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Amyloid beta tau protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447949/protective-effects-of-alpinae-oxyphyllae-fructus-extracts-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Yunlong Wang, Mengshi Wang, Kaiyue Fan, Tongde Li, Tingxu Yan, Bo Wu, Kaishun Bi, Ying Jia
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alpinae Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) with warming and tonifying the kidney and spleen, anti-salivation, anti-polyuria and anti-diarrhea functions is the dried ripe fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae). As a traditional Chinese medicine, its application history is very long. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of different solvent extracts from AOF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to elucidate the traditional medical theories with modern pharmacological methods and provide a reference for further clarifying its active components and mechanisms...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413525/synaptotoxic-signaling-by-amyloid-beta-oligomers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-through-prion-protein-and-mglur5
#2
A Harrison Brody, Stephen M Strittmatter
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents an impending global health crisis, yet the complexity of AD pathophysiology has so far precluded the development of any interventions to successfully slow or halt AD progression. It is clear that accumulation of Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide triggers progressive synapse loss to cause AD symptoms. Once initiated by Aβ, disease progression is complicated and accelerated by inflammation and by tau pathology. The recognition that Aβ peptide assumes multiple distinct states and that soluble oligomeric species (Aβo) are critical for synaptic damage is central to molecular understanding of AD...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410317/secreted-amyloid-precursor-protein-alpha-activates-neuronal-insulin-receptors-and-prevents-diabetes-induced-encephalopathy
#3
Brent D Aulston, Jason Shapansky, YaWen Huang, Gary L Odero, Gordon W Glazner
Secreted amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPPα) is a potent neurotrophin in the CNS but a dedicated receptor has not been found. However, protein interactions involving amyloid beta (Aβ), a peptide cleaved from the same parent peptide as sAPPα, indicate that insulin receptors (IRs) could be a target of amyloid peptides. In this study, in vitro analysis of cortical neuronal cultures revealed that exogenous sAPPα increased IR phosphorylation in the absence of insulin. Furthermore, in an APP overexpressing mouse model, sAPPα bound IRs in the cortex with significantly greater binding in hypoinsulinemic animals...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406991/a-new-etiologic-model-for-alzheimers-disease
#4
Kathryn A Schiel
This etiologic model proposes that Alzheimers Disease (AD) arises when an unusually rapid increase in ventricle volume triggers axon stretch that culminates in the physical separation of trans-synaptic proteins. As a result, these proteins, such as neurexin, neuroligin, N-Cadherin and Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), experience a change in the configuration of their cytoplasmic tail, so that instead of transmitting signals to create and maintain synaptic structure they activate enzymes, and generate molecules, that stimulate neurite growth; for example, the transformation of the N-Cadherin tail dissolves its complex with presenilin and β-catenin triggering activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and cytoskeletal disruption...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404777/verapamil-inhibits-ser202-thr205-phosphorylation-of-tau-by-blocking-txnip-ros-p38-mapk-pathway
#5
Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Clemente Dato, Simona Paladino, Cinzia Coppola, Claudia Trebini, Maria Teresa Giordana, Lorena Perrone
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and promotes tau phosphorylation. Since Thioredoxin Interacting protein (TXNIP), the inhibitor of the anti-oxidant system of Thioredoxin, is up regulated in the hippocampus of AD patients, we investigated whether TXNIP plays a role in promoting tau phosphorylation and whether Verapamil, an inhibitor of TXNIP expression, prevents TXNIP downstream effects. METHODS: We analyzed TXNIP expression and tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of the 5xFAD mice in the absence and presence of a pharmacological treatment with Verapamil...
February 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391240/atorvastatin-and-insulin-equally-mitigate-brain-pathology-in-diabetic-rats
#6
Wasana Pratchayasakul, La-Ongdao Thongnak, Kenneth Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Pattarapong Satjaritanun, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Although insulin and atorvastatin have been shown to exert glycemic control and could improve brain function, the effects of atorvastatin or insulin as well as the combination of atorvastatin plus insulin on brain pathology in diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) are unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of atorvastatin, insulin or combined drugs on brain pathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-six male rats were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 12) and a diabetic or experimental group (n = 24)...
