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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222693/neuroblastoma-pathogenesis-deregulation-of-embryonic-neural-crest-development
#1
REVIEW
Julie A Tomolonis, Saurabh Agarwal, Jason M Shohet
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217752/mapping-the-distribution-of-stem-progenitor-cells-across-the-middle-ear-during-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#2
Abigail S Tucker, Carlene J Dyer, Juan M Fons Romero, Tathyane H N Teshima, Jennifer C Fuchs, Hannah Thompson
The middle ear epithelium is derived from neural crest and endoderm, which line distinct regions of the middle ear cavity. Here we investigate the distribution of putative stem cell markers in the middle ear combined with an analysis of the location of label retaining cells (LRCs) to create a map of the middle ear mucosa. We show that proliferating cells and LRCs were associated with specific regions of the ear epithelium, concentrated in the hypotympanum at the base of the auditory bulla and around the ear drum...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216801/first-report-of-prenatal-ascertainment-of-a-fetus-with-homozygous-loss-of-the-sox10-gene-and-phenotypic-correlation-by-autopsy-examination
#3
David P LeBel, Daynna J Wolff, Nicholas I Batalis, Tara Ellingham, Natalie Matics, Sanjay C Patwardhan, Iya Y Znoyko, Cynthia A Schandl
The SOX10 gene plays a vital role in neural crest cell development and migration. Abnormalities in SOX10 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome Types II and IV, and these patients have recognizable clinical features. This case report highlights the first ever reported homozygous loss of function of the SOX10 gene in a human. This deletion is correlated using family history, prenatal ultrasound, microarray analysis of amniotic fluid, and ultimately, a medical autopsy examination to further elucidate phenotypic effects of this genetic variation...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216270/generation-and-characterization-of-kctd15-mutations-in-zebrafish
#4
Alison Heffer, Gregory D Marquart, Allisan Aquilina-Beck, Nabil Saleem, Harold A Burgess, Igor B Dawid
Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#5
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214313/rna-sequencing-gene-expression-profiling-of-orbital-adipose-derived-stem-cell-population-implicate-hox-genes-and-wnt-signaling-dysregulation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-thyroid-associated-orbitopathy
#6
Wensi Tao, Juan A Ayala-Haedo, Matthew G Field, Daniel Pelaez, Sara T Wester
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the intrinsic cellular properties of orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASC) from patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods: Orbital adipose tissue was collected from a total of nine patients: four controls and five patients with TAO. Isolated OASC were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell-specific markers. Orbital adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into three lineages: chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209231/early-determination-of-the-periodontal-domain-by-the-wnt-antagonist-frzb-sfrp3
#7
Thimios A Mitsiadis, Pierfrancesco Pagella, Claudio Cantù
Odontogenesis results from the continuous and reciprocal interaction between cells of the oral epithelium and cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in mediating these interactions from the earliest stages of tooth development. Here we analyze by in situ hybridization the expression patterns of the extracellular Wnt antagonist Frzb/Sfrp3. Although Frzb is expressed in dental mesenchymal cells from the earliest stages of odontogenesis, its expression is absent from a tiny population of mesenchymal cells immediately adjacent to the invaginating dental epithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207623/isoxazole-compound-ml327-blocks-myc-expression-and-tumor-formation-in-neuroblastoma
#8
Eric J Rellinger, Chandrasekhar Padmanabhan, Jingbo Qiao, Brian T Craig, Hanbing An, Jing Zhu, Hernán Correa, Alex G Waterson, Craig W Lindsley, R Daniel Beauchamp, Dai H Chung
Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children and arise from the embryonic neural crest. MYCN-amplification is a feature of ∼30% of neuroblastoma tumors and portends a poor prognosis. Neural crest precursors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to gain migratory potential and populate the sympathoadrenal axis. Neuroblastomas are posited to arise due to a blockade of neural crest differentiation. We have recently reported effects of a novel MET inducing compound ML327 (N-(3-(2-hydroxynicotinamido) propyl)-5-phenylisoxazole-3-carboxamide) in colon cancer cells...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202482/ligand-activated-bmp-signaling-inhibits-cell-differentiation-and-death-to-promote-melanoma
#9
Arvind M Venkatesan, Rajesh Vyas, Alec K Gramann, Karen Dresser, Sharvari Gujja, Sanchita Bhatnagar, Sagar Chhangawala, Camilla Borges Ferreira Gomes, Hualin Simon Xi, Christine G Lian, Yariv Houvras, Yvonne J K Edwards, April Deng, Michael Green, Craig J Ceol
