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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109189/parents-and-peers-normative-influence-on-adolescents-smoking-results-from-a-swiss-italian-sample-of-middle-schools-students
#1
Francesca Scalici, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND AND METHOD: Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking...
January 21, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109011/individual-physician-penalties-resulting-from-violation-of-emtala-a-review-of-office-of-the-inspector-general-patient-dumping-settlements-2002-2015
#2
Sophie Terp, Brandon Wang, Brian Raffetto, Seth A Seabury, Michael Menchine
OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of civil monetary penalty settlements levied by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) against individual physicians related to violation of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). METHODS: Descriptions of all civil monetary penalty settlements between 2002 and 2015 were obtained from the OIG. Characteristics of settlements against individual physicians related to EMTALA violations were described including settlement date, location, amount, whether there was an associated hospital settlement, the medical specialty of the physician involved, and the nature of the allegation...
January 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109006/attitudes-towards-non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-among-obstetricians-in-pakistan-a-developing-islamic-country
#3
Shenaz Ahmed, Hussain Jafri, Yasmin Rashid, Gerald Mason, Yasmin Ehsan, Mushtaq Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Stakeholders' views are essential for informing implementation strategies for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Little is known about such views in developing countries. We explored attitudes toward NIPT among obstetricians in Pakistan, a developing Islamic country. METHODS: A 35-item questionnaire was distributed and collected at eight events (a national conference and seven workshops in five cities) for obstetric professionals on advances in fetal medicine...
January 20, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108927/impact-of-a-brief-group-intervention-to-enhance-parenting-and-the-home-learning-environment-for-children-aged-6-36%C3%A2-months-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
N J Hackworth, D Berthelsen, J Matthews, E M Westrupp, W Cann, O C Ukoumunne, S K Bennetts, T Phan, A Scicluna, M Trajanovska, M Yu, J M Nicholson
: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group parenting intervention designed to strengthen the home learning environment of children from disadvantaged families. Two cluster randomised controlled superiority trials were conducted in parallel and delivered within existing services: a 6-week parenting group (51 locations randomised; 986 parents) for parents of infants (aged 6-12 months), and a 10-week facilitated playgroup (58 locations randomised; 1200 parents) for parents of toddlers (aged 12-36 months)...
January 20, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108866/donor-conception-and-passing-or-why-australian-parents-of-donor-conceived-children-want-donors-who-look-like-them
#5
Karen-Anne Wong
This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108835/integrating-family-as-a-discipline-by-providing-parent-led-curricula-impact-on-lend-trainees-leadership-competency
#6
Bruce L Keisling, Elizabeth A Bishop, Jenness M Roth
Background While the MCH Leadership Competencies and family as a discipline have been required elements of Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and related Disabilities (LEND) programs for over a decade, little research has been published on the efficacy of either programmatic component in the development of the next generation of leaders who can advocate and care for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) populations. Objective To test the effectiveness of integrating the family discipline through implementation of parent led curricula on trainees' content knowledge, skills, and leadership development in family-centered care, according to the MCH Leadership Competencies...
January 20, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108834/unmet-health-care-needs-among-children-exposed-to-parental-incarceration
#7
Kristin Turney
Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs...
January 20, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108698/genome-wide-analysis-of-fatty-acid-desaturation-and-its-response-to-temperature
#8
Guillaume Menard, Jose Martin Moreno, Fiona Bryant, Olaya Munoz-Azcarate, Amélie A Kelly, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Smita Kurup, Peter J Eastmond
Plants modify the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of their membrane and storage lipids in order to adapt to changes in temperature. In developing seeds this response is largely controlled by the activities of the microsomal ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, FAD2 and FAD3. Although temperature-regulation of desaturation has been studied at the molecular and biochemical level, the genetic control of this trait is poorly understood. Here we have characterised the response of Arabidopsis thaliana seed lipids to variation in ambient temperature and found that heat inhibits both ω-6 and ω-3 desaturation in phosphatidylcholine, leading to a proportional change in triacylglycerol composition...
