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Oxygen mediated ion channels

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748217/mechanisms-and-applications-of-the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-photobiomodulation
#1
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level level laser therapy is the use of red and near-infrared light to stimulate healing, relieve pain, and reduce inflammation. The primary chromophores have been identified as cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria, and calcium ion channels (possibly mediated by light absorption by opsins). Secondary effects of photon absorption include increases in ATP, a brief burst of reactive oxygen species, an increase in nitric oxide, and modulation of calcium levels. Tertiary effects include activation of a wide range of transcription factors leading to improved cell survival, increased proliferation and migration, and new protein synthesis...
2017: AIMS Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718507/gene-expression-analyses-reveal-metabolic-specifications-in-acute-o2-sensing-chemoreceptor-cells
#2
Lin Gao, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Paula García-Flores, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
Acute O2 sensing is a fundamental property of cells in the peripheral chemoreceptors, e.g. glomus cells in the carotid body (CB) and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (AM), and is necessary for adaptation to hypoxia. These cells contain O2 -sensitive ion channels, which mediate membrane depolarization and transmitter release upon exposure to hypoxia. However, the mechanisms underlying the detection of changes in O2 tension by cells are still poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that CB glomus cells have specific metabolic features that favour the accumulation of reduced quinone and the production of mitochondrial NADH and reactive oxygen species during hypoxia...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696294/trpm7-senses-oxidative-stress-to-release-zn-2-from-unique-intracellular-vesicles
#3
Sunday A Abiria, Grigory Krapivinsky, Rajan Sah, Ana G Santa-Cruz, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Jin Zhang, Pichet Adstamongkonkul, Paul G DeCaen, David E Clapham
TRPM7 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7) regulates gene expression and stress-induced cytotoxicity and is required in early embryogenesis through organ development. Here, we show that the majority of TRPM7 is localized in abundant intracellular vesicles. These vesicles (M7Vs) are distinct from endosomes, lysosomes, and other familiar vesicles or organelles. M7Vs accumulate Zn(2+) in a glutathione-enriched, reduced lumen when cytosolic Zn(2+) concentrations are elevated. Treatments that increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) trigger TRPM7-dependent Zn(2+) release from the vesicles, whereas reduced glutathione prevents TRPM7-dependent cytosolic Zn(2+) influx...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679281/lipid-mediated-modulation-of-intracellular-ion-channels-and-redox-state-physio-pathological-implications
#4
Marisa Brini, Luigi Leanza, Ildiko Szabo
<i>Significance</i>: Ion channels play an important role in the regulation of organelle function within the cell, as proven by increasing evidence pointing to a link between altered function of intracellular ion channels and different pathologies ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage and lysosomal storage diseases. <i>Recent Advances</i>: A link between these pathologies and redox state as well as lipid homeostasis and ion channel function is in the focus of current research...
July 5, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641207/ros-and-calcium-signaling-mediated-pathways-involved-in-stress-responses-of-the-marine-microalgae-dunaliella-salina-to-enhanced-uv-b-radiation
#5
Xinxin Zhang, Xuexi Tang, Ming Wang, Wei Zhang, Bin Zhou, You Wang
UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m(-2) per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-prerequisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#6
Joyce K Y Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
July 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582391/all-atom-nmda-receptor-transmembrane-domain-model-development-and-simulations-in-lipid-bilayers-and-water
#7
Samaneh Mesbahi-Vasey, Lea Veras, Michael Yonkunas, Jon W Johnson, Maria G Kurnikova
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are members of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The channels of NMDARs are permeable to Ca2+ but blocked by Mg2+, distinctive properties that underlie essential brain processes such as induction of synaptic plasticity. However, due to limited structural information about the NMDAR transmembrane ion channel forming domain, the mechanism of divalent cation permeation and block is understood poorly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569571/curcumin-inhibits-oxidative-stress-induced-trpm2-channel-activation-calcium-ion-entry-and-apoptosis-values-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-involvement-of-transfection-procedure
#8
Ahmi Öz, Ömer Çelik
Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are mostly Ca(2+) permeable cation channels. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-like 2 (TRPM2) is expressed in neurological tissues such as brain, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, hippocampus and also liver, heart and kidney. The SH-SY5Y cells are mostly used as a cellular model of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Curcumin, shows phenolic structure, synthesized by Curcuma longa L. (turmeric), has powerful non-enzymatically antioxidant effects compared with Vitamin E...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558483/hydrogen-sulfide-and-polysulfide-signaling
#9
Hideo Kimura
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to have physiological roles such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection, oxygen sensing, inflammatory regulation, and cell growth. Recently, hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to be produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase and to regulate the activity of ion channels, tumor suppressers, and protein kinases. Furthermore, some of the effects previously reported to be mediated by H2S are now ascribed to H2Sn. Cysteine persulfide and cysteine polysulfide may also be involved in cellular redox regulation...
