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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666292/human-immunodeficiency-virus-tat-protein-aids-v-region-somatic-hypermutation-in-human-b-cells
#1
Xiaohua Wang, Zhi Duan, Guojun Yu, Manxia Fan, Matthew D Scharff
Long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been shown to have a greatly increased incidence of B cell lymphomas. This increased lymphomagenesis suggests some link between HIV infection and the destabilization of the host B cell genome, a phenomenon also suggested by the extraordinary high frequency of mutation, insertion, and deletion in the broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Since HIV does not infect B cells, the molecular mechanisms of this genomic instability remain to be fully defined...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663954/characteristics-of-a-large-latent-tuberculous-infection-screening-programme-using-quantiferon-%C3%A2-tb-gold-in-korea
#2
H-J Hwang, J-H Park, S Nam, H-J Lee, H-J Kim, S Yu, S-Y Shin
BACKGROUND: As mentioned in the 'Action Strategy for TB Safe Korea' in March 2017, almost 2 million Koreans were screened for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in 2017. As a preliminary step, the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT) screened 23 824 individuals from various population groups. The present study aimed to characterise the data collected from the screening programme using the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) assay. METHODS: Interferon-gamma release assays were performed using the manual QFT or automated DS2 instruments...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662667/genetically-enhanced-t-lymphocytes-and-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
REVIEW
Tiberiu Tat, Huming Li, Catalin-Sorin Constantinescu, Anca Onaciu, Sergiu Chira, Ciprian Osan, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Cristian Berce, Sebastian Tranca, Delia Dima, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Jianliang Shen, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Liren Qian
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T cells) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) are important protocols in lymphocyte engineering. CAR-T cells have emerged as a new modality for cancer immunotherapy due to their potential efficacy against hematological malignancies. These genetically modified receptors contain an antigen-binding moiety, a hinge region, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular costimulatory domain resulting in lymphocyte T cell activation subsequent to antigen binding. In present-day medicine, four generations of CAR-T cells are described depending on the intracellular signaling domain number of T cell receptors...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662648/visceral-abdominal-fat-measured-by-computer-tomography-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-gynecological-malignancies
#4
Johanna Nattenmüller, Joachim Rom, Tom Buckner, Jalal Arvin, Benedikt Bau, Christof Sohn, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Sarah Schott
Introduction: Obesity is associated with increased incidence of ovarian (OC), cervical (CC) and endometrium cancer (EC). However, the impact of body composition (BC) on overall survival (OS), especially of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not yet understood. Methods: In 189 women with gynecological malignancies (31 OC, 104 CC, 54 EC, mean age 62.9y; mean BMI 26.8 kg/m2 ; median follow-up 30.7months) with routine staging CT-scans at baseline (mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TAT), visceral, and subcutaneous-fat-area (SAT), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed to analyze the impact of BC on survival...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660338/different-molecular-mechanisms-of-htlv-1-and-hiv-ltr-activation-by-tpa
#5
Azhar Jabareen, Manal Salman, Aya Abu-Jaafar, Mahmoud Huleihel
HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are retroviruses involved in different human diseases. However, following infection, these viruses inter into a latent state. Tax and Tat are regarded as trans-activators of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 respectively. As it known, during the latent state the infected cells contain low Tax and Tat protein levels, so the activation of these viruses must be independent of these proteins. Here we focus on exploring the mechanism of activation of these viruses by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and considered as a stress-inducing agent...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658149/coagulation-parameters-following-ehv-1-infection-in-horses
#6
M E Wilson, C L Holz, A K Kopec, J J Dau, J P Luyendyk, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelia, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656216/insights-into-cell-penetrating-peptide-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-for-internalization-into-bacterial-cells
#7
Munish Kumar, Werner Tegge, Nishima Wangoo, Rahul Jain, Rohit K Sharma
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with different biomolecules find extensive application in therapy, clinical diagnosis and biomedical imaging. Herein, two derivatives of TAT peptide with sequences YGRKKRRQRRR and YGRKKRRQRRR-(β-ala)3 -Cys-amide were conjugated with tannic acid capped gold nanoparticles which acted as a carrier for cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) into the bacterial cells. The interaction of YGRKKRRQRRR peptide with AuNPs was non-covalent in nature whereas YGRKKRRQRRR-(β-ala)3 -Cys-amide interacted covalently with the AuNPs due to presence of thiol group in cysteine which bind strongly to gold nanoparticles surface...