January 29, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377514/hypothesis-apo-lactoferrin-galantamine-proteo-alkaloid-conjugate-for-alzheimer-s-disease-intervention
#7
Olufemi D Akilo, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Priyamvada Pradeep, Lisa C du Toit, Viness Pillay
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to be caused by the accumulation of deformed beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins resulting into formation and aggregation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Additionally, AD is associated with the accumulation of iron or metal ions in the brain which causes oxidative stress. Galantamine (Gal) is one of the therapeutic agents that has been approved for the treatment of AD, but still saddled with numerous side effects and could not address the issue of iron accumulation in the brain...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352484/melatonin-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-42-induced-alteration-of-%C3%AE-app-processing-secretases-via-the-melatonin-receptor-through-the-pin1-gsk3%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#8
Vorapin Chinchalongporn, Mayuri Shukla, Piyarat Govitrapong
Melatonin is involved in the physiological regulation of the β- amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) cleaving secretases which are responsible for generation of the neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms of this regulation under pathological conditions. We establish that melatonin prevents Aβ42 -induced down-regulation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) as well as up-regulation of β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and presenilin 1 (PS1) in SH-SY5Y cell cultures...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338754/molecular-and-functional-signatures-in-a-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-assessed-by-quantitative-proteomics
#9
Dong Kyu Kim, Joonho Park, Dohyun Han, Jinhee Yang, Ahbin Kim, Jongmin Woo, Youngsoo Kim, Inhee Mook-Jung
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. To understand the pathological mechanisms underlying AD, developing animal models that completely encompass the main features of AD pathologies is indispensable. Although mouse models that display pathological hallmarks of AD (amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, or both) have been developed and investigated, a systematic approach for understanding the molecular characteristics of AD mouse models is lacking...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324921/the-correlation-of-evans-index-with-csf-protein-levels-and-ventriculomegaly
#10
D Papaoikonomou, E Karypidou, P Megagiannis, F Tsolaki-Tagaraki, S Nenopoulou, O Gkatzima, Magda Tsolaki
OBJECTIVE: The role of ventriculomegaly and its interplay between various dementia entities and their pathogenesis, as well as its correlation to the levels of CSF protein markers, remains to be elucidated. Evans index (EI) is a well-established radiological marker in the diagnosis of idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH), assessing ventricular enlargement. However, there are no previous studies investigating the correlation between EI, age, beta amyloid (Aβ), tau and phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) proteins in the CSF...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298722/pyroglutamate-and-isoaspartate-modified-amyloid-beta-in-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Maria Luisa Moro, Andrew Stephen Phillips, Katie Gaimster, Christian Paul, Amritpal Mudher, James A R Nicoll, Delphine Boche
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is considered central in AD pathogenesis and its understanding crucial for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Recent literature suggests that ageing may induce post translational modifications in Aβ, in the form of spontaneous amino acid modifications, which enhance its pathogenic properties, contributing to its aggregation.In this study, we have investigated whether the isoaspartate (IsoD-Aβ) and pyroglutamate (pE3-Aβ) modified forms of Aβ are significantly associated with AD pathology or represent markers of ageing...
January 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297157/astroglial-responses-to-amyloid-beta-progression-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Malin Olsen, Ximena Aguilar, Dag Sehlin, Xiaotian T Fang, Gunnar Antoni, Anna Erlandsson, Stina Syvänen
PURPOSE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and neuroinflammation. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the nervous system, respond to neurodegenerative disorders through astrogliosis, i.e., converting to a reactive inflammatory state. The aim of this study was to investigate how in vivo quantification of astrogliosis using positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand deuterium-L-[11C]deprenyl ([11C]DED), binding to enzyme monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) which is overexpressed in reactive astrocytes during AD, corresponds to expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, i...
January 2, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288971/effects-of-safflower-yellow-on-beta-amyloid-deposition-and-activation-of-astrocytes-in-the-brain-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#13
Xiao-Meng Shi, Hua Zhang, Zhang-Jiuzhi Zhou, Ying-Ying Ruan, Jie Pang, Lu Zhang, Wei Zhai, Yan-Li Hu
Safflower yellow (SY), one of traditional Chinese medicine extracted from safflower, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects on animal models of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), by inhibiting oxidative injury, neuronal apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. In this study, we investigated whether safflower yellow (SY) can improve cognitive function, decrease Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and overactivation of astrocytes in AD mouse model. We found that SY treatment significantly ameliorated the learning and memory deficits of APP/PS1 mice...
December 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276252/bace-inhibitors-and-tau-protein-targeting-drugs-in-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Jonathan Orf, Scot Walker
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common disease in the United States with almost 10% of people older than 65 suffering from the disease. A few drugs provide some improvement in mental function in mild-to-moderate disease, but no treatments are available to prevent the development of AD. Two new classes of drugs being investigated for the treatment or prevention of AD include drugs to decrease beta amyloid accumulation and Tau protein aggregation inhibitors. After disappointing results for treatment of AD, both classes are being tested in prevention trials...