June 27, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545724/the-role-of-ca-2-in-cell-death-caused-by-oxidative-glutamate-toxicity-and-ferroptosis
#10
REVIEW
Pamela Maher, Klaus van Leyen, Partha Narayan Dey, Birgit Honrath, Amalia Dolga, Axel Methner
Ca(2+) ions play a fundamental role in cell death mediated by oxidative glutamate toxicity or oxytosis, a form of programmed cell death similar and possibly identical to other forms of cell death like ferroptosis. Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space occurs late in a cascade characterized by depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione, increases in cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we aim to compare oxidative glutamate toxicity with ferroptosis, address the signaling pathways that culminate in Ca(2+) influx and cell death and discuss the proteins that mediate this...
May 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458673/inflammatory-responses-regulating-alveolar-ion-transport-during-pulmonary-infections
#11
REVIEW
Christin Peteranderl, Jacob I Sznajder, Susanne Herold, Emilia Lecuona
The respiratory epithelium is lined by a tightly balanced fluid layer that allows normal O2 and CO2 exchange and maintains surface tension and host defense. To maintain alveolar fluid homeostasis, both the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and the expression of epithelial ion channels and pumps are necessary to establish a vectorial ion gradient. However, during pulmonary infection, auto- and/or paracrine-acting mediators induce pathophysiological changes of the alveolar-capillary barrier, altered expression of epithelial Na,K-ATPase and of epithelial ion channels including epithelial sodium channel and cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator, leading to the accumulation of edema and impaired alveolar fluid clearance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399409/direct-pharmacological-targeting-of-a-mitochondrial-ion-channel-selectively-kills-tumor-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Luigi Leanza, Matteo Romio, Katrin Anne Becker, Michele Azzolini, Livio Trentin, Antonella Managò, Elisa Venturini, Angela Zaccagnino, Andrea Mattarei, Luca Carraretto, Andrea Urbani, Stephanie Kadow, Lucia Biasutto, Veronica Martini, Filippo Severin, Roberta Peruzzo, Valentina Trimarco, Jan-Hendrik Egberts, Charlotte Hauser, Andrea Visentin, Gianpietro Semenzato, Holger Kalthoff, Mario Zoratti, Erich Gulbins, Cristina Paradisi, Ildiko Szabo
The potassium channel Kv1.3 is highly expressed in the mitochondria of various cancerous cells. Here we show that direct inhibition of Kv1.3 using two mitochondria-targeted inhibitors alters mitochondrial function and leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated death of even chemoresistant cells independently of p53 status. These inhibitors killed 98% of ex vivo primary chronic B-lymphocytic leukemia tumor cells while sparing healthy B cells. In orthotopic mouse models of melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the compounds reduced tumor size by more than 90% and 60%, respectively, while sparing immune and cardiac functions...
April 10, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370799/through-modulation-of-cardiac-ca-2-handling-ucp2-affects-cardiac-electrophysiology-and-influences-the-susceptibility-for-ca-2-mediated-arrhythmias
#13
Robert Larbig, Sara Reda, Vera Paar, Andrea Trost, Johannes Leitner, Stephanie Weichselbaumer, Karolina A Motloch, Bernhard Wernly, Andreas Arrer, Benjamin Strauss, Michael Lichtenauer, Herbert A Reitsamer, Lars Eckardt, Guiscard Seebohm, Uta C Hoppe, Lukas J Motloch
Introduction UCP2 belongs to a superfamily of mitochondrial ion transporters. Due to its beneficial influence on production of reactive oxygen species it is suggested to reduce cardiac ischemic reperfusion injury. Recent studies uncovered its ability to regulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) -uptake and therefore to influence cardiac cytosolic Ca(2+) -handling, indicating compensatory pathways to avoid toxic Ca(2+) -overload in UCP2 knock-out mice (UCP2(-/-) ). However, the specific mechanisms and their impact on cardiac electrophysiology remain speculative...
