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Neural crest

Yusuke Nagao, Hiroyuki Takada, Motohiro Miyadai, Tomoko Adachi, Ryoko Seki, Yasuhiro Kamei, Ikuyo Hara, Yoshihito Taniguchi, Kiyoshi Naruse, Masahiko Hibi, Robert N Kelsh, Hisashi Hashimoto
Mechanisms generating diverse cell types from multipotent progenitors are fundamental for normal development. Pigment cells are derived from multipotent neural crest cells and their diversity in teleosts provides an excellent model for studying mechanisms controlling fate specification of distinct cell types. Zebrafish have three types of pigment cells (melanocytes, iridophores and xanthophores) while medaka have four (three shared with zebrafish, plus leucophores), raising questions about how conserved mechanisms of fate specification of each pigment cell type are in these fish...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Takuya Adachi, Minato Yokoyama, Yasuhisa Fujii, Yuko Kinowaki, Susumu Kirimura, Kazunori Kubota, Yukihisa Saida, Ukihide Tateishi
Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma share the same histological spectrum which originates from neural crest cells. We present herein two young adult patients with neuroblastic tumors with lymph node metastases. Both the patients were diagnosed incidentally as having retroperitoneal masses, which showed little or no immature cells despite coexistence of lymph node involvement. The tumors were considered to represent spontaneous regression of malignant neuroblastoma. Radiologists should consider the possibility of spontaneous regression of neuroblastic tumors, when poorly enhanced multi-component masses at the retroperitoneum with lymph node involvement are visualized...
April 4, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
John Abramyan, Joy M Richman
The aim of this review is to highlight some of the key contributions to our understanding of craniofacial research from work carried out with the chicken and other avian embryos. From the very first observations of neural crest cell migration to the fusion of the primary palate, the chicken has proven indispensable in facilitating craniofacial research. In this review we will look back to the premolecular studies where "cut and paste" grafting experiments mapped the fate of cranial neural crest cells, the role of different tissue layers in patterning the face, and more recently the contribution of neural crest cells to jaw size and identity...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Alice Roycroft, Roberto Mayor
Michael Abercrombie is regarded as one of the principal pioneers of cell biology. Although Abercrombie began his career as an experimental embryologist, working on the avian organizer with C. H. Waddington, questions on how cells in culture migrate and interact dominated his career. Whilst studying the social behaviour of chick heart embryonic fibroblasts, Abercrombie identified a phenomenon whereby colliding cells collapse their protrusions towards the cell-cell contact upon a collision, preventing their continued migration...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Andrea Streit
Sensory placodes contribute to much of the sensory nervous system in the vertebrate head. They give rise to parts of the eye, ear and nose, as well as to the sensory ganglia that innervate the face, tongue, oesophagus and visceral tissues. Despite their diversity, during development placodes arise from a population of common progenitor cells, which are first specified at the border of the neural plate. The chick has been particularly instrumental in dissecting the timing of these events, and recent evidence has highlighted the close relationship of placode progenitors and precursors for neural crest cells and the central nervous system...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Shashank Gandhi, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a multipotent and highly migratory cell type that contributes to many of the defining features of vertebrates, including the skeleton of the head and most of the peripheral nervous system. 150 years after the discovery of the neural crest, avian embryos remain one of the most important model organisms for studying neural crest development. In this review, we describe aspects of neural crest induction, migration and axial level differences, highlighting what is known about the underlying gene regulatory mechanisms...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Elisabeth Dupin, Giordano W Calloni, Juliana M Coelho-Aguiar, Nicole M Le Douarin
In the neural primordium of vertebrate embryos, the neural crest (NC) displays a unique character: the capacity of its component cells to leave the neural primordium, migrate along definite (and, for long, not identified) routes in the developing embryo and invade virtually all tissues and organs, while producing a large array of differentiated cell types. The most striking diversity of the NC derivatives is found in its cephalic domain that produces, not only melanocytes and peripheral nerves and ganglia, but also various mesenchymal derivatives (connective tissues, bones, cartilages…) which, in other parts of the body, are mesoderm-derived...
