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Kyle M Ewart, Greta J Frankham, Ross McEwing, Lucy M I Webster, Sherryn A Ciavaglia, Adrian M T Linacre, Dang Tat The, Kanitia Ovouthan, Rebecca N Johnson
Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking...
October 7, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Bérangère S Joly, Bénédicte Sudrié-Arnaud, Virginie Barbay, Jeanne-Yvonne Borg, Véronique Le Cam Duchez
Pregnancy is a well-established risk factor for venous thromboembolism and is associated with a state of hypercoagulability. The use of sensitive and specific biological markers to predict risk factors for thrombosis is essential during pregnancy. Our objective was to investigate the usefulness of thrombin generation test (TGT) as a marker to predict the risk of thrombosis in high risk venous thrombosis (HRVT) pregnancies compared to normal pregnancies. This retrospective study enrolled 134 women with HRVT pregnancies, 78 of whom had monozygotic, spontaneous and untreated pregnancies and formed the study group...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Richard Cheng, Sam Dawkins, Emily Tat, Moody Makar, Asma Hussaini, Raj R Makkar, Alfredo Trento, Robert J Siegel, Saibal Kar
Achieving minimal residual mitral regurgitation (MR) after percutaneous MitraClip repair is limited by iatrogenic mitral stenosis. It is unknown whether allowing moderately elevated postprocedural mean mitral gradients (MMGs) to achieve < moderate residual MR is preferable to moderate residual regurgitation. Patients with less-than-moderate residual MR but a MMG of ≥5 mm Hg (Group 1) were compared with patients with moderate residual MR (Group 2). The primary end point was heart failure hospitalization...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Aldo J Montano-Loza, Vera C Mazurak, Maryam Ebadi, Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B Sawyer, Vickie E Baracos, Norman Kneteman
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a metabolically active organ, associated with higher risk of malignancies. We aimed to evaluate if VAT is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients presenting with cirrhosis as well as HCC recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). Cirrhotic patients (n=678; 457 males) who were assessed for LT (289 with HCC) were evaluated for body composition analysis. Patients who underwent LT (n=247, 168 males) were subsequently evaluated for body composition, and 96 of these patients (78 males) had HCC...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Silvia Spoto, Eleonora Cella, Marina de Cesaris, Luciana Locorriere, Silvia Mazzaroppi, Edoardo Nobile, Arcangela M Lanotte, Lucia Pedicino, Marta Fogolari, Sebastiano Costantino, Giordano Dicuonzo, Massimo Ciccozzi, Silvia Angeletti
PURPOSE: The third Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as an organ dysfunction consequent to infection. A SOFA score ≥2 identifies sepsis. In this study, PCT and MR-proADM were evaluated along with SOFA and qSOFA scores in patients with sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: One hundred and nine septic patients and 50 patients with non-infectious disease admitted at the Department of Internal Medicine and General Surgery of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome were enrolled...
October 11, 2017: Shock
Tumenjargal Sharav, Satoru Konnai, Nyamsuren Ochirkhuu, Erdene Ochir Ts, Hirohisa Mekata, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takashi Umemura, Shiro Murata, Tungalag Chultemdorj, Kazuhiko Ohashi
The genetic characterization and actual prevalence of EIAV in Mongolian horse in the disease endemic region is currently unknown. Here, 11 of 776 horse serum samples from four Mongolian provinces tested positive on agar gel immunodiffusion test. Genomic DNA extracted from all seropositive samples was subjected to nested PCR assay. Among these, three samples tested positive with nested PCR assay and were identified by sequencing analysis based on long termination repeat and tat gene of the virus. Two of the three sequences were identical, with 94...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ravi S Keshari, Robert Silasi, Cristina Lupu, Fletcher B Taylor, Florea Lupu
Sepsis concurrently activate both coagulation and complement systems. While complement activation by bacteria is well-documented, work in mice and in vitro suggests that coagulation proteases can directly cleave complement proteins. We aimed to determine if generation of coagulation proteases in vivo can activate the complement cascade in two highly coagulopathic models. We compared temporal changes in activation biomarkers of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin, TAT), fibrinolysis (plasmin-antiplasmin, PAP) and complement (C3b, C5a, C5b-9) in baboons infused with factor Xa and phospholipids (FXa/PCPS) vs...