January 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108667/effects-on-circulating-steroid-hormones-and-gene-expression-along-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-adult-japanese-quail-exposed-to-17%C3%AE-trenbolone-across-multiple-generations
#9
Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Yu Chen, Paula F P Henry, Catherine M Maddox, Daniel T Sprague
We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17ß-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured...
January 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108594/parental-perceptions-of-barriers-to-active-commuting-to-school-in-spanish-children-and-adolescents
#10
Francisco Javier Huertas-Delgado, Manuel Herrador-Colmenero, Emilio Villa-González, María Jesús Aranda-Balboa, María Victoria Cáceres, Sandra Mandic, Palma Chillón
BACKGROUND: Understanding parental barriers is crucial to promote active commuting to school since the parental perceptions influence how young people commute. This study examined parental barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish children and adolescents, and their association with their gender and the usual mode of commuting. METHODS: Parents of children (n = 628) and parents of adolescents (n = 151) from Granada (Spain) completed a paper-based questionnaire about perceived parental barriers to active commuting to school and mode of commuting...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108580/chronic-conditions-and-health-care-needs-of-adolescents-born-at-23-to-25-weeks-gestation
#11
Antti Holsti, Marie Adamsson, Bruno Hägglöf, Aijaz Farooqi, Fredrik Serenius
OBJECTIVE: We examined chronic conditions, functional limitations, and special health care needs in extremely preterm children (EPT; 23-25 weeks' gestation) born between 1992 and 1998 at 2 Swedish tertiary care centers that offered regional and active perinatal care to all live-born EPT infants. METHODS: Of 134 surviving EPT children, 132 (98%) were assessed at 10 to 15 years of age alongside 103 term-born controls. Identification of children with functional limitations and special health care needs was based on a questionnaire administered to parents...
January 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108418/intragenus-campylomormyrus-and-intergenus-hybrids-in-mormyrid-fish-physiological-and-histological-investigations-of-the-electric-organ-ontogeny
#12
Frank Kirschbaum, Linh Nguyen, Stephanie Baumgartner, Linda Chi, Rene Wolfart, Khouloud Elarbani, Hari Eppenstein, Yevheniia Korniienko, Lilian Guido-Böhm, Victor Mamonekene, Marianne Vater, Ralph Tiedemann
African weakly electric mormyrid fish show a high diversity of their electric organ discharge (EOD) both across and within genera. Thanks to a recently developed technique of artificial reproduction in mormyrid fish, we were able to perform hybridizations between different genera and within one genus (Campylomormyrus). The hybrids of intergenus hybridizations exhibited different degrees of reduced survival related to the phylogenetic distance of the parent species: hybrids of the crosses between C. rhynchophorus and its sister genus Gnathonemus survived and developed normally...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108344/reward-sensitivity-and-body-weight-the-intervening-role-of-food-responsive-behavior-and-external-eating
#13
Laura Vandeweghe, Sandra Verbeken, Leentje Vervoort, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet
BACKGROUND: During the last three decades, the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased worldwide. It is well established that different child-related factors such as food approach behaviors (i.e. eating behaviors that imply movements towards food) contribute to the development of overweight. However, research is lacking on the underlying mechanisms leading to food approach behaviors, which in turn lead to overweight. SUBJECT/METHODS: Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigated the relation between the personality trait reward sensitivity and body weight in a convenience sample of 211 children aged 2...