March 31, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655818/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-sinus-membrane-perforation-during-lateral-window-sinus-lifting-analysis-of-120-patients
#8
H C Tükel, U Tatli
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with sinus membrane perforation and the effect of sinus membrane perforation and other risk factors on graft success and postoperative sinusitis. Sinus membrane perforation, graft failure, and postoperative sinusitis were tested for an association with age, sex, operator experience, side of the operation, residual bone height, presence of septa, presence of a mucous retention cyst, and smoking (χ2 test). Logistic regression analysis was used to model the odds ratio (OR) with corresponding risk factors...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652865/calsenilin-a-presenilin-interactor-regulates-rhoa-signaling-and-neurite-outgrowth
#9
Hee-Jun Kim, Won-Haeng Lee, Mo-Jong Kim, Sunmee Shin, Byungki Jang, Jae-Bong Park, Wilma Wasco, Joseph D Buxbaum, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Calsenilin modulates A-type potassium channels, regulates presenilin-mediated γ-secretase activity, and represses prodynorphin and c-fos genes expression. RhoA is involved in various cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration, transcription, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Although recent studies demonstrate that calsenilin can directly interact with RhoA and that RhoA inactivation is essential for neuritogenesis, it is uncertain whether there is a link between calsenilin and RhoA-regulated neuritogenesis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651478/halogen-like-properties-of-the-al-13-cluster-mimicking-astatine
#10
B Molina, J R Soto, J J Castro
Astatine-211 is considered to be one of the most promising alpha-emitters in targeted alpha therapy (TAT). However, its development has been hindered by its not so well understood chemistry. Hence, any attempt to understanding it better is imperative. Here, we show through DFT calculations that the neutral endohedral Al13 cluster follows a reactivity pattern very similar to At, more than any other halogen. The halogen and alkali bonding with Al13 and At presented a strong similarity in their charge transfer processes...
April 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650545/regulation-of-blood-pressure-by-targeting-ca-v-1-2-galectin-1-protein-interaction
#11
Zhenyu Hu, Guang Li, Jiong-Wei Wang, Suet Yen Chong, Dejie Yu, Xiaoyuan Wang, Jia Lin Soon, Mui Cheng Liang, Yuk Peng Wong, Na Huang, Henry M Colecraft, Ping Liao, Tuck Wah Soong
Background -L-type CaV 1.2 channels play crucial roles in regulation of blood pressure. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), has been reported to bind to the I-II loop of CaV 1.2 channels to reduce their current density. However, the mechanistic understanding for the down-regulation of CaV 1.2 channels by Gal-1, and whether Gal-1 plays a direct role in blood pressure regulation remain unclear. Methods - In vitro experiments involving co-IP, western blot, patch-clamp recordings, immunohistochemistry and pressure myography were used to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which Gal-1 down-regulates CaV 1...
April 12, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630084/evaluation-of-p53-and-ki67-expression-profiles-in-basal-cell-carcinomas-in-a-usual-and-an-unusual-location
#12
Nuran Süngü, Merve Meryem Kiran, Hayriye Tatli Doğan, Aydan Kiliçarslan, Emre Karakök, Mesut Akyol
OBJECTIVE: Owing to their importance in cell proliferation in cutaneous malignancies, we aimed to immunohistochemically compare the expression profiles of p53 and Ki67 in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases in both a usual and an unusual locations in this study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In this study we included 12 in an unusual location of BCC cases and 21 BCC cases in a usual location. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and Ki67 antibodies were studied in 33 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of basal cell carcinoma...
April 9, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625277/the-loss-of-p21-activated-kinase-pak1-promotes-atrial-arrhythmic-activity-the-role-of-pak1-in-atrial-arrhythmia
#13
Jaime DeSantiago, Dan J Bare, Disha Varma, R John Solaro, Rishi Arora, Kathrin Banach
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is initiated through arrhythmic atrial excitation from outside the sinus node or remodeling of atrial tissue that allows reentry of excitation. Angiotensin II (AngII) has been implicated in initiation and maintenance of AF through changes in Ca2+ handling and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the role of Pak1, a downstream target in the AngII signaling cascade, in atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmia...
April 3, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621380/association-of-muscle-and-adiposity-measured-by-computed-tomography-with-survival-in-patients-with-nonmetastatic-breast-cancer
#14
Bette J Caan, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Carla M Prado, Stacey Alexeeff, Candyce H Kroenke, Patrick Bradshaw, Charles P Quesenberry, Erin K Weltzien, Adrienne L Castillo, Taiwo A Olobatuyi, Wendy Y Chen
Importance: Sarcopenia (low muscle mass), poor muscle quality (low muscle radiodensity), and excess adiposity derived from computed tomography (CT) has been related to higher mortality in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but the association with prognosis in patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer is unknown. Objective: To evaluate associations of all 3 body composition measures, derived from clinically acquired CT at diagnosis, with overall mortality in nonmetastatic breast cancer...
