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Neural crest

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049740/phenotypic-plasticity-in-uveal-melanoma-is-not-restricted-to-a-tumor-subpopulation-and-is-unrelated-to-cancer-stem-cell-characteristics
#1
Rachel E Doherty, Karen Sisley, David W Hammond, Ian G Rennie, Neil A Cross
Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults and approximately half of those diagnosed will die of metastasis. This study investigates whether UM progression is driven by a subpopulation of stem-like cells, termed "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). Methods: Expression of postulated stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), CD44, and CD133 was analyzed in UM cell lines and primary UM short-term cultures (STCs) established from tumor samples...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049289/a-molecular-atlas-of-the-developing-ectoderm-defines-neural-neural-crest-placode-and-nonneural-progenitor-identity-in-vertebrates
#2
Jean-Louis Plouhinec, Sofía Medina-Ruiz, Caroline Borday, Elsa Bernard, Jean-Philippe Vert, Michael B Eisen, Richard M Harland, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045412/self-domestication-in-homo-sapiens-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#3
Constantina Theofanopoulou, Simone Gastaldon, Thomas O'Rourke, Bridget D Samuels, Angela Messner, Pedro Tiago Martins, Francesco Delogu, Saleh Alamri, Cedric Boeckx
This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044418/friedreich-ataxia-developmental-failure-of-the-dorsal-root-entry-zone
#4
Arnulf H Koeppen, Alyssa B Becker, Jiang Qian, Benjamin B Gelman, Joseph E Mazurkiewicz
Dorsal root ganglia, dorsal roots (DR), and dorsal root entry zones (DREZ) are vulnerable to frataxin deficiency in Friedreich ataxia (FA). A previously unrecognized abnormality is the intrusion of astroglial tissue into DR. Segments of formalin-fixed upper lumbar spinal cord of 13 homozygous and 2 compound heterozygous FA patients were sectioned longitudinally to represent DREZ and stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100, vimentin, the central nervous system (CNS)-specific myelin protein proteolipid protein, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin proteins PMP-22 and P0, and the Schwann cell proteins laminin, alpha-dystroglycan, and periaxin...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040749/cdc42-regulates-the-cellular-localization-of-cdc42ep1-in-controlling-neural-crest-cell-migration
#5
Cohen Shlomi, Daniel T Kovari, Wenbin Wei, Rebecca Keate, Jennifer E Curtis, Shuyi Nie
The member of Rho family of small GTPases Cdc42 plays important and conserved roles in cell polarity and motility. The Cdc42ep family proteins have been identified to bind to Cdc42, yet how they interact with Cdc42 to regulate cell migration remains to be elucidated. In this study, we focus on Cdc42ep1, which is expressed predominantly in the highly migratory neural crest cells in frog embryos. Through morpholino-mediated knockdown, we show that Cdc42ep1 is required for the migration of cranial neural crest cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038306/pfkfb4-control-of-akt-signaling-is-essential-for-premigratory-and-migratory-neural-crest-formation
#6
Ana Leonor Figueiredo, Frédérique Maczkowiak, Caroline Borday, Patrick Pla, Meghane Sittewelle, Caterina Pegoraro, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
Neural crest (NC) specification comprises an early phase, initiating immature NC progenitors formation at neural plate stage, and a later phase at neural fold stage, resulting into functional premigratory NC, able to delaminate and migrate. We found that the NC Gene Regulatory Network triggers up-regulation of pfkfb4 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4) during this late specification phase. As shown in previous studies, PFKFB4 controls AKT signaling in gastrulas and glycolysis rate in adult cells...