March 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360106/ca-2-and-calpain-mediate-capsaicin-induced-ablation-of-axonal-terminals-expressing-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#14
Sheng Wang, Sen Wang, Jamila Asgar, John Joseph, Jin Y Ro, Feng Wei, James N Campbell, Man-Kyo Chung
Capsaicin is an ingredient in spicy peppers that produces burning pain by activating transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel in nociceptors. Capsaicin has also been used as an analgesic, and its topical administration is approved for the treatment of certain pain conditions. The mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced analgesia likely involve reversible ablation of nociceptor terminals. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To visualize TRPV1-lineage axons, a genetically engineered mouse model was used in which a fluorophore is expressed under the TRPV1 promoter...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351840/macrophages-utilize-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-for-profibrotic-polarization
#15
Linlin Gu, Jennifer L Larson-Casey, A Brent Carter
Fibrosis in multiple organs, including the liver, kidney, and lung, often occurs secondary to environmental exposure. Asbestos exposure is one important environmental cause of lung fibrosis. The mechanisms that mediate fibrosis is not fully understood, although mitochondrial oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages is critical for fibrosis development. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels can be associated with production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we show that patients with asbestosis have higher levels of mitochondrial Ca(2+) compared with normal patients...
July 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300265/catalytic-routes-to-fuels-from-c1-and-oxygenate-molecules
#16
Shuai Wang, Iker Agirrezabal-Telleria, Aditya Bhan, Dante Simonetti, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Enrique Iglesia
This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges...
April 28, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274920/h2o2-augments-cytosolic-calcium-in-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-neurons-via-multiple-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#17
Tim D Ostrowski, Heather A Dantzler, Luis Polo-Parada, David D Kline
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a profound role in cardiorespiratory function under normal physiological conditions and disease states. ROS can influence neuronal activity by altering various ion channels and transporters. Within the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), a vital brainstem area for cardiorespiratory control, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces sustained hyperexcitability following an initial depression of neuronal activity. The mechanism(s) associated with the delayed hyperexcitability are unknown...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188926/redox-modification-of-caveolar-proteins-in-the-cardiovascular-system-role-in-cellular-signalling-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Kristen J Bubb, Asa Birna Birgisdottir, Owen Tang, Thomas Hansen, Gemma A Figtree
Rapid and coordinated release of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2(.-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite, in specific microdomains, play a crucial role in cell signalling in the cardiovascular system. These reactions are mediated by reversible and functional modifications of a wide variety of key proteins. Dysregulation of this oxidative signalling occurs in almost all forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including at the very early phases. Despite the heavily publicized failure of "antioxidants" to improve CVD progression, pharmacotherapies such as those targeting the renin-angiotensin system, or statins, exert at least part of their large clinical benefit via modulating cellular redox signalling...
August 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154371/oxidative-stress-and-calcium-dysregulation-by-palmitate-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Luong Dai Ly, Shanhua Xu, Seong-Kyung Choi, Chae-Myeong Ha, Themis Thoudam, Seung-Kuy Cha, Andreas Wiederkehr, Claes B Wollheim, In-Kyu Lee, Kyu-Sang Park
Free fatty acids (FFAs) are important substrates for mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and ATP synthesis but also cause serious stress to various tissues, contributing to the development of metabolic diseases. CD36 is a major mediator of cellular FFA uptake. Inside the cell, saturated FFAs are able to induce the production of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be prevented by co-exposure to unsaturated FFAs. There are close connections between oxidative stress and organellar Ca(2+) homeostasis...
February 3, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117962/acidotoxicity-via-asic1a-mediates-cell-death-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-abolishes-excitotoxicity
#20
Saurav Bhowmick, Jeanette T Moore, Daniel L Kirschner, Mary C Curry, Emily G Westbrook, Brian T Rasley, Kelly L Drew
Ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with a complex and multifactorial cascade of events involving excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, and ionic imbalance. While it is known that acidosis occurs concomitantly with glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity during brain ischemia, it remains elusive how acidosis-mediated acidotoxicity interacts with glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated the effect of acidosis on glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in acute hippocampal slices. We tested the hypothesis that mild acidosis protects against I/R injury via modulation of NMDAR, but produces injury via activation of acid sensing ion channels (ASIC1a)...
March 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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