January 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108332/sex-dependent-effects-of-early-life-inflammatory-pain-on-sucrose-intake-and-sucrose-associated-hippocampal-arc-expression-in-adult-rats
#14
Yoko O Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Anne Z Murphy, Marise B Parent
We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memory, form a memory of a meal and inhibit the initiation of the next meal and the amount ingested during that meal. In support, we showed previously that (1) consuming a sucrose meal induces expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in dHC neurons and (2) reversible inactivation of these neurons immediately following a sucrose meal accelerates the onset of the next meal and increases the size of that meal...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108315/essential-role-of-notch4-stat3-signaling-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-tamoxifen-resistant-human-breast-cancer
#15
Quyen Thu Bui, Ji Hye Im, Sung Baek Jeong, Young-Mi Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Bumseok Kim, Keon Wook Kang
We previously demonstrated that tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant human breast cancer (TAMR-MCF-7) cells showed increased expression of mesenchymal marker proteins compared to the parent MCF-7 cells. Notch is functionally important in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during both development and tumor progression. Notch1 and Notch4 have been reported as prognostic markers in human breast cancer. Here, we indicated that Notch4, but not Notch1, plays a critical role in the regulation of EMT signaling in TAMR-MCF-7 cells...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108260/triple-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer-is-dependent-on-sphks-s1p-signaling-for-growth-and-survival
#16
Aparna Maiti, Kazuaki Takabe, Nitai C Hait
About 40,000 American women die from metastatic breast cancer each year despite advancements in treatment. Approximately, 15% of breast cancers are triple-negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2. Triple-negative cancer is characterized by more aggressive, harder to treat with conventional approaches and having a greater possibility of recurrence. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid signaling mediator has emerged as a key regulatory molecule in breast cancer progression...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108229/vaccine-shot-limiting-estimating-the-prevalence-indicators-and-impact-on-vaccination-status-michigan-2012
#17
Meghan Weinberg, Stephanie Dietz, Rachel Potter, Robert Swanson, Corinne Miller, Jevon McFadden
BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding vaccine safety and pain have prompted certain parents to limit the number of shots their child receives per visit. We estimated the prevalence of shot-limited children in Michigan, described their characteristics, assessed whether shot-limited children were up-to-date on recommended vaccinations, and investigated possible intervention points for vaccination education. METHODS: We analyzed vaccination registry and birth record data of children born in Michigan during 2012 who had ⩾2 vaccination visits, with ⩾1 visits after age 5months...
January 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108188/parental-expectations-and-child-screen-and-academic-sedentary-behaviors-in-china
#18
Miao Li, Hong Xue, Weidong Wang, Youfa Wang
INTRODUCTION: This study examined sociodemographic patterns of parental expectations for academic performance, terminal degree, and future occupation for middle school students in China, and how these expectations influence students' screen-based and academic-related sedentary behaviors through parenting control practices. METHODS: Based on data collected in 2013-2014 from 19,487 Chinese middle school students, bivariate logistic regressions tested associations between sociodemographic variables and parental expectations; structural equation models tested associations between parental expectations and students' self-reported daily time on TV/Internet/homework, with parental controls as potential mediators...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108152/vocal-symptoms-and-voice-quality-in-children-with-allergy-and-asthma
#19
Emma Kallvik, Johannes Savolainen, Susanna Simberg
OBJECTIVES: The background for dysphonia is multifactorial, and health-related factors have been listed among the factors affecting voice. In previous studies with adult participants, allergy and asthma have been indicated to have a connection to vocal symptoms. With the majority of previous research being studies involving adult participants, it is unclear what the effect of allergy and asthma on children's voices is. The aim of this study was to investigate if allergies and asthma are risk factors for having vocal symptoms...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108060/yogurt-consumption-in-infancy-is-inversely-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-food-sensitization-at-5-years-of-age-a-hospital-based-birth-cohort-study
#20
Tetsuo Shoda, Masaki Futamura, Limin Yang, Masami Narita, Hirohisa Saito, Yukihiro Ohya
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that habitual yogurt consumption is associated with favorable outcomes for health issues in children. However, the effects of yogurt consumption on allergic diseases and sensitization in children remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This prospective birth cohort study aimed to investigate for associations between habitual yogurt consumption in infancy and development of allergic diseases/sensitization at 5 years of age...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
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