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Amyloid beta tau protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239599/a-tau-derived-hexapeptide-acphf6-promotes-beta-amyloid-a%C3%AE-fibrillogenesis
#1
Tarek Mohamed, Sarbjeet Singh Gujral, Praveen P N Rao
We studied the interactions of a tau derived hexapeptide AcPHF6 with beta-amyloid peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 which reveals its unusual ability to promote Aβ fibrillogenesis. The results demonstrate that the N-acetylated and C-amidated AcPHF6 hexapeptide can cause significant acceleration in Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibril growth. Aggregation kinetic studies at pH 7.4 show that at 25 μM, AcPHF6 hexapeptide was able to cause ~2.3-fold increase in Aβ40 fibrillogenesis dramatically changing the aggregation kinetics. In addition, AcPHF6 peptide was able to reduce cellular toxicity mediated by Aβ40 and Aβ42 in hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22)...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239334/calycosin-improves-cognitive-function-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-c-pathway
#2
Lei Song, Xiaoping Li, Xiao-Xue Bai, Jian Gao, Chun-Yan Wang
The major pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease are beta amyloid deposits and cognitive impairment. Calycosin is a typical phytoestrogen derived from radix astragali that binds to estrogen receptors to produce estrogen-like effects. Radix astragali Calycosin has been shown to relieve cognitive impairment induced by diabetes mellitus, suggesting calycosin may improve the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease patients. The protein kinase C pathway is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating Alzheimer's disease-related beta amyloid degradation...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237931/tau-mediated-neurodegeneration-and-potential-implications-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Xi-Lin Wu, Juan Piña-Crespo, Yun-Wu Zhang, Xiao-Chun Chen, Hua-Xi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To review recent research advances on tau, a major player in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a biomarker for AD onset, and potential target for AD therapy. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on a comprehensive search using online literature databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Literature search was based on the following keywords: Alzheimer's disease, tau protein, biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), therapeutics, plasma, imaging, propagation, spreading, seeding, prion, conformational templating, and posttranslational modification...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232315/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-pretreatment-in-a-sporadic-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#4
Chongyun Wu, Luodan Yang, Donovan Tucker, Yan Dong, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Quanguang Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of swimming exercise pretreatment on a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease rat model and provide an initial understanding of related molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male 2.5-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 4 groups: a) control, b) swim + vehicle, c) STZ without swim, and d) swim + STZ. The Barnes Maze task and Novel Object Recognition test were used to measure hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and working memory, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220126/can-the-retina-be-used-to-diagnose-and-plot-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Deepti Mahajan, Marcela Votruba
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of senile dementia. It impairs the quality of life of a person and their family, posing a serious economic and social threat in developed countries. The fact that the diagnosis can only be definitively made post-mortem, or when the disease is fairly advanced, presents a serious problem if novel therapeutic interventions are to be devised and used early in the course of the disease. There is therefore a pressing need for more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests with which we can detect AD in the preclinical stage...
December 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213490/neuropathological-findings-in-entorhinal-cortex-of-subjects-aged-50-years-or-older-and-their-correlation-with-dementia-in-a-sample-from-southern-brazil
#6
Edson Rodrigues Neto, Mariana K Fonseca, Álvaro C B Guedes, Francine H Oliveira, Arlete Hilbig, Liana Lisboa Fernandez
Introduction: The aims of this study were to survey neurodegenerative changes detected by abnormal protein deposits in the Entorhinal Cortex (EC) of subjects aged 50 years or older and to correlate these findings with suspected dementia, as detected by the IQCODE (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly). Methods: Fourteen brains were submitted to the immunohistochemistry technique for different proteins (beta-amyloid, tau, α-synuclein and phospho-TDP-43) and data obtained compared with IQCODE scores...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210299/new-cyclopentaquinoline-hybrids-with-multifunctional-capacities-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Kamila Czarnecka, Małgorzata Girek, Karolina Maciejewska, Robert Skibiński, Jakub Jończyk, Marek Bajda, Jacek Kabziński, Przemysław Sołowiej, Ireneusz Majsterek, Paweł Szymański
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of brain neurodegeneration and the most prevailing cause of dementia. Unfortunately, the aetiology of AD is not completely studied but different factors are associated with the development of AD such as among others low level of acetylcholine, aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The study encompass organic syntheses of 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline with 5,6-dichloronicotinic acid and suitable linkers derivatives as multifunctional agents for AD treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203278/importance-of-tau-in-cognitive-decline-as-revealed-by-developmental-exposure-to-lead
#8
K Wright, S W Bihaqi, A Lahouel, A Masoud, F Mushtaq, A Leso, A Eid, N H Zawia
Previous reports by us have determined that developmental exposure to the heavy metal lead (Pb) resulted in cognitive impairment in aging wildtype mice, and a latent induction in biomarkers associated with both the tau and amyloid pathways. However, the relationship between these two pathways and their correlation to cognitive performance needs to be scrutinized. Here, we investigated the impact of developmental Pb (0.2%) exposure on the amyloid and tau pathways in a transgenic mouse model lacking the tau gene...