March 31, 2018: Developmental Biology
Hirotoshi Shibuya, Ryutaro Watanabe, Akiteru Maeno, Kaoru Ichimura, Masaru Tamura, Shigeharu Wakana, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Koji Ohba, Kazuhisa Takeda, Hiroshi Tomita, Shigeki Shibahara, Hiroaki Yamamoto
Melanocytes develop from the vertebrate embryo-specific neural crest, migrate, and localize in various organs, including not only the skin but also several extracutaneous locations such as the heart, inner ear and choroid. Little is known about the functions of extracutaneous melanocytes except for cochlear melanocytes, which are essential for hearing ability. In this study, we focused on the structure of the choroid, in which melanocytes are abundant around the well-developed blood vascular system. By comparing structural differences in the choroid of wild-type and melanocyte-deficient Mitfmi-bw /Mitfmi-bw mutant mice, our observations suggest that choroidal melanocytes contribute to the morphogenesis and/or maintenance of the normal vasculature structure of that tissue...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Malkiel A Cohen, Styliani Markoulaki, Rudolf Jaenisch
Chimeric mice have been generated by injecting pluripotent stem cells into morula-to-blastocyst stage mouse embryo or by introducing more mature cells into later stage embryos that correspond to the differentiation stage of the donor cells. It has not been rigorously tested, however, whether successful chimera formation requires the developmental stage of host embryo and donor cell to be matched. Here, we compared the success of chimera formation following injection of primary neural crest cells (NCCs) into blastocysts or of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into E8...
March 27, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Estela Maldonado, Yamila López, Manuel Herrera, Elena Martínez-Sanz, Concepción Martínez-Álvarez, Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz
INTRODUCTION: Craniofacial development in mammals is a complex process that involves a coordinated series of molecular and morphogenetic events. Folic acid (FA) deficiency has historically been associated with congenital spinal cord malformations, but the effect that a maternal diet deficient in FA has on the development of other structures has been poorly explored. In the present study, the objective was to describe and quantify the alterations of craniofacial structures presented in mouse foetuses from dams fed a FA deficient (FAD) diet compared with controls that were given a regular maternal diet...
March 28, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Jason S Williams, Jessica Y Hsu, Christy Cortez Rossi, Kristin Bruk Artinger
Melanocytes derive from neural crest cells, which are a highly migratory population of cells that play an important role in pigmentation of the skin and epidermal appendages. In most vertebrates, melanocyte precursor cells migrate solely along the dorsolateral pathway to populate the skin. However, zebrafish melanocyte precursors also migrate along the ventromedial pathway, in route to the yolk, where they interact with other neural crest derivative populations. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for zebrafish paralogs pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration...
March 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
Thibault Lorin, Frédéric G Brunet, Vincent Laudet, Jean-Nicolas Volff
Vertebrate pigmentation is a highly diverse trait mainly determined by neural crest cell derivatives. It has been suggested that two rounds (1R/2R) of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) at the basis of vertebrates allowed changes in gene regulation associated with neural crest evolution. Subsequently, the teleost fish lineage experienced other WGDs, including the teleost-specific Ts3R before teleost radiation and the more recent Ss4R at the basis of salmonids. As the teleost lineage harbors the highest number of pigment cell types and pigmentation diversity in vertebrates, WGDs might have contributed to the evolution and diversification of the pigmentation gene repertoire in teleosts...
March 29, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Seung Hun Kang, Sang Min Lee, Doo Hoe Ha, Hye Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, well-differentiated tumors arising from neural crest cells that commonly occur in the posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, cervical spine, and adrenal gland. We report an unusual case of an extensive spinal extradural ganglioneuroma, circumferentially and longitudinally affecting the extradural space of the lumbar spine and continuously invading bilateral psoas muscles. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 32-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of abdominal pain and diarrhea...
