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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468179/cell-transplantation-strategies-for-acquired-and-inherited-disorders-of-peripheral-myelin
#1
A K M G Muhammad, Kevin Kim, Irina Epifantseva, Arwin Aghamaleky-Sarvestany, Megan E Simpkinson, Sharon Carmona, Jesse Landeros, Shaughn Bell, John Svaren, Robert H Baloh
Objective: To investigate transplantation of rat Schwann cells or human iPSC-derived neural crest cells and derivatives into models of acquired and inherited peripheral myelin damage. Methods: Primary cultured rat Schwann cells labeled with a fluorescent protein for monitoring at various times after transplantation. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were differentiated into neural crest stem cells, and subsequently toward a Schwann cell lineage via two different protocols...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462671/expression-of-the-adhesion-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a2-adgra2-during-xenopus-laevis-development
#2
Franziska A Seigfried, Petra Dietmann, Michael Kühl, Susanne J Kühl
The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A2 (Adgra2) is a seven transmembrane receptor that has been described to be a regulator for angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, the zebrafish ouchless mutant is unable to develop dorsal root ganglia through a disrupted trafficking of Adgra2. Besides RNA sequencing data, nothing is reported about Adgra2 in the south African crawled frog Xenopus laevis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the spatio-temporal expression of adgra2 during early Xenopus embryogenesis in detail...
February 17, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459680/genome-wide-mapping-of-global-to-local-genetic-effects-on-human-facial-shape
#3
Peter Claes, Jasmien Roosenboom, Julie D White, Tomek Swigut, Dzemila Sero, Jiarui Li, Myoung Keun Lee, Arslan Zaidi, Brooke C Mattern, Corey Liebowitz, Laurel Pearson, Tomás González, Elizabeth J Leslie, Jenna C Carlson, Ekaterina Orlova, Paul Suetens, Dirk Vandermeulen, Eleanor Feingold, Mary L Marazita, John R Shaffer, Joanna Wysocka, Mark D Shriver, Seth M Weinberg
Genome-wide association scans of complex multipartite traits like the human face typically use preselected phenotypic measures. Here we report a data-driven approach to phenotyping facial shape at multiple levels of organization, allowing for an open-ended description of facial variation while preserving statistical power. In a sample of 2,329 persons of European ancestry, we identified 38 loci, 15 of which replicated in an independent European sample (n = 1,719). Four loci were completely new. For the others, additional support (n = 9) or pleiotropic effects (n = 2) were found in the literature, but the results reported here were further refined...
February 19, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454705/schwann-cell-precursor-a-neural-crest-cell-in-disguise
#4
REVIEW
Alessandro Furlan, Igor Adameyko
Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) are multipotent embryonic progenitors covering all developing peripheral nerves. These nerves grow and navigate with unprecedented precision, delivering SCP progenitors to almost all locations in the embryonic body. Within specific developing tissues, SCPs detach from nerves and generate neuroendocrine cells, autonomic neurons, mature Schwann cells, melanocytes and other cell types. These properties of SCPs evoke resemblances between them and their parental population, namely, neural crest cells...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454361/wnt-signaling-enhances-neural-crest-migration-of-melanoma-cells-and-induces-an-invasive-phenotype
#5
Tobias Sinnberg, Mitchell P Levesque, Jelena Krochmann, Phil F Cheng, Kristian Ikenberg, Francisco Meraz-Torres, Heike Niessner, Claus Garbe, Christian Busch
BACKGROUND: During embryonic development Wnt family members and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) cooperatively induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the neural crest. Wnt and BMPs are reactivated during malignant transformation in melanoma. We previously demonstrated that the BMP-antagonist noggin blocked the EMT phenotype of melanoma cells in the neural crest and malignant invasion of melanoma cells in the chick embryo; vice-versa, malignant invasion was induced in human melanocytes in vivo by pre-treatment with BMP-2...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453943/mapk-and-pi3k-signaling-at-the-crossroads-of-neural-crest-development
#6
REVIEW
Colin J Dinsmore, Philippe Soriano
Receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated growth factor signaling is essential for proper formation and development of the neural crest. The many ligands and receptors implicated in these processes signal through relatively few downstream pathways, frequently converging on the MAPK and PI3K pathways. Despite decades of study, there is still considerable uncertainty about where and when these signaling pathways are required and how they elicit particular responses. This review summarizes our current understanding of growth factor-induced MAPK and PI3K signaling in the neural crest...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450723/molecular-imaging-and-theranostic-approaches-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#7
REVIEW
David Taïeb, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and their extra-adrenal counterpart paragangliomas (PGLs; together called PPGLs), belong to the family of neural crest-derived tumors. Given the overexpression of a wide variety of specific targets in PPGLs, it seems that these tumors are optimally suited to be imaged by specific radiopharmaceuticals. Thus, theranostics approaches with somatostatin agonists and antagonists are rapidly evolving in the setting of these tumors and may be considered as the next step in the therapeutic arsenal of metastatic PPGLs...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449086/progress-in-the-use-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-regenerative-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Eduardo Anitua, María Troya, Mar Zalduendo
The field of tissue engineering is emerging as a multidisciplinary area with promising potential for regenerating new tissues and organs. This approach requires the involvement of three essential components: stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors. To date, dental pulp stem cells have received special attention because they represent a readily accessible source of stem cells. Their high plasticity and multipotential capacity to differentiate into a large array of tissues can be explained by its neural crest origin, which supports applications beyond the scope of oral tissues...
