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Amyloid beta tau protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093567/beta-amyloid-sequelae-in-the-eye-a-critical-review-on-its-diagnostic-significance-and-clinical-relevance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
T M Shah, S M Gupta, P Chatterjee, M Campbell, R N Martins
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. There is no test for its definitive diagnosis in routine clinical practice. Although phase III clinical trials have failed, only symptomatic treatment is currently available; a possible reason for these failed trials is that intervention commenced at an advanced stage of the disease. The hallmarks of an AD brain include plaques comprising of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein aggregates and intracellular hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles of tau...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093254/risperidone-ameliorated-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-cognitive-and-hippocampal-synaptic-impairments-in-mice
#2
Lingzhi Wu, Xiaowen Feng, Tingting Li, Baojuan Sun, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment and major neuropathologic hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, can improve concentration and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia patients. In this study, behavior tests including Morris Water Maze test, Step-through passive avoidance test, Open Field test, Step-Down test, Hole-Board test and Novel object recognition test were preformed to examine the effect of Risperidone on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive dysfunction in both long-term and short-term memory...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049401/alzheimer-s-disease-and-natural-products-future-regimens-emerging-from-nature
#3
Md Asiful Islam, Shahad Saif Khandker, Fahmida Alam, Md Ibrahim Khalil, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan
Alzheimer's disease (AD), which largely affects the elderly, has become a global burden. Patients with AD have both short- and long-term memory impairments. The neuronal loss in AD occurs due to abnormally folded amyloid beta proteins and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in the brain. Eventually, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are formed, which subsequently disintegrate the neuronal transport system. There are several factors which are involved in AD pathogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and the presence of metal ions...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044060/molecular-interaction-between-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-through-cross-seeding-of-protein-misfolding
#4
I Moreno-Gonzalez, G Edwards Iii, N Salvadores, M Shahnawaz, R Diaz-Espinoza, C Soto
Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a significantly higher risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients affected by type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the molecular mechanism responsible for this association is presently unknown. Both diseases are considered protein misfolding disorders associated with the accumulation of protein aggregates; amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau in the brain during AD, and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in pancreatic islets in T2D. Formation and accumulation of these proteins follows a seeding-nucleation model, where a misfolded aggregate or 'seed' promotes the rapid misfolding and aggregation of the native protein...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#5
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025562/cannabidiol-modulates-the-expression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-related-genes-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Rosaliana Libro, Francesca Diomede, Domenico Scionti, Adriano Piattelli, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main neuropathological hallmarks of AD are senile plaques, composed of amyloid beta (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles, formed by hyperphosphorylated tau. However, current therapies for AD have shown limited efficacy. In this study, we evaluated whether pre-treatment with cannabidiol (CBD), at 5 μM concentration, modulated the transcriptional profile of MSCs derived from gingiva (GMSCs) in order to improve their therapeutic potential, by performing a transcriptomic analysis by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012089/orexin-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Claudio Liguori
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related dementia. It prevalently causes cognitive decline, although it is frequently associated with secondary behavioral disturbances. AD neurodegeneration characteristically produces a remarkable destruction of the sleep-wake cycle, with diurnal napping, nighttime arousals, sleep fragmentation, and REM sleep impairment. It was recently hypothesized that the orexinergic system was involved in AD pathology. Accordingly, recent papers showed the association between orexinergic neurotransmission dysfunction, sleep impairment, and cognitive decline in AD...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004401/hypoxia-inducible-factors-as-neuroprotective-agent-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ben Sundra Ashok, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Senthilkumar Sivanesan
Beta amyloid (Aβ)-42 peptide and phosphorylated tau protein had been demonstrated as the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A gradual decline of oxygen and glucose supply to the brain during aging or hypoxia was manifested as contributing factors to hypometabolism. The brain regions susceptible to hypometabolism are hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and cognition-associated neocortical regions like parietal, temporal and frontal cortex. In AD patients, the brain regions with hypometabolism can trigger overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and decreased the clearance of Aβ...