October 11, 2017: Blood
Ali Aygun, Burak Katipoglu, Melih Ïmamoglu, Selim Demir, Metin Yadigaroglu, Ozgur Tatli, Selim Yurtsever, Arif Usta, Ahmet Mentese, Suha Turkmen
PURPOSE: To measure serum PTX3 levels in patients admitted with right lower quadrant pain to emergency department and to investigate whether this parameter will be helpful for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted with a group of 89 patients over 17 years of age who were admitted with the complaint of right lower quadrant pain to ED and had a preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis clinically and the control group of 31 healthy volunteers in a tertiary university hospital for 3 months...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Hai-Hui Zhou, Li Zhang, Hai-Xia Zhang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Wei-Hong Ge
Transient global ischemia (TGI) is a major public health problem, and it heightens the need of effective treatments. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether recombinant polypeptide Tat-HA-NR2B9c improves spatial learning and memory deficits in rats after TGI. Rats were subjected to 20-min ischemia induced by four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method and daily injected with Tat-HA-NR2B9c (1.12 mg/kg) for 1 week. Tat-HA-NR2B9c increased CREB activity, upregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression after treated for 24 h...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Denise Andrews, Yumela Chetty, Ben S Cooper, Manjinder Virk, Stephen K Glass, Andrew Letters, Philip A Kelly, Malur Sudhanva, Dakshika Jeyaratnam
BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based respiratory pathogen (RP) results are often available too late to influence clinical decisions such as hospitalisation or antibiotic treatment due to time delay in transport of specimens and testing schedules. Ward-based i.e. point of care (POC) testing providing rapid results may alter the clinical management pathway. METHODS: FilmArray® RP polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were placed in three in-patient and out-patient medical areas...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yu Bon Man, Ka Lai Chow, Yiu Fai Tsang, Frankie Tat Kwong Lau, Wing Cheong Fung, Ming Hung Wong
This study aimed at investigating the removal efficiencies of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) of two major sewage treatment works in Hong Kong: Stonecutters Island STW (SCISTW) which adopts chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and Sha Tin STW (STSTW) which employs biological treatment. Liquid portion (LP) and particulate matter (PM) of liquid sewage samples and sludge samples were collected and followed by liquid chromatograph system. It was found that BPA (44...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
Jinming Zhang, Yifeng Zheng, Xi Xie, Lan Wang, Ziren Su, Yitao Wang, Kam W Leong, Meiwan Chen
Although tumor-targeting nanovehicles for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemotherapy have attracted great research and clinic interest, the poor cancer penetration, inefficient cellular uptake, and slow intracellular drug release greatly compromise their therapeutic outcomes. In this work, a multifunctional mixed micellar system, consisting of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) for specific liver-targeting, trans-activator of transcription (TAT) peptide for potent cell penetration, and pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester) polymers for acidic-triggered drug release, was developed to provide HCC-targeting delivery and pH-triggered release of doxorubicin (DOX)...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Christina Amatya, Ilian A Radichev, Jacob Ellefson, Mark Williams, Alexei Y Savinov
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by massive destruction of insulin-producing β cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes, arising via defective immune tolerance. Therefore, effective anti-T1D therapeutics should combine autoimmunity-preventing and insulin production-restoring properties. We constructed a cell-permeable PDX1-FOXP3-TAT fusion protein (FP) composed of two transcription factors: forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), the master regulator of differentiation and functioning of self-tolerance-promoting Tregs, and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1), the crucial factor supporting β cell development and maintenance...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Hye-Rim Lee, Jin Choi, Seung Hoon Lee, Mi-La Cho, Dae-Myung Jue
A20 (also known as TNFAIP3) is a potent anti-inflammatory protein that suppresses many intracellular signaling pathways induced by inflammatory cytokines and bacterial and viral pathogens. The anti-inflammatory function of A20 depends on its modulation of or binding to polyubiquitin chains on key signaling proteins in the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. To test whether A20 can be used as therapeutic agent in these inflammatory diseases, we prepared a recombinant cell-penetrating form of A20 (TAT-A20) for intracellular delivery and examined its effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced NF-κB activation...
