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Neural crest

Wen Wei, Bin Liu, Haisong Jiang, Kangxin Jin, Mengqing Xiang
Mutations in the human transcription factor gene ZEB2 cause Mowat-Wilson syndrome, a congenital disorder characterized by multiple and variable anomalies including microcephaly, Hirschsprung disease, intellectual disability, epilepsy, microphthalmia, retinal coloboma, and/or optic nerve hypoplasia. Zeb2 in mice is involved in patterning neural and lens epithelia, neural tube closure, as well as in the specification, differentiation and migration of neural crest cells and cortical neurons. At present, it is still unclear how Zeb2 mutations cause retinal coloboma, whether Zeb2 inactivation results in retinal degeneration, and whether Zeb2 is sufficient to promote the differentiation of different retinal cell types...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Zbigniew Gugala, Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis, Yuqing Xiong, Eleanor L Davis, Alan R Davis
De novo bone formation can occur in soft tissues as a result of traumatic injury. This process, known as heterotopic ossification (HO), has recently been linked to the peripheral nervous system. Studies suggest that HO may resemble neural crest-derived bone formation and is activated through the release of key bone matrix proteins leading to opening of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB). One of the first steps in this process is the activation of a neuro-inflammatory cascade, which results in migration of chondro-osseous progenitors, and other cells from both the endoneurial and perineurial regions of the peripheral nerves...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Joshua J Mifflin, Loren E Dupuis, Nicolas E Alcala, Lea G Russell, Christine B Kern
BACKGROUND: The origin of the intercalated cushions that develop into the anterior cusp of the pulmonary valve (PV) and the noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve (AV) is not well understood. RESULTS: Cre transgenes in combination with the Rosa TdTomato-EGFP reporter were utilized to generate three-dimensional lineage mapping of AV and PV cusps during intercalated cushion development. Tie2-Cre;EGFP was used to mark endothelial-derived mesenchymal cells, Wnt1-Cre;EGFP for cardiac neural crest and cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2)Cre;EGFP, for myocardial lineage...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Yu Hsuan Carol Yang, Koichi Kawakami, Didier Yr Stainier
Pancreatic islets are innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves that influence their function. Analyzing the innervation process should provide insight into the nerve-endocrine interactions and their roles in development and disease. Here, using in vivo time-lapse imaging and genetic analyses in zebrafish, we determined the events leading to islet innervation. Comparable neural density in the absence of vasculature indicates that it is dispensable for early pancreatic innervation. Neural crest cells are in close contact with endocrine cells early in development...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Jidi Gao, Erika Chow, Aishatu Aloma, Payal Gupta
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a high-grade malignant tumor originating from the neural crest and neuroectoderm, which can be subdivided into central and peripheral categories. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is thought to be identical to Ewing's sarcoma, and falls under a broader category of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Very rarely, it may present without osseous involvement, known as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma. Here we present a case of a 38-year-old woman, who presented with several-month history of a slow-growing chest wall mass, initially thought to be a breast mass...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Brett T Chiquet, Qiuping Yuan, Eric C Swindell, Lorena Maili, Robert Plant, Jeffrey Dyke, Ryan Boyer, John F Teichgraeber, Matthew R Greives, John B Mulliken, Ariadne Letra, Susan H Blanton, Jacqueline T Hecht
Orofacial development is a multifaceted process involving tightly regulated genetic signaling networks, that when perturbed, lead to orofacial abnormalities including cleft lip and/or cleft palate. We and others have shown an association between the cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2) gene and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP). Further, we demonstrated that knockdown of Crispld2 in zebrafish alters neural crest cell migration patterns resulting in abnormal jaw and palate development...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Arnav Mehta, Yeon Joo Kim, Lidia Robert, Jennifer Tsoi, Begoña Comin-Anduix, Beata Berent-Maoz, Alistair J Cochran, James Economou, Paul C Tumeh, Cristina Puig-Saus, Antoni Ribas
A promising arsenal of targeted and immunotherapy treatments for metastatic melanoma has emerged over the last decade. With these therapies, we now face new mechanisms of tumor acquired resistance. We report here a patient whose metastatic melanoma underwent dedifferentiation as a resistance mechanism to adoptive T cell transfer therapy (ACT) to the MART-1 antigen, a phenomenon that had only been observed in mouse studies to date. After an initial period of tumor regression, the patient presented in relapse with tumors lacking melanocytic antigens (MART-1, gp100) and expressing an inflammation-induced neural crest marker (NGFR)...
