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G Carapella, P Sabatino, C Barone, S Pagano, M Gombos
Vortices are topological defects accounting for many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. Here we address the stability of a small number of such excitations driven by strong external forces. We focus on Abrikosov-Josephson vortex that appears in lateral superconducting S/S'/S weak links with suppressed superconductivity in S'. In such a system the vortex is nucleated and confined in the narrow S' region by means of a small magnetic field and moves under the effect of a force proportional to an applied electrical current with a velocity proportional to the measured voltage...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
K Yamane, M Sakamoto, N Murakami, R Morita, K Oka
A novel method of ultrafast rotation of a ring-shaped optical lattice in the picosecond time region was proposed and demonstrated. Our ring-lattice generator was assembled by a pair of linearly chirped pulses with a time delay, a high-order birefringent retarder, and an axially symmetric polarization element. Using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillator as a light source, stable two-, four-, and six-petaled ring-lattice rotations were demonstrated with the rotation periods of 1.6, 3.2, and 4.8 ps, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Quanbo Jiang, Aline Pham, Serge Huant, Joel Bellessa, Cyriaque Genet, Aurélien Drezet
We report a highly efficient generation of singular surface plasmon (SP) fields by an achiral plasmonic structure consisting of Λ-shaped apertures. Our quantitative analysis, based on leakage radiation microscopy (LRM), demonstrates that the induced spin-orbit coupling can be tuned by adjusting the apex angle of the Λ-shaped aperture. Specifically, the array of Λ-shaped apertures with the apex angle 60° is shown to give rise to the directional coupling efficiency. The ring of Λ-shaped apertures with the apex angle 60° was found to generate the maximum extinction ratio (ER=11) for the SP singularities between two different polarization states...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Fuyou Liang, Xiaosheng Liu, Ryuhei Yamaguchi, Hao Liu
Recent studies raised increasing concern about the reliability of computer models in reproducing in vivo hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms. Boundary condition problem is among the most frequently addressed issues since three-dimensional (3-D) modeling is usually restricted to local arterial segments. The present study focused on aneurysms on the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) which represent a large subgroup of detected cerebral aneurysms and, in particular, have a relatively high risk of rupture compared to aneurysms located in other regions...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Keizo Yamamoto, Makoto Tsubokura, Jun Ikeda, Keiji Onishi, Sophie Baleriola
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posture of a ski jumper on aerodynamic characteristics during the take-off using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD method adopted for this study was based on Large-Eddy Simulation. Body surface data were obtained by 3-D laser scanning of an active ski jumper. Based on video analysis of the actual take-off movement, two sets of motion data were generated (world-class jumper A and less-experienced jumper B). The inlet flow velocity that corresponds to the in-run velocity in actual ski jumping was set to 23...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
N Kim, E Escobar Martin, P Gili Manzanaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Fernando Rafael Barri
Wildlife reintroduction is an increasingly used strategy to reverse anthropocene defaunation. For the purpose of ecosystem restoration, in 2007 the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) was reintroduced to the Quebrada del Condorito National Park, situated in the mountains of central Argentina. With the aim of developing management recommendations, the project included permanently monitoring the population to evaluate its dynamics and the ecological response of the individuals released into the area. Nine years later and after two releases of guanacos (113 individuals in 2007 without and 25 in 2011 with a pre-adaptation period), only 24 individuals, which conform three reproductive groups, and one group of solitary males were settled in the Park...
2016: PloS One
Jaffer M Kattan, Juan Carlos Serna-Ojeda, Anushree Sharma, Eung K Kim, Arturo Ramirez-Miranda, Marisa Cruz-Aguilar, Aleck E Cervantes, Ricardo F Frausto, Juan Carlos Zenteno, Enrique O Graue-Hernandez, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To describe 2 unrelated families with multiple members demonstrating a less commonly recognized vortex pattern of corneal deposits confirmed to be granular corneal dystrophy type 1 (GCD1) after identification of the p.(Arg555Trp) mutation in the transforming growth factor β-induced gene (TGFBI). METHODS: A slit-lamp examination was performed on individuals from 2 families, one of Mexican descent and a second of Italian descent. After DNA extraction from affected individuals and their unaffected relatives, TGFBI screening was performed...