April 5, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620215/integrated-analysis-of-the-gene-expression-profile-and-dna-methylation-profile-of-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Juan Shen, Bin Zhu
In order to better understand the etiology of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D) at the molecular level, the present study investigated the gene expression and DNA methylation profiles associated with T2D via systemic analysis. Gene expression (GSE64998) and DNA methylation profiles (GSE65057) from liver tissues of healthy controls and obese patients with T2D were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially‑methylated genes (DMGs) were identified using the Limma package, and their overlapping genes were additionally determined...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619223/respiratory-exacerbation-in-a-young-adult-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-tricuspid-atresia
#16
Jamie Wood, Abbey Sawyer, Siobhain Mulrennan, Andrew Bullock
Tricuspid atresia (TAt) is a complex congenital heart defect (CHD) characterized by the absence of the tricuspid valve and right ventricular hypoplasia requiring surgery in childhood, the Fontan procedure. We present a case of a 21-year-old male with TAt and cystic fibrosis (CF), who underwent a Fontan procedure in childhood, presenting to an adult CF clinic with severe deterioration in his respiratory status and multi-organ dysfunction associated with CF. This report describes problems associated with the management of a CF respiratory exacerbation and extrapulmonary manifestations of CF in the unique situation of a Fontan circulation, a circulation with absence of a subpulmonary ventricle and pulsatile pulmonary arterial blood flow where maintenance of systemic cardiac output is totally dependent on good respiratory function and low pulmonary artery pressures...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619130/copeptin-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-acute-chest-pain-and-suspected-acute-coronary-syndrome
#17
Beata Morawiec, Damian Kawecki, Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec, Mariusz Opara, Piotr Muzyk, Lam Ho, Lui Chun Tat, Artur Gabrysiak, Olivier Muller, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska
Background: In patients admitted with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), it is crucial to early identify those who are at higher risk of adverse events. The study aim was to assess the predictive value of copeptin in patients admitted to the emergency department with chest pain and nonconclusive ECG. Methods: Consecutive patients suspected for an ACS were enrolled prospectively. Copeptin and high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) were measured at admission...
2018: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618654/exosomal-tat-protein-activates-latent-hiv-1-in-primary-resting-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#18
Xiaoli Tang, Huafei Lu, Mark Dooner, Stacey Chapman, Peter J Quesenberry, Bharat Ramratnam
Replication competent HIV-1 persists in a subpopulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes despite prolonged antiretroviral treatment. This residual reservoir of infected cells harbors transcriptionally silent provirus capable of reigniting productive infection upon discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Certain classes of drugs can activate latent virus but not at levels that lead to reductions in HIV-1 reservoir size in vivo. Here, we show the utility of CD4+ receptor targeting exosomes as an HIV-1 latency reversal agent (LRA)...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617690/thrombin-generation-in-vitreous-and-subretinal-fluid-of-patients-with-retinal-detachment
#19
Verena C Mulder, Jeroen Bastiaans, Cornelis J M van Leuven, Jan C van Meurs, Cornelis Kluft
PURPOSE: To measure prothrombin fragments (F1+2) and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) in vitreous and subretinal fluid (SRF) of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) patients and to validate and further specify our earlier finding of increased thrombin activity in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). METHODS: F1+2 and TAT were measured in 31 vitreous and 16 SRF samples using the Enzygnost® immunoassays. RESULTS: We found significant levels of F1+2 and TAT in the vitreous of all patients with RRD compared to patients with macular hole or macular pucker...
April 4, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615005/improving-risk-prediction-accuracy-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army-by-adding-self-report-survey-data-to-administrative-data
#20
Samantha L Bernecker, Anthony J Rosellini, Matthew K Nock, Wai Tat Chiu, Peter M Gutierrez, Irving Hwang, Thomas E Joiner, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: High rates of mental disorders, suicidality, and interpersonal violence early in the military career have raised interest in implementing preventive interventions with high-risk new enlistees. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) developed risk-targeting systems for these outcomes based on machine learning methods using administrative data predictors. However, administrative data omit many risk factors, raising the question whether risk targeting could be improved by adding self-report survey data to prediction models...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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