February 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447907/wilhelm-his-lasting-insights-into-hindbrain-and-cranial-ganglia-development-and-evolution
#9
REVIEW
Joel C Glover, Karen L Elliott, Albert Erives, Victor V Chizhikov, Bernd Fritzsch
Wilhelm His (1831-1904) provided lasting insights into the development of the central and peripheral nervous system using innovative technologies such as the microtome, which he invented. 150 years after his resurrection of the classical germ layer theory of Wolff, von Baer and Remak, his description of the developmental origin of cranial and spinal ganglia from a distinct cell population, now known as the neural crest, has stood the test of time and more recently sparked tremendous advances regarding the molecular development of these important cells...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445860/origin-and-initiation-mechanisms-of-neuroblastoma
#10
REVIEW
Shoma Tsubota, Kenji Kadomatsu
Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that affects normal development of the adrenal medulla and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia in early childhood. Extensive studies have revealed the molecular characteristics of human neuroblastomas, including abnormalities at genome, epigenome and transcriptome levels. However, neuroblastoma initiation mechanisms and even its origin are long-standing mysteries. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge about normal development of putative neuroblastoma sources, namely sympathoadrenal lineage of neural crest cells and Schwann cell precursors that were recently identified as the source of adrenal chromaffin cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445162/mycn-drives-glutaminolysis-in-neuroblastoma-and-confers-sensitivity-to-an-ros-augmenting-agent
#11
Tingting Wang, Lingling Liu, Xuyong Chen, Yuqing Shen, Gaojian Lian, Nilay Shah, Andrew M Davidoff, Jun Yang, Ruoning Wang
Heightened aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis are characteristic metabolic phenotypes in cancer cells. Neuroblastoma (NBL), a devastating pediatric cancer, is featured by frequent genomic amplification of MYCN, a member of the Myc oncogene family that is primarily expressed in the early stage of embryonic development and required for neural crest development. Here we report that an enriched glutaminolysis gene signature is associated with MYCN amplification in children with NBL. The partial knockdown of MYCN suppresses glutaminolysis in NBL cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445148/temporal-requirements-for-isl1-in-sympathetic-neuron-proliferation-differentiation-and-diversification
#12
Qingquan Zhang, Ru Huang, Youqiong Ye, Xiaoxia Guo, Jun Lu, Fugui Zhu, Xiaohui Gong, Qitong Zhang, Jie Yan, Lina Luo, Shaowei Zhuang, Yihan Chen, Xiaodong Zhao, Sylvia M Evans, Cizhong Jiang, Xingqun Liang, Yunfu Sun
Malformations of the sympathetic nervous system have been associated with cardiovascular instability, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuroblastoma. A better understanding of the factors regulating sympathetic nervous system development is critical to the development of potential therapies. Here, we have uncovered a temporal requirement for the LIM homeodomain transcription factor ISL1 during sympathetic nervous system development by the analysis of two mutant mouse lines: an Isl1 hypomorphic line and mice with Isl1 ablated in neural crest lineages...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443958/tissue-stiffening-coordinates-morphogenesis-by-triggering-collective-cell-migration-in-vivo
#13
Elias H Barriga, Kristian Franze, Guillaume Charras, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. In vivo, groups of cells move in an orchestrated way through tissues. This movement involves mechanical as well as molecular interactions between cells and their environment. While the role of molecular signals in collective cell migration is comparatively well understood, how tissue mechanics influence collective cell migration in vivo remains unknown. Here we investigated the importance of mechanical cues in the collective migration of the Xenopus laevis neural crest cells, an embryonic cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to cancer invasion...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442325/zic-family-proteins-in-emerging-biomedical-studies
#14
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442320/amphibian-zic-genes
#15
Christa Merzdorf, Jennifer Forecki