October 12, 2016: Cornea
Xing-Can Yao, Hao-Ze Chen, Yu-Ping Wu, Xiang-Pei Liu, Xiao-Qiong Wang, Xiao Jiang, Youjin Deng, Yu-Ao Chen, Jian-Wei Pan
Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Alexander A Doinikov, Thomas Combriat, Pierre Thibault, Philippe Marmottant
A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Maxime Chinaud, Victor Voulgaropoulos, Panagiota Angeli
In this work the coalescence of an aqueous drop with a flat aqueous-organic interface was investigated in a thin gap Hele-Shaw cell. Different concentrations of a nonionic surfactant (Span 80) dissolved in the organic phase were studied. We present experimental results on the velocity field inside a coalescing droplet in the presence of surfactants. The evolution of the neck between the drop and the interface was studied with high-speed imaging. It was found that the time evolution of the neck at the initial stages of coalescence follows a linear trend, which suggests that the local surfactant concentration at the neck region for this stage of coalescence can be considered quasiconstant in time...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
L B Ju, T W Huang, K D Xiao, G Z Wu, S L Yang, R Li, Y C Yang, T Y Long, H Zhang, S Z Wu, B Qiao, S C Ruan, C T Zhou
Filamentation dynamics of relativistic optical vortex beams (OVBs) propagating in underdense plasma is investigated. It is shown that OVBs with finite orbital angular momentum (OAM) exhibit much more robust propagation behavior than the standard Gaussian beam. In fact, the growth rate of the azimuthal modulational instability decreases rapidly with increase of the OVB topological charge. Thus, relativistic OVBs can maintain their profiles for significantly longer distances in an underdense plasma before filamentation occurs...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Hidetsugu Sakaguchi, E Ya Sherman, Boris A Malomed
We present an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons, governed by the pseudospinor system of Gross-Pitaevskii equations with self- and cross attraction, which includes the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the general Rashba-Dresselhaus form, and, separately, the Rashba coupling and the Zeeman splitting. Families of semivortex (SV) and mixed-mode (MM) solitons are constructed, which exist and are stable in free space, as the SOC terms prevent the onset of the critical collapse and create the otherwise missing ground states in the form of the solitons...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jian Deng, Lubao Teng, C P Caulfield, Xuerui Mao
We propose a natural model to probe in a controlled fashion the instability of interacting vortex rings shed from the edge of an oblate spheroid disk of major diameter c, undergoing oscillations of frequency f_{0} and amplitude A. We perform a Floquet stability analysis to determine the characteristics of the instability modes, which depend strongly on the azimuthal (integer) wave number m. We vary two key control parameters, the Keulegan-Carpenter number K_{C}=2πA/c and the Stokes number β=f_{0}c^{2}/ν, where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Manjima Dhar, Edward Pao, Corinne Renier, Derek E Go, James Che, Rosita Montoya, Rachel Conrad, Melissa Matsumoto, Kyra Heirich, Melanie Triboulet, Jianyu Rao, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Edward B Garon, Jonathan Goldman, Nagesh P Rao, Rajan Kulkarni, Elodie Sollier-Christen, Dino Di Carlo
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a great potential as indicators of metastatic disease that may help physicians improve cancer prognostication, treatment and patient outcomes. Heterogeneous marker expression as well as the complexity of current antibody-based isolation and analysis systems highlights the need for alternative methods. In this work, we use a microfluidic Vortex device that can selectively isolate potential tumor cells from blood independent of cell surface expression. This system was adapted to interface with three protein-marker-free analysis techniques: (i) an in-flow automated image processing system to enumerate cells released, (ii) cytological analysis using Papanicolaou (Pap) staining and (iii) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting the ALK rearrangement...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yu Chen, Xiaojing Mu, Tao Wang, Weiwei Ren, Ya Yang, Zhong Lin Wang, Chengliang Sun, Alex Yuandong Gu
Here, we report a stable and predictable aero-elastic motion in the flow-driven energy harvester, which is different from flapping and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV). A unified theoretical frame work that describes the flutter phenomenon observed in both "stiff" and "flexible" materials for flow driven energy harvester was presented in this work. We prove flutter in both types of materials is the results of the coupled effects of torsional and bending modes. Compared to "stiff" materials, which has a flow velocity-independent flutter frequency, flexible material presents a flutter frequency that almost linearly scales with the flow velocity...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sunghan Ro, Juyeon Yi, Yong Woon Kim
Separation of enantiomers by flows is a promising chiral resolution method using cost-effective microfluidics. Notwithstanding a number of experimental and numerical studies, a fundamental understanding still remains elusive, and an important question as to whether it is possible to specify common physical properties of flows that induce separation has not been addressed. Here, we study the separation of rigid chiral objects of an arbitrary shape induced by a linear flow field at low Reynolds numbers. Based on a symmetry property under parity inversion, we show that the rate-of-strain field is essential to drift the objects in opposite directions according to chirality...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rosalina Djatmika, Chih-Chung Hsieh, Jhih-Ming Chen, Wang-Hsien Ding
An effective method for determining four commonly detected paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. This method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) before identification and quantification of the paraben preservatives via on-line acetylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of MSPD were optimized through a Box-Behnken design method. Under optimal condition, 0.5-g of freeze-dried seafood was mixed with 0...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Adama Creppy, Franck Plouraboué, Olivier Praud, Xavier Druart, Sébastien Cazin, Hui Yu, Pierre Degond
New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped microfluidic chip leads to a spontaneous vortex state of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition towards collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Juan Wang, Nan Wu, Yaling Yang
A vortex-assisted hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction method using a mixed solvent as the extraction solvent followed by high performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection was developed for the extraction and determination of two carotenoids including lutein and β-carotene from egg yolk. The method is based on the microextraction of carotenoids from sample solution into extracting agent (20 μL), which is located in the lumen of hollow fiber followed by vortex-mixing. The mixed solvent (1-octanol+1-undecanol, 6:4, v:v) was employed as extracting agent for it has suitable viscosity and compatible with carotenoids via hollow fiber...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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