December 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#9
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125490/plasma-proteomic-profiles-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-defined-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-older-adults
#10
Loïc Dayon, Jérôme Wojcik, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Ornella Cominetti, Aikaterini Oikonomidi, Hugues Henry, Eugenia Migliavacca, Gene L Bowman, Julius Popp
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of the beta-amyloid and microtubule associated protein tau metabolism have proven the capacity to improve classification of subjects developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The blood plasma proteome was characterized to further elaborate upon the mechanisms involved and identify proteins that may improve classification of older adults developing an AD dementia. OBJECTIVE: Identify and describe plasma protein expressions that best classify subjects with CSF-defined presence of AD pathology and cerebral amyloidosis...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111028/csf-biomarkers-%C3%AE-amyloid-tau-proteins-and-a-synuclein-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-parkinson-plus-syndromes
#11
Vasilios C Constantinides, George P Paraskevas, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, Olga Petropoulou, Anastasia Bougea, Kostas Vekrellis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Eleftherios Stamboulis, Elisabeth Kapaki
INTRODUCTION: Differential diagnosis of Parkinson-plus patients (PSP, CBD, MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is often not straightforward, particularly in atypical cases or at the initial stages of the diseases. Classic CSF biomarkers (amyloid-beta - Aβ42, tau protein - τT and phosphorylated tau protein - τP-181) are established biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CSF a-synuclein (α-syn) has emerged as a promising biomarker in patients with Parkinsonism...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107184/anxiety-like-behavior-as-an-early-endophenotype-in-the-tgf344-ad-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Nathan S Pentkowski, Laura E Berkowitz, Shannon M Thompson, Emma N Drake, Carlos R Olguin, Benjamin J Clark
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (tangles). Early diagnosis through neuropsychological testing is difficult due to comorbidity of symptoms between AD and other types of dementia. As a result, there is a need to identify the range of behavioral phenotypes expressed in AD. In the present study, we utilized a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) model that bears the mutated amyloid precursor protein as well as presenilin-1 genes, resulting in progressive plaque and tangle pathogenesis throughout the cortex...
October 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097599/brains-with-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-and-copathology-showed-a-prolonged-end-stage-of-disease
#13
Aitzol Miguelez-Rodriguez, Jorge Santos-Juanes, Ikerne Vicente-Etxenausia, Katty Perez de Heredia-Goñi, Beatriz Garcia, Luis M Quiros, Laura Lorente-Gea, Isabel Guerra-Merino, Jose J Aguirre, Ivan Fernandez-Vega
AIMS: To investigate the expression of major proteins related to primary neurodegenerative diseases and their prognostic significance in brains with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty consecutive cases of confirmed CJD during the period 2010-2015 at Basque Brain bank were retrospectively reviewed. Moreover, major neurodegenerative-associated proteins (phosphorylated Tau, 4R tau, 3R tau, alpha-synuclein, TDP43, amyloid beta) were tested...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094110/enhanced-sleep-reverses-memory-deficits-and-underlying-pathology-in-drosophila-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Stephane Dissel, Markus Klose, Jeff Donlea, Lijuan Cao, Denis English, Raphaelle Winsky-Sommerer, Bruno van Swinderen, Paul J Shaw
To test the hypothesis that sleep can reverse cognitive impairment during Alzheimer's disease, we enhanced sleep in flies either co-expressing human amyloid precursor protein and Beta-secretase (APP:BACE), or in flies expressing human tau. The ubiquitous expression of APP:BACE or human tau disrupted sleep. The sleep deficits could be reversed and sleep could be enhanced when flies were administered the GABA-A agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP). Expressing APP:BACE disrupted both Short-term memory (STM) and Long-term memory (LTM) as assessed using Aversive Phototaxic Suppression (APS) and courtship conditioning...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093542/htra1-activation-is-driven-by-an-allosteric-mechanism-of-inter-monomer-communication
#15
Alvaro Cortes Cabrera, Esther Melo, Doris Roth, Andreas Topp, Frederic Delobel, Corinne Stucki, Chia-Yi Chen, Peter Jakob, Balazs Banfai, Tom Dunkley, Oliver Schilling, Sylwia Huber, Roberto Iacone, Paula Petrone
The human protease family HtrA is responsible for preventing protein misfolding and mislocalization, and a key player in several cellular processes. Among these, HtrA1 is implicated in several cancers, cerebrovascular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Currently, HtrA1 activation is not fully characterized and relevant for drug-targeting this protease. Our work provides a mechanistic step-by-step description of HtrA1 activation and regulation. We report that the HtrA1 trimer is regulated by an allosteric mechanism by which monomers relay the activation signal to each other, in a PDZ-domain independent fashion...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081063/selenium-and-zinc-against-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-cytotoxicity-and-tau-phosphorylation-in-pc12-cells-and-inhibits-%C3%AE-cleavage-of-app
#16
Guang-Zhe Li, Fang Liu, Cui Xu, Jing-Yang Li, Yan-Ji Xu
Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the main component of the amyloid plaques that accumulate in the brains of Alzheimer patients. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the combined treatment with selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) offers more beneficial effects than that provided by either of them alone in reversing Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Cells were pretreated with 0.1 μmol/L of Se and Zn for 4 h, after treated with 10 mmol/L Aβ25-35 for 24 h. Cells were divided into control and five treated groups, and received either 10 mmol/L Aβ25-35,10 mmol/L Aβ25-35 + 0...