Oncogenomic studies indicate that copy number variation (CNV) alters genes involved in tumor progression; however, identification of specific driver genes affected by CNV has been difficult, as these rearrangements are often contained in large chromosomal intervals among several bystander genes. Here, we addressed this problem and identified a CNV-targeted oncogene by performing comparative oncogenomics of human and zebrafish melanomas. We determined that the gene encoding growth differentiation factor 6 (GDF6), which is the ligand for the BMP family, is recurrently amplified and transcriptionally upregulated in melanoma...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199959/single-cell-transcriptome-analysis-of-avian-neural-crest-migration-reveals-signatures-of-invasion-and-molecular-transitions
#10
Jason A Morrison, Rebecca McLennan, Lauren A Wolfe, Madelaine M Gogol, Samuel Meier, Mary C McKinney, Jessica M Teddy, Laura Holmes, Craig L Semerad, Andrew C Box, Hua Li, Kathryn E Hall, Anoja G Perera, Paul M Kulesa
Neural crest cells migrate throughout the embryo, but how cells move in a directed and collective manner has remained unclear. Here, we perform the first single-cell transcriptome analysis of cranial neural crest cell migration at three progressive stages in chick and identify and establish hierarchical relationships between cell position and time-specific transcriptional signatures. We determine a novel transcriptional signature of the most invasive neural crest Trailblazer cells that is consistent during migration and enriched for approximately 900 genes...
December 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196262/collagen-vi-suppresses-fibronectin-induced-enteric-neural-crest-cell-migration-by-downregulation-of-focal-adhesion-proteins
#11
Shoichi Nishida, Hisayoshi Yoshizaki, Yoshitomo Yasui, Tsuyoshi Kuwahara, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Miyuki Kohno
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that are derived from enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) and essential for regulating peristaltic activity of the colon. ENCCs migrate along the gastrointestinal tract to form the ENS, and disruption of ENCC motility leads to ENS disorders, such as Hirschsprung's disease. Previous ENCC-transplant experiments show that ENCCs can invade into isolated mouse intestines by age E13.5, but not after E15.5. We hypothesized that altered age-specific micro-environments in the intestine are responsible for ENCC invasion/migration...
November 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196189/pd-l1-inflammation-non-coding-rnas-and-neuroblastoma-immuno-oncology-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Palanisamy Nallasamy, Srinivas Chava, Sumit S Verma, Shruti Mishra, Santhi Gorantla, Don W Coulter, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Surinder K Batra, Subash C Gupta, Kishore B Challagundla
Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor of neural crest origin. The current treatment options for neuroblastoma produce severe side effects. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), chronic inflammation, and non-coding RNAs are known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Cancer cells and the surrounding cells in the tumor microenvironment express PD-L1. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a co-receptor expressed predominantly by T cells. The binding of PD-1 to its ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2, is vital for the physiologic regulation of the immune system...
November 28, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193736/development-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-human-digestive-tract-as-the-result-of-reciprocal-induction-of-mesenchymal-and-neural-crest-cells
#13
REVIEW
Goran Radenkovic, Dina Radenkovic, Aleksandra Velickov
Neural crest cells (NCC) can migrate into different parts of the body and express their strong inductive potential. In addition, they are multipotent and are able to differentiate into various cell types with diverse functions. In the primitive gut, NCC induce differentiation of muscular structures and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and they themselves differentiate into the elements of the enteric nervous system (ENS), neurons and glial cells. ICC develop by way of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the outer parts of the primitive gut wall around the myenteric plexus (MP) ganglia, with the exception of colon, where they appear simultaneously also at the submucosal border of the circular muscular layer around the submucosal plexus (SMP) ganglia...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193426/low-osteogenic-yield-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-associates-with-differential-neural-crest-promoter-methylation
#14
Nicole Renee Lee Sparks, Ivann Kenneth Carvajal Martinez, Cristina Helen Soto, Nicole Isolde Zur Nieden
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived osteoblasts possess great potential for utilization in bone disorder elucidation and repair; yet, while the general ability of human pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and lay down bone-specific matrix has been shown, previous studies lack the complete characterization of the process whereby such