Studies in Xenopus laevis have greatly contributed to understanding the roles that the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play as essential drivers of early development. Explant systems that are not readily available in other organisms give Xenopus embryos a unique place in these studies, facilitated by the recent sequencing of the Xenopus laevis genome. A number of upstream regulators of zic gene expression have been identified, such as inhibition of BMP signaling, as well as calcium, FGF, and canonical Wnt signaling...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440260/chromatin-remodeler-chd7-regulates-the-stem-cell-identity-of-human-neural-progenitors
#16
MuhChyi Chai, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Hironobu Okuno, Zhi Zhou, Ikuko Koya, Satoe Banno, Tomoko Andoh-Noda, Yoshikuni Tabata, Rieko Shimamura, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Masashi Ebisawa, Yohei Sasagawa, Itoshi Nikaido, Hideyuki Okano, Jun Kohyama
Multiple congenital disorders often present complex phenotypes, but how the mutation of individual genetic factors can lead to multiple defects remains poorly understood. In the present study, we used human neuroepithelial (NE) cells and CHARGE patient-derived cells as an in vitro model system to identify the function of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 7 (CHD7) in NE-neural crest bifurcation, thus revealing an etiological link between the central nervous system (CNS) and craniofacial anomalies observed in CHARGE syndrome...
January 15, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434243/isolation-and-expansion-of-multipotent-progenitors-from-human-trabecular-meshwork
#17
Yuan Zhang, Subo Cai, Scheffer C G Tseng, Ying-Ting Zhu
To expand multi-potent progenitors from human trabecular meshwork (TM), we have created a new optimized method on two-dimensional (2D) followed by three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel in modified embryonic stem cell medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (MESCM + 5% FBS). The expanded TM cells were small cuboidal cells expressing TM markers such as AQP1, MGP, CHI3L1, and AnkG, embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and ABCG2, and neural crest (NC) markers such as p75NTR, FOXD3, Sox9, Sox10, and MSX1...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432577/sema3a-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-charge-syndrome
#18
Roser Ufartes, Janina Schwenty-Lara, Luisa Freese, Christiane Neuhofer, Janika Möller, Peter Wehner, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Monica T Y Wong, Ina Schanze, Andreas Tzschach, Oliver Bartsch, Annette Borchers, Silke Pauli
CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant malformation disorder caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in the chromatin remodeler CHD7. Chd7 regulates the expression of Sema3a, which also contributes to the pathogenesis of Kallmann syndrome, a heterogeneous condition with the typical features hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and an impaired sense of smell. Both features are common in CHARGE syndrome suggesting that SEMA3A may provide a genetic link between these syndromes. Indeed, we find evidence that SEMA3A plays a role in the pathogenesis of CHARGE syndrome...
February 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427758/screen-for-slit-robo-signaling-in-trunk-neural-cells-reveals-new-players
#19
Darwin Martinez, Nora Zuhdi, Michelle Reyes, Blanca Ortega, Dion Giovannone, Vivian Lee, Maria Elena de Bellard
Slits ligands and their Robo receptors are involved in quite disparate cell signaling pathways that include axon guidance, cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from neural cells in the dorsal neural tube, and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. It is well established that these cells change from a non-migratory to a highly migratory state allowing them to reach distant regions before they differentiate. However, but the mechanism controlling this delamination and subsequent migration are still not fully understood...
February 7, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425719/cell-reprogramming-by-3d-bioprinting-of-human-fibroblasts-in-polyurethane-hydrogel-for-fabrication-of-neural-like-constructs
#20
Lin Ho, Shan-Hui Hsu
3D bioprinting is a technique which enables the direct printing of biodegradable materials with cells into 3D tissue. So far there is no cell reprogramming in situ performed with the 3D bioprinting process. Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3) is a transcription factor and neural crest marker, which was reported to reprogram human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells. In this study, we synthesized a new biodegradable thermo-responsive waterborne polyurethane (PU) gel as a bioink. FoxD3 plasmids and human fibroblasts were co-extruded with the PU hydrogel through the syringe needle tip for cell reprogramming...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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