KRAS- and BRAF-tumor cells by modulating MEK/ERK activity. In this study, we demonstrate that mortalin can regulate MEK/ERK activity via protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). We found that PP1α inhibition increases steady-state levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2 in various tumor cells expressing B-Raf(V600E) or K-Ras(G12D/V) Intriguingly, co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays revealed that mortalin facilitates PP1α-mediated MEK1/2 dephosphorylation by promoting PP1α-MEK1/2 interaction in an ATP-sensitive manner...
July 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641665/-research-progress-of-ras-raf-mek-erk-signaling-pathways-in-leukemia-review
#12
Jing Liu, Na Lv, Yong-Hui Li, Li Yu
Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in the occurrence and development of leukemia. Using the inhibitors of key signaling components in the signaling pathway is new strategy for the treatment of leukemia. In recent years, the screening of these inhibitors and their in vitro and in vivo researches have become a hot spot in the field of treatment. In vivo and in vitro experiments and early clinical studies have shown that these inhibitors have good effect and application prospects in the treatment of leukemia...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634209/genetic-evidence-that-%C3%AE-arrestins-are-dispensable-for-the-initiation-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-signaling-to-erk
#13
Morgan O'Hayre, Kelsie Eichel, Silvia Avino, Xuefeng Zhao, Dana J Steffen, Xiaodong Feng, Kouki Kawakami, Junken Aoki, Karen Messer, Roger Sunahara, Asuka Inoue, Mark von Zastrow, J Silvio Gutkind
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has provided a paradigm to elucidate how G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control intracellular signaling, including the discovery that β-arrestins, which bind to ligand-activated GPCRs, are central for GPCR function. We used genome editing, conditional gene deletion, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to determine the roles of β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) and β-arr2 in β2AR internalization, trafficking, and signaling to ERK. We found that only β-arr2 was essential for β2AR internalization...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627617/sorafenib-controls-the-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-egf-and-the-cd44%C3%A2-ha-signaling-pathway-in-a-cell-type%C3%A2-dependent-manner
#14
Ga Bin Park, Hyun-Suk Ko, Daejin Kim
Cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are closely involved in cellular migration and have been used as stem cell markers. Although the hyaluronan (HA)‑binding CD44 is responsible for enhanced cellular motility, the mechanism underlying its actions in various cell types and clinical conditions have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib was used to investigate the diverse effects of EGF stimulation on epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer cells using immunoblotting and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600475/dual-inhibition-of-hdac-and-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-pathways-with-cudc-907-inhibits-thyroid-cancer-growth-and-metastases
#15
Shweta Kotian, Lisa Zhang, Myriem Boufraqech, Kelli Gaskins, Sudheer Kumar Gara, Martha M Quezado, Naris Nilubol, Electron Kebebew
PURPOSE: There is currently no standard therapy for anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC), which account for two-thirds of thyroid cancer deaths. Driver mutations in the PI3K/AKT and RAF/RAS/MEK/ERK pathways are common in ATC and PDTC. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate cancer initiation and progression. Our aim was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of simultaneously targeting these pathways in thyroid cancer with a single agent, and to evaluate biomarkers of treatment response...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599295/inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-activates-autophagy-and-compensatory-ras-raf-mek-erk-signalling-in-prostate-cancer
#16
Dominika E Butler, Christopher Marlein, Hannah F Walker, Fiona M Frame, Vincent M Mann, Matthew S Simms, Barry R Davies, Anne T Collins, Norman J Maitland
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in advanced prostate cancer, due to loss of the tumour suppressor PTEN, and is an important axis for drug development. We have assessed the molecular and functional consequences of pathway blockade by inhibiting AKT and mTOR kinases either in combination or as individual drug treatments. In established prostate cancer cell lines, a decrease in cell viability and in phospho-biomarker expression was observed. Although apoptosis was not induced, a G1 growth arrest was observed in PTEN null LNCaP cells, but not in BPH1 or PC3 cells...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595656/ros-production-induced-by-braf-inhibitor-treatment-rewires-metabolic-processes-affecting-cell-growth-of-melanoma-cells
#17
Giulia Cesi, Geoffroy Walbrecq, Andreas Zimmer, Stephanie Kreis, Claude Haan
BACKGROUND: Most melanoma patients with BRAF(V600E) positive tumors respond well to a combination of BRAF kinase and MEK inhibitors. However, some patients are intrinsically resistant while the majority of patients eventually develop drug resistance to the treatment. For patients insufficiently responding to BRAF and MEK inhibitors, there is an ongoing need for new treatment targets. Cellular metabolism is such a promising new target line: mutant BRAF(V600E) has been shown to affect the metabolism...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594589/mek-inhibitors-in-oncology-a-patent-review-2015-present
#18
REVIEW
Debarshi Kar Mahapatra, Vivek Asati, Sanjay Kumar Bharti
The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways have been identified as promising therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. Over-activation of these pathways and their components including gene mutations has been considered as one of the major causes of melanoma. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) is a downstream kinase of RAS pathway found in two different forms MEK1/2. The MEK inhibitors in combination with other kinase/mutant gene inhibitors have shown promising results in patients with metastatic melanoma...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550040/kras-g12d-expression-in-lung-resident-myeloid-cells-promotes-pulmonary-lch-like-neoplasm-sensitive-to-statin-treatment
#19
Tamihiro Kamata, Susan Giblett, Catrin Pritchard
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic neoplasm associated with somatic mutations in the genes involved in the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Recently, oncogenic mutations in NRAS/KRAS, upstream regulators of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, have been reported in pulmonary, but not in non-pulmonary, LCH cases, suggesting organ-specific contribution of oncogenic RAS to LCH pathogenesis. Using a mouse model expressing KRAS(G12D) in the lung by nasal delivery of adenoviral Cre, here we show that KRAS(G12D) expression in lung-resident myeloid cells induces pulmonary LCH-like neoplasms comprised of pathogenic CD11c(high)F4/80+CD207+ cells...
May 26, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546426/guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-epac2-dependent-activation-of-the-gtp-binding-protein-rap2a-mediates-camp-dependent-growth-arrest-in-neuroendocrine-cells
#20
Andrew C Emery, Wenqin Xu, Maribeth V Eiden, Lee E Eiden
First messenger-dependent activation of MAPKs in neuronal and endocrine cells is critical for cell differentiation and function and requires guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)- mediated activation of downstream Ras-family small GTPases, which ultimately lead to ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. Because there are numerous GEFs and also a host of Ras-family small GTPases, it is important to know which specific GEF-small GTPase dyad functions in a given cellular process. Here, we investigated the upstream activators and downstream effectors of signaling via the GEF Epac2 in the neuroendocrine NS-1 cell line...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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