October 28, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073110/m344-promotes-nonamyloidogenic-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-while-normalizing-alzheimer-s-disease-genes-and-improving-memory
#17
Claude-Henry Volmar, Hasib Salah-Uddin, Karolina J Janczura, Paul Halley, Guerline Lambert, Andrew Wodrich, Sivan Manoah, Nidhi H Patel, Gregory C Sartor, Neil Mehta, Nancy T H Miles, Sachi Desse, David Dorcius, Michael D Cameron, Shaun P Brothers, Claes Wahlestedt
Alzheimer's disease (AD) comprises multifactorial ailments for which current therapeutic strategies remain insufficient to broadly address the underlying pathophysiology. Epigenetic gene regulation relies upon multifactorial processes that regulate multiple gene and protein pathways, including those involved in AD. We therefore took an epigenetic approach where a single drug would simultaneously affect the expression of a number of defined AD-related targets. We show that the small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitor M344 reduces beta-amyloid (Aβ), reduces tau Ser396 phosphorylation, and decreases both β-secretase (BACE) and APOEε4 gene expression...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065845/identification-of-electrophysiological-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-microarray-based-transcriptomics-and-molecular-pathway-analysis-study
#18
Zeenat Mirza, Nisreen Rajeh
Involvement of amyloid beta and tau proteins in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been studied extensively. However, electrophysiological activity, and cellular processes like membrane transport are mostly unstudied. Electrophysiological processes provide a bridge between brain activity and cognition, and show promise as translatable biomarkers in preclinical and clinical applications. Biochemical imbalance leads to change in glutamate-based neurotransmission, antioxidant capacity, and in membrane polarization-repolarization events, eventually, resulting in AD...
October 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063514/biomarkers-of-neuronal-injury-and-amyloid-metabolism-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-infected-with-hiv-1-subtypes-b-and-c
#19
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Mauro Piovesan, Bin Tang, Florin Vaida, Sonia Mara Raboni, Scott Letendre, Michael Potter, Meire S Batistela Fernandes, Ronald J Ellis
Based on prior reports that the HIV-1 Tat protein modulates amyloid-beta (Aβ) metabolism, this study aimed to compare CSF neural injury biomarkers between 27 patients with HIV subtype B, 26 patients with HIV subtype C, 18 healthy HIV-negative controls, and 24 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunoassays were used to measure soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β (sAPPα, sAPPβ), Aβ oligomers 38, 40, 42, and Aβ-total; phosphorylated tau (P-tau181), and total tau (T-tau). Comparisons between HIV(+) and HIV(-) (including AD) were adjusted by linear regression for gender and age; HIV subtype comparisons were adjusted for nadir CD4 and plasma viral load suppression...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054022/a-shape-code-nanoplasmonic-biosensor-for-multiplex-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers
#20
Hanbi Kim, Jong Uk Lee, Sojin Song, Soohyun Kim, Sang Jun Sim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with the loss of nerve cells in the brain. The disease is affected by multifactorial pathways and leads to changes in related biomolecular levels as AD progresses. Therefore, AD should be diagnosed with combined detection of several lesions to improve accuracy. Amyloid beta 1-40, 1-42 and τ (tau) protein are milestones in AD pathology and can be used as main screening and diagnostic target markers. Here, we suggest a highly selective biosensor for detection of AD core biomarkers on one platform through distinct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) depending on gold nanoparticles shapes, called a shape-code biosensor...
March 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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