October 4, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Jun Zhu, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent in HIV infected individuals and represents a special group of neuropathological disorders, which are associated with HIV-1 viral proteins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Cocaine abuse increases the incidence of HAND and exacerbates its severity by enhancing viral replication. Perturbation of dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HAND. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is essential for DA homeostasis and dopaminergic modulation of the brain function including cognition...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Padmanabhan Mannangatti, Sammanda Ramamoorthy, Lankupalle Damodara Jayanthi
Amphetamine (AMPH)-mediated norepinephrine transporter (NET) downregulation requires NET-T258/S259 trafficking motif. The present study utilizes cell permeable NET-T258/S259 motif interfering peptide, which blocks AMPH-induced NET downregulation, to explore the role of this form of NET regulation in AMPH-mediated behaviors. In rats receiving intra-accumbal microinjections of TAT-conjugated peptides encompassing NET-T258/S259 motif, acute systemic AMPH failed to inhibit NE transport in the TAT-NET-T258/S259 wild-type (WT) peptide injected hemisphere but not in the vehicle or scrambled peptide injected hemisphere...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Samira Rathnayake, Felix Nautsch, Thomas Robin Goodman, Howard P Forman, Gowthaman Gunabushanam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of relative value unit (RVU) flow and other factors in report turnaround time (TAT) in emergency radiologic operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RVU flow was defined as the normalized (to 60 minutes) total work RVUs for studies performed in a given time interval of 30 minutes (RVU flow 30) or 60 minutes (RVU flow 60). Twenty-five weekday emergency radiology shifts each for four radiologists were randomly selected...
October 5, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Dae Young Yoo, Su Bin Cho, Hyo Young Jung, Woosuk Kim, Goang-Min Choi, Moo-Ho Won, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Soo Young Choi, Seung Myung Moon
In the present study, we searched for possible candidates that can prevent ischemic damage in the rabbit spinal cord. For this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in sham- and ischemia-operated animals. As the level of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) significantly decreased 3 h after ischemia/reperfusion, we further investigated its possible role against ischemic damage using an in vitro spinal cord cell line and in vivo spinal cord ischemic model...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Elena Britti, Fabien Delaspre, Anat Feldman, Melissa Osborne, Hagar Greif, Jordi Tamarit, Joaquim Ros
Friedreich ataxia (FA) is a rare disease caused by deficiency of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein. As there is no cure available for this disease, many strategies have been developed to reduce the deleterious effects of such deficiency. One of these approaches is based on delivering frataxin to the tissues by coupling the protein to trans-activator of transcription (TAT) peptides, which enables cell membranes crossing. In this study, we tested the efficiency of TAT-MTScs-FXN fusion protein to decrease neurodegeneration markers on frataxin-depleted neurons obtained from dorsal root ganglia (DRG), one of the most affected tissues...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Muhammad Jan Akhunzada, Balasubramanian Chandramouli, Nicholus Bhattacharjee, Sara Macchi, Francesco Cardarelli, Giuseppe Brancato
It is widely accepted that endocytosis mediates the uptake of cationic cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) at relatively low concentrations (i.e. nano- to micromolar), while direct transduction across the plasma membrane comes into play at higher concentrations (i.e. micro- to millimolar). This latter process appears to depend on peptide-driven cellular processes, which in turn may induce local perturbations of plasma-membrane composition and/or integrity, and to be favored by peptide aggregation, especially into dimers...
October 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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