December 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998621/brain-tau-deposition-linked-to-systemic-causes-of-death-in-normal-elderly
#9
Keith A Josephs, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Stephen D Weigand, Melissa E Murray, Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Ronald C Petersen
The relationship between causes of death and 4 major neurodegenerative brain proteins (beta-amyloid, tau, alpha-synuclein, and the TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) were assessed in 94 cognitively normal elderly participants that died without a neurodegenerative disease. There was an association between tau and causes of death (p = 0.01). Tau in the brain was associated with a reduced likelihood of dying from systemic cancers (p = 0.046), and with an increased likelihood of dying from pulmonary (p = 0...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984697/delineating-amyloid-plaque-associated-neuronal-sphingolipids-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice-tgarcswe-using-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#10
Ibrahim Kaya, Dimitri Brinet, Wojciech Michno, Stina Syvänen, Dag Sehlin, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jörg Hanrieder
The major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the progressive aggregation and accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein into neurotoxic deposits. Aβ aggregation has been suggested as the critical early inducer, driving the disease progression. However, the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides, and proteins in biological tissue sections...
January 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981642/ginseng-protein-reverses-amyloid-beta-peptide-and-h2-o2-cytotoxicity-in-neurons-and-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-ad-rats-induced-by-a-combination-of-d-galactose-and-alcl3
#11
Hongyan Li, Jie Song, Jianghua Zhang, Tianmin Wang, Yuhui Yan, Zhenyu Tao, Shaoheng Li, Hui Zhang, Tingguo Kang, Jingxian Yang
Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most widely used herbal medicines worldwide. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of ginseng protein (GP) and its possible mechanisms in a cellular and animal model of AD. The results demonstrated that GP (10-100 µg/mL) significantly improved the survival rate of neurons and reduced the cells' apoptosis and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, GP (0.1 g/kg) significantly shortened the escape latency, prolonged the crossing times and the percentage of residence time; reduced the level of Aβ1-42 and p-tau, the activity of T-NOS and iNOS, and the content of MDA and NO, improved the activity of SOD, the concentration of cAMP and the protein expression of p-PKA/PKA and -CREB/CREB...
December 16, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895577/fus1-ko-mouse-as-a-model-of-oxidative-stress-mediated-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-circadian-disruption-and-long-term-spatial-and-olfactory-memory-impairments
#12
Guillermo Coronas-Samano, Keeley L Baker, Winston J T Tan, Alla V Ivanova, Justus V Verhagen
Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884163/chronic-adiponectin-deficiency-leads-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-cognitive-impairments-and-pathologies-through-ampk-inactivation-and-cerebral-insulin-resistance-in-aged-mice
#13
Roy Chun-Laam Ng, On-Yin Cheng, Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Kenneth King-Yip Cheng, Patrick Ka Kit Yeung, Lena Lei Zhou, Ruby Lai-Chong Hoo, Sookja Kim Chung, Aimin Xu, Karen Siu-Ling Lam, Koon Ho Chan
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844089/-biomarkers-for-dementia-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-current-developments
#14
J Wiltfang, P Lewczuk, M Otto
Cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) support the early and differential diagnosis of dementia, most importantly the diagnosis of early or preclinical Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Meanwhile CSF-NDD are now recommended for improved exclusion and positive diagnostics of AD by the German national neuropsychiatry S3 dementia guidelines ( www.DGPPN.de ). Meta-analyses of independent international multicenter studies have shown that a combined CSF analysis of amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ 1-42, decreased), total tau proteins (increased) and phospho-tau proteins (increased) offers a sensitivity and specificity of 80-90 % for the early and differential diagnosis of AD (AD versus all other)...