June 13, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Lingling Zhou, Yang Li, Weiwei Jiang, Hua Zhang, Zechao Wen, Yang Su, Feng Wu, Zhengke Zhi, Qiyang Shen, Hongxing Li, Xiaoqun Xu, Weibing Tang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), which have been shown to participate in intracellular RNA regulatory networks and play vital roles in many pathological processes. Recently, circular RNA_PRKCI (circ-PRKCI) has been reported to regulate cell proliferation, migration and invasion in several human cancers. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a well-known congenital gut motility disorder which roots in the aberrance of cranial-caudal neural crest cell migration. In this study, we investigated whether circ-PRKCI may affect cell migration and proliferation in HSCR...
June 12, 2018: Cell Cycle
Aparna Harbhajanka, Satyapal Chahar, Kristy Miskimen, Paula Silverman, Lyndsay Harris, Nicole Williams, Vinay Varadan, Hannah Gilmore
The transcription factor SOX10 mediates the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells, and SOX10 by immunohistochemistry(IHC) is used primarily for the diagnosis of melanoma. SOX10 expression has been previously documented in benign breast myoepithelial cells. However there is limited literature on its expression in triple negative breast carcinoma(TNBC). The aim was to study the clinical, pathologic and molecular profiles of SOX10+ tumors in TNBC. Tissue microarrays of TNBC were evaluated for SOX10 expression in 48cases...
June 9, 2018: Human Pathology
Alessandra Pisciotta, Laura Bertoni, Massimo Riccio, Jonathan Mapelli, Albertino Bigiani, Marcella La Noce, Monia Orciani, Anto de Pol, Gianluca Carnevale
Human dental pulp is considered an interesting source of adult stem cells, due to the low-invasive isolation procedures, high content of stem cells and its peculiar embryological origin from neural crest. Based on our previous findings, a dental pulp stem cells sub-population, enriched for the expression of STRO-1, c-Kit, and CD34, showed a higher neural commitment. However, their biological properties were compromised when cells were cultured in adherent standard conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of three dimensional floating spheres to preserve embryological and biological properties of this sub-population...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cristina Barrena López, Beatriz De la Calle García, Rosario Sarabia Herrero
Ganglioneuroma (GN) is a slow-growing tumor originating from the neural crest-derived cells, which form the sympathetic nervous system. These tumors can affect anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites, being most commonly found in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum. Spinal GNs are extremely rare and, so far, only 1 case arising from a lumbar nerve root has been reported in English literature. GNs are often asymptomatic, and the majority of them, are found incidentally in healthy subjects. Due to its slow growth, symptoms may result from the compressive effect of the tumor...
June 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Alicia M McConnell, Jeffrey K Mito, Julien Ablain, Michelle Dang, Luke Formichella, David E Fisher, Leonard I Zon
NRAS mutations are frequently found in many deadly malignancies and are the second most common oncogene driving malignant melanoma. Here, we generate a rapid transient transgenic zebrafish model of NRASQ61R -mutant melanoma. These fish develop extensive melanocytic proliferation in approximately 4 weeks. The majority of these lesions do not engraft upon transplantation and lack overt histologic features of malignancy. Our previous work demonstrated that activation of a neural crest cell transcriptional program is a key initiating event in zebrafish BRAF/p53-driven melanomas using the fluorescent reporter crestin:EGFP...