December 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260466/targeting-neuroinflammation-to-treat-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
A Ardura-Fabregat, E W G M Boddeke, A Boza-Serrano, S Brioschi, S Castro-Gomez, K Ceyzériat, C Dansokho, T Dierkes, G Gelders, Michael T Heneka, L Hoeijmakers, A Hoffmann, L Iaccarino, S Jahnert, K Kuhbandner, G Landreth, N Lonnemann, P A Löschmann, R M McManus, A Paulus, K Reemst, J M Sanchez-Caro, A Tiberi, A Van der Perren, A Vautheny, C Venegas, A Webers, P Weydt, T S Wijasa, X Xiang, Y Yang
Over the past few decades, research on Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on pathomechanisms linked to two of the major pathological hallmarks of extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid peptides and intra-neuronal formation of neurofibrils. Recently, a third disease component, the neuroinflammatory reaction mediated by cerebral innate immune cells, has entered the spotlight, prompted by findings from genetic, pre-clinical, and clinical studies. Various proteins that arise during neurodegeneration, including beta-amyloid, tau, heat shock proteins, and chromogranin, among others, act as danger-associated molecular patterns, that-upon engagement of pattern recognition receptors-induce inflammatory signaling pathways and ultimately lead to the production and release of immune mediators...
December 19, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260371/analysis-of-the-vasculature-by-immunohistochemistry-in-paraffin-embedded-brains
#16
Yann Decker, Andreas Müller, Eszter Németh, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Marc Fatar, Michael D Menger, Yang Liu, Klaus Fassbender
The brain vasculature can be investigated in different ways ranging from in vivo to biochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry is a simple and powerful technique that can also be applied to archival tissues. However, staining of brain vessels on paraffin sections has been challenging. In this study, we developed an optimized method that can be used in paraffin-embedded mouse and human brain tissues derived from healthy controls and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. We subsequently showed that this method is fully compatible with the detection of glial cells and key markers of Alzheimer's disease including amyloid beta and phosphorylated Tau protein...
December 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239599/a-tau-derived-hexapeptide-acphf6-promotes-beta-amyloid-a%C3%AE-fibrillogenesis
#17
Tarek Mohamed, Sarbjeet Singh Gujral, Praveen P N Rao
We studied the interactions of a tau derived hexapeptide AcPHF6 with beta-amyloid peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 which reveals its unusual ability to promote Aβ fibrillogenesis. The results demonstrate that the N-acetylated and C-amidated AcPHF6 hexapeptide can cause significant acceleration in Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibril growth. Aggregation kinetic studies at pH 7.4 show that at 25 μM, AcPHF6 hexapeptide was able to cause ~2.3-fold increase in Aβ40 fibrillogenesis dramatically changing the aggregation kinetics. In addition, AcPHF6 peptide was able to reduce cellular toxicity mediated by Aβ40 and Aβ42 in hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22)...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239334/calycosin-improves-cognitive-function-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-c-pathway
#18
Lei Song, Xiaoping Li, Xiao-Xue Bai, Jian Gao, Chun-Yan Wang
The major pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease are beta amyloid deposits and cognitive impairment. Calycosin is a typical phytoestrogen derived from radix astragali that binds to estrogen receptors to produce estrogen-like effects. Radix astragali Calycosin has been shown to relieve cognitive impairment induced by diabetes mellitus, suggesting calycosin may improve the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease patients. The protein kinase C pathway is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating Alzheimer's disease-related beta amyloid degradation...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237931/tau-mediated-neurodegeneration-and-potential-implications-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Xi-Lin Wu, Juan Piña-Crespo, Yun-Wu Zhang, Xiao-Chun Chen, Hua-Xi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To review recent research advances on tau, a major player in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a biomarker for AD onset, and potential target for AD therapy. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on a comprehensive search using online literature databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Literature search was based on the following keywords: Alzheimer's disease, tau protein, biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), therapeutics, plasma, imaging, propagation, spreading, seeding, prion, conformational templating, and posttranslational modification...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232315/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-pretreatment-in-a-sporadic-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#20
Chongyun Wu, Luodan Yang, Donovan Tucker, Yan Dong, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Quanguang Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of swimming exercise pretreatment on a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease rat model and provide an initial understanding of related molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male 2.5-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 4 groups: a) control, b) swim + vehicle, c) STZ without swim, and d) swim + STZ. The Barnes Maze task and Novel Object Recognition test were used to measure hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and working memory, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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