December 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842611/tau-pathology-in-aged-cynomolgus-monkeys-is-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-corticobasal-degeneration-but-not-alzheimer-disease-like-ultrastructural-mapping-of-tau-by-edx
#15
Toshiki Uchihara, Kentaro Endo, Hiromi Kondo, Sachi Okabayashi, Nobuhiro Shimozawa, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Eijiro Adachi, Nobuyuki Kimura
Concomitant deposition of amyloid -beta protein (Aβ) and neuronal tau as neurofibrillary tangles in the human brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Because these deposits increase during normal aging, it has been proposed that aging brains may also undergo AD-like changes. To investigate the neuropathological changes that occur in the aging primate brain, we examined 21 brains of cynomolgus monkeys (7-36 years old) for Aβ- and tau-positive lesions. We found, 1) extensive deposition of Aβ in brains of cynomolgus monkeys over 25 years of age, 2) selective deposition of 4-repeat tau as pretangles in neurons, and as coiled body-like structures in oligodendroglia-like cells and astrocytes, 3) preferential distribution of tau in the basal ganglia and neocortex rather than the hippocampus, and 4) age-associated increases in 30-34 kDa AT8- and RD4-positive tau fragments in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions...
November 14, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832767/chitinase-3-like-1-protein-chi3l1-locus-influences-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-ykl-40
#16
Yuetiva Deming, Kathleen Black, David Carrell, Yefei Cai, Jorge L Del-Aguila, Maria Victoria Fernandez, John Budde, ShengMei Ma, Benjamin Saef, Bill Howells, Sarah Bertelsen, Kuan-Lin Huang, Courtney L Sutphen, Rawan Tarawneh, Anne M Fagan, David M Holtzman, John C Morris, Alison M Goate, Joseph D Dougherty, Carlos Cruchaga
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology appears several years before clinical symptoms, so identifying ways to detect individuals in the preclinical stage is imperative. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau/Aβ42 ratio is currently the best known predictor of AD status and cognitive decline, and the ratio of CSF levels of chitinase-3-like 1 protein (CHI3L1, YKL-40) and amyloid beta (Aβ42) were reported as predictive, but individual variability and group overlap inhibits their utility for individual diagnosis making it necessary to find ways to improve sensitivity of these biomarkers...
November 10, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815990/low-level-laser-therapy-for-beta-amyloid-toxicity-in-rat-hippocampus
#17
Yujiao Lu, Ruimin Wang, Yan Dong, Donovan Tucker, Ningjun Zhao, Md Ejaz Ahmed, Ling Zhu, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Robert M Cohen, Quanguang Zhang
Beta amyloid (Aβ) is well accepted to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present work evaluated the therapeutic effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLI) on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus. Aβ 1-42 was injected bilaterally to the hippocampus CA1 region of adult male rats, and 2-minute daily LLI treatment was applied transcranially after Aβ injection for 5 consecutive days. LLI treatment suppressed Aβ-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and long-term spatial and recognition memory impairments...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809235/protective-effect-of-genistein-against-neuronal-degeneration-in-apoe-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Yoon-Jin Park, Je Won Ko, Sookyoung Jeon, Young Hye Kwon
Altered cholesterol metabolism is believed to play a causal role in major pathophysiological changes in neurodegeneration. Several studies have demonstrated that the absence of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a predominant apolipoprotein in the brain, leads to an increased susceptibility to neurodegeneration. Previously, we observed that genistein, a soy isoflavone, significantly alleviated apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of dietary genistein supplementation (0...
October 31, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794478/amyloid-beta-modulators-and-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-critical-appraisal
#19
REVIEW
Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, P Hemachandra Reddy
Multiple cellular changes have been identified as being involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, including mitochondrial damage, synaptic loss, amyloid beta (Aβ) production and/or accumulation, inflammatory responses, and phosphorylated tau formation and/or accumulation. Studies have established that Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction is dependent on abnormal amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing caused by β- and γ-secretases, resulting in the generation of Aβ. The Aβ formed as a result of abnormal APP processing induces phosphorylated tau and activates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5)...
October 26, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764160/csf-biomarkers-and-its-associations-with-18f-av133-cerebral-vmat2-binding-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-preliminary-report
#20
Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
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