June 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Alice Roycroft, András Szabó, Isabel Bahm, Liam Daly, Guillaume Charras, Maddy Parsons, Roberto Mayor
Contact inhibition of locomotion is defined as the behavior of cells to cease migrating in their former direction after colliding with another cell. It has been implicated in multiple developmental processes and its absence has been linked to cancer invasion. Cellular forces are thought to govern this process; however, the exact role of traction through cell-matrix adhesions and tension through cell-cell adhesions during contact inhibition of locomotion remains unknown. Here we use neural crest cells to address this and show that cell-matrix adhesions are rapidly disassembled at the contact between two cells upon collision...
June 4, 2018: Developmental Cell
Larissa B Patterson, David M Parichy
Migratory cells derived from the neural crest encounter both local cues and more distant signals as they effect specific morphogenetic outcomes. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Zhang et al. (2018) reveal how zebrafish melanophores use the sheddase Bace2 to "tune out" insulin signaling, thereby allowing stripes to form.
June 4, 2018: Developmental Cell
Méghane Sittewelle, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many studies in mouse embryos have clearly implicated AKT signaling in the differentiation of several neural crest derivatives, information on AKT functions during the earliest steps of neural crest development had remained relatively scarce until recently...
May 31, 2018: Developmental Biology
Andrea M J Weiner
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that can control gene expression by base pairing to partially complementary mRNAs. Regulation by microRNAs plays essential roles in diverse biological processes such as neural crest formation during embryonic development. The neural crest is a multipotent cell population that develops from the dorsal neural fold of vertebrate embryos in order to migrate extensively and differentiate into a variety of tissues. Gene regulatory networks that coordinate neural crest cell specification and differentiation have been considerably studied so far...
May 30, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Sobhika Agarwala, Owen J Tamplin
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche supports steady-state hematopoiesis and responds to changing needs during stress and disease. The nervous system is an important regulator of the niche, and its influence is established early in development when stem cells are specified. Most research has focused on direct innervation of the niche, however recent findings show there are different modes of neural control, including globally by the central nervous system (CNS) and hormone release, locally by neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and intrinsically by hematopoietic cells that express neural receptors and neurotransmitters...
May 29, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Patrick Pla, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
The neural crest is induced at the edge between the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm, in an area called the neural (plate) border, during gastrulation and neurulation. In recent years, many studies have explored how this domain is patterned, and how the neural crest is induced within this territory, that also participates to the prospective dorsal neural tube, the dorsalmost nonneural ectoderm, as well as placode derivatives in the anterior area. This review highlights the tissue interactions, the cell-cell signaling and the molecular mechanisms involved in this dynamic spatiotemporal patterning, resulting in the induction of the premigratory neural crest...
May 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
Stefan Washausen, Wolfgang Knabe
Placodes are focal thickenings of the surface ectoderm which, together with neural crest, generate the peripheral nervous system of the vertebrate head. Here we examine how, in embryonic mice, apoptosis contributes to the remodelling of the primordial posterior placodal area (PPA) into physically separated otic and epibranchial placodes. Using pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis-associated caspases, we find evidence that apoptosis eliminates hitherto undiscovered rudiments of the lateral line sensory system which, in fish and aquatic amphibia, serves to detect movements, pressure changes or electric fields in the surrounding water...
May 30, 2018: Biology Open
Muhammad Ali, Shahid Y Khan, Shivakumar Vasanth, Mariya R Ahmed, Ruiqiang Chen, Chan Hyun Na, Jason J Thomson, Caihong Qiu, John D Gottsch, S Amer Riazuddin
Purpose: Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are critical in maintaining clarity of the cornea. This study was initiated to develop peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-originated, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived CECs. Methods: We isolated PBMCs and programmed the mononuclear cells to generate iPSCs, which were differentiated to CECs through the neural crest cells (NCCs). The morphology of differentiating iPSCs was examined at regular intervals by phase contrast microscopy...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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