March 29, 2018: European Spine Journal
Tomoyuki Nishizaki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the earlier study, the selective PKCε activator DCP-LA increased elastic fibres in the dermis of HR-1 hairless mice. As a process of elastic fibre formation, tropoelastin, an elastin monomer, is secreted into the extracellular space. Secreted tropoelastin is delivered to the microfibrils by fibulin-5/developmental arteries and neural crest epidermal growth factor-like (DANCE) and undergoes self-association. Then, tropoelastin assembles around the microfibrils, growing into elastin and elastic fibres by lysyl oxidase (LOX)- or LOX-like (LOXL)-mediated cross-linking...
March 23, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Wenjun Qin, Hao Pei, Ruihuan Qin, Ran Zhao, Jing Han, Zejian Zhang, Kuiran Dong, Shifang Ren, Jianxin Gu
Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent pediatric malignant neoplasm that originates from embryonic neural crest cells. Urinary catecholamines in 24-h urine are most commonly analyzed for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma at good sensitivity; however, it is challenging to collect 24-h urine samples in a pediatric population. Therefore, development of more rapid, non-invasive and cost-effective tools for the diagnosis of NB remains needed. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) galactosylation have been found highly associated with adult cancers in our previous study...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Hugo J Parker, Irina Pushel, Robb Krumlauf
The neural crest is a transient population of cells that forms within the developing central nervous system and migrates away to generate a wide range of derivatives throughout the body during vertebrate embryogenesis. These cells are of evolutionary and clinical interest, constituting a key defining trait in the evolution of vertebrates and alterations in their development are implicated in a high proportion of birth defects and craniofacial abnormalities. In the hindbrain and the adjacent cranial neural crest cells (cNCCs), nested domains of Hox gene expression provide a combinatorial'Hox-code' for specifying regional properties in the developing head...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Matthew T Belus, Madison A Rogers, Alaaeddin Elzubeir, Megan Josey, Steven Rose, Viktoria Andreeva, Pamela C Yelick, Emily A Bates
Mutations that disrupt the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1 lead to Andersen-Tawil syndrome that includes periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, cognitive deficits, craniofacial dysmorphologies and limb defects. The molecular mechanism that underlies the developmental consequences of inhibition of these channels has remained a mystery. We show that while loss of Kir2.1 function does not affect expression of several early facial patterning genes, the domain in which Pou3f3 is expressed in the maxillary arch is reduced...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Akshaya Srinivasan, Shu-Yung Chang, Shipin Zhang, Wei Seong Toh, Yi-Chin Toh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from various mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. While the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of MSCs stemming from their developmental origins has been acknowledged, the genetic and environmental factors underpinning these differences are not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether substrate stiffness mediated mechanical cues can directly modulate the development of ectodermal MSCs (eMSCs) from a precursor human neural crest stem cell (NCSC) population...
March 14, 2018: Biomaterials
Carl D Johnson, Amanda J Barlow-Anacker, Joseph F Pierre, Ketrija Touw, Christopher S Erickson, John B Furness, Miles L Epstein, Ankush Gosain
Acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons are major components of the enteric nervous system (ENS). They release ACh and peptidergic neurotransmitters onto enteric neurons and muscle. However, pharmacological interrogation has proven inadequate to demonstrate an essential role for ACh. Our objective was to determine whether elimination of ACh synthesis during embryogenesis alters prenatal viability, intestinal function, the neurotransmitter complement, and the microbiome. Conditional deletion of choline acetyltransferase ( ChAT), the ACh synthetic enzyme, in neural crest-derived neurons ( ChAT-Null) was performed...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Lara Gharibeh, Hiba Komati, Yohan Bossé, Munir Boodhwani, Mahyar Heydarpour, Megan Fortier, Romina Hassandazeh, Janet Ngu, Patrick Mathieu, Simon Body, Mona Nemer
Background -Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common congenital heart defect affecting 1-2% of the population, is a major risk factor for premature aortic valve disease and accounts for the majority of valve replacement. The genetic basis and the mechanisms of BAV etiology and pathogenesis remain largely undefined. Methods -Cardiac structure and function was assessed in mice lacking a Gata6 allele. Human GATA6 gene variants were analyzed in 452 BAV cases from the BAV consortium and 1849 controls from the Framingham GWAS study...
March 22, 2018: Circulation
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