October 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#7
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034473/development-and-maturation-of-the-fibrous-components-of-the-arterial-roots-in-the-mouse-heart
#8
Rachel Richardson, Lorraine Eley, Charlotte Donald-Wilson, Jonathon Davis, Natasha Curley, Ahlam Alqahtani, Lindsay Murphy, Robert H Anderson, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry
The arterial roots are important transitional regions of the heart, connecting the intrapericardial components of the aortic and pulmonary trunks with their ventricular outlets. They house the arterial (semilunar) valves and, in the case of the aorta, are the points of coronary arterial attachment. Moreover, because of the semilunar attachments of the valve leaflets, the arterial roots span the anatomic ventriculo-arterial junction. By virtue of this arrangement, the interleaflet triangles, despite being fibrous, are found on the ventricular aspect of the root and located within the left ventricular cavity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033760/colonic-ganglioneuroma-a-rare-finding-during-colorectal-cancer-screening
#9
Emmanuel Ofori, Mel Ona, Daryl Ramai, Tiangui Huang, Philip Xiao, Madhavi Reddy
Ganglioneuromas are very rare clinical entities, and their occurrence in the large bowel lays further emphasis on their rarity. Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors of undifferentiated neural crest cells. Their clinical presentation is mostly asymptomatic, and if any symptoms are present at all, they are usually nonspecific, with excellent prognosis. We report an asymptomatic, 65-year-old male with a solitary ascending colonic polyp found on screening colonoscopy. Histology revealed benign polypoid spindle-cell proliferation as well as S100 reactivity, consistent with ganglioneuroma...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033303/schwann-cells-in-the-ventral-dermis-do-not-derive-from-myf5-expressing-precursors
#10
Haizea Iribar, Virginia Pérez-López, Usue Etxaniz, Araika Gutiérrez-Rivera, Ander Izeta
The embryonic origin of lineage precursors of the trunk dermis is somewhat controversial. Precursor cells traced by Myf5 and Twist2 (Dermo1) promoter activation (i.e., cells of presumed dermomyotomal lineage) have been reported to generate Schwann cells. On the other hand, abundant data demonstrate that dermal Schwann cells derive from the neural crest. This is relevant because dermal precursors give rise to neural lineages, and multilineage differentiation potential qualifies them as adult stem cells. However, it is currently unclear whether neural lineages arise from dedifferentiated Schwann cells instead of mesodermally derived dermal precursor cells...
October 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032465/hypoxia-and-hypoxia-inducible-factors-in-neuroblastoma
#11
REVIEW
Sven Påhlman, Sofie Mohlin
Hypoxia (i.e., low oxygen levels) is a known feature of aggressive tumors. Cells, including tumor cells, respond to conditions of insufficient oxygen by activating a transcriptional program mainly driven by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1 and HIF-2. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression levels have been shown to correlate to patient outcome in various tumor forms and in neuroblastoma, a solid childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, in particular, HIF-2α marks a subpopulation of immature neural crest-like perivascularly located cells and associates with aggressive disease and distant metastasis...
October 14, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028795/alx4-relays-sequential-fgf-signaling-to-induce-lacrimal-gland-morphogenesis
#12
Ankur Garg, Mukesh Bansal, Noriko Gotoh, Gen-Sheng Feng, Jian Zhong, Fen Wang, Ariana Kariminejad, Steven Brooks, Xin Zhang
The sequential use of signaling pathways is essential for the guidance of pluripotent progenitors into diverse cell fates. Here, we show that Shp2 exclusively mediates FGF but not PDGF signaling in the neural crest to control lacrimal gland development. In addition to preventing p53-independent apoptosis and promoting the migration of Sox10-expressing neural crests, Shp2 is also required for expression of the homeodomain transcription factor Alx4, which directly controls Fgf10 expression in the periocular mesenchyme that is necessary for lacrimal gland induction...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027617/zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-neuroblastoma-development
#13
REVIEW
Mattie J Casey, Rodney A Stewart
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor arising from embryonic neural crest progenitor cells that normally generate the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. As such, the location of neuroblastoma tumors is correlated with the distribution of major post-ganglionic clusters throughout the sympathetic chain, with the highest incidence in the adrenal medulla or lumbar sympathetic ganglia (~65%). Neuroblastoma is an enigmatic tumor that can spontaneously regress with minimal treatment or become highly metastatic and develop resistance to aggressive treatments, including radiation and high-dose chemotherapy...
October 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025656/dual-delivery-of-vegf-and-ngf-by-emulsion-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#14
Bin Xia, Yonggang Lv
Controlled delivery of multiple therapeutic agents can be considered an effective approach in nerve injury due to its multifunction. In this study, recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) were loaded on the surface and in the core of emulsion electrospun poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold, respectively. The in vitro studies showed that VEGF and NGF had a sequential release pattern in which most of the VEFG was released in the first few days but the NGF could be continuously released for >1month...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025251/glial-choristoma-of-the-tongue-clinicopathological-analysis-of-a-case-and-pathogenetic-insights
#15
Alessandro Corsi, Norman Veccia, Mara Riminucci
Glial choristoma of the tongue is a rare developmental anomaly usually occurring in the first two years of life. Although diverse theories have been suggested to explain its development, they do not seem to take into account the normal tongue development. We report here on a glial choristoma of the tongue in a two-month-old male with the aim to describe the clinicopathological features of this lesion and to discuss the pathogenetic role of the cells that normally migrate from the cranial neural crests to generate the ectomesenchymal derivatives of the tongue and express neuroglial differentiation as normal developmental pathway...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024604/the-avian-embryo-as-a-model-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#16
Susan M Smith, George R Flentke
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a leading preventable cause of structural birth defects and permanent neurodevelopmental disability. The chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a powerful embryological research model and was possibly the first (Fere, 1895) in which alcohol's teratogenicity was demonstrated. Pharmacologically relevant alcohol exposures in the range of 20-70 mM (20-80 mg/egg) disrupt chick embryo growth, morphogenesis, and behavior, and the resulting phenotypes strongly parallel those of mammalian models...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022261/the-non-cardiomyocyte-cells-of-the-heart-their-possible-roles-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-regeneration-and-remodeling
#17
Ivan Varga, Jan Kyselovič, Paulina Galfiova, Lubos Danisovic
The non-cardiomyocyte cellular microenvironment of the heart includes diverse types of cells of mesenchymal origin. During development, the majority of these cells derive from the epicardium, while a subset derives from the endothelium/endocardium and neural crest derived mesenchyme. This subset includes cardiac fibroblasts and telocytes, the latter of which are a controversial type of "connecting cell" that support resident cardiac progenitors in the postnatal heart. Smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells are also present, in addition to adipocytes, which accumulate as epicardial adipose connective tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018955/the-effect-of-laminin-1-on-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cell-migration-in-the-hirschsprung-s-disease-mouse-model
#18
Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, N Fujiwara, K Miyahara, S Nakada, E Arikawa-Hirasawa, C Akazawa, M Urao, A Yamataka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminin-1 regulates neurite outgrowth in various neuronal cells. We have previously demonstrated that laminin-1 promotes enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) migration by using Sox10-VENUS transgenic mice, in which ENCCs are labeled with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. Mice lacking the endothelin-B receptor gene, Ednrb (-/-) mice, are widely used as a model for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laminin-1on ENCC migration in Sox10-VENUS(+)/Ednrb (-/-) mice, a newly created HD mice model...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018170/temperature-activated-ion-channels-in-neural-crest-cells-confer-maternal-fever-associated-birth-defects
#19
Mary R Hutson, Anna L Keyte, Miriam Hernández-Morales, Eric Gibbs, Zachary A Kupchinsky, Ioannis Argyridis, Kyle N Erwin, Kelly Pegram, Margaret Kneifel, Paul B Rosenberg, Pavle Matak, Luke Xie, Jörg Grandl, Erica E Davis, Nicholas Katsanis, Chunlei Liu, Eric J Benner
Birth defects of the heart and face are common, and most have no known genetic cause, suggesting a role for environmental factors. Maternal fever during the first trimester is an environmental risk factor linked to these defects. Neural crest cells are precursor populations essential to the development of both at-risk tissues. We report that two heat-activated transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, TRPV1 and TRPV4, were present in neural crest cells during critical windows of heart and face development...
October 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017464/respective-contribution-of-the-cephalic-neural-crest-and-mesoderm-to-six1-expressing-head-territories-in-the-avian-embryo
#20
Barbara F Fonseca, Gérard Couly, Elisabeth Dupin
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate head development depends on a series of interactions between many cell populations of distinct embryological origins. Cranial mesenchymal tissues have a dual embryonic source: - the neural crest (NC), which generates most of craniofacial skeleton, dermis, pericytes, fat cells, and tenocytes; and - the mesoderm, which yields muscles, blood vessel endothelia and some posterior cranial bones. The molecular players that orchestrate co-development of cephalic NC and mesodermal cells to properly construct the head of vertebrates remain poorly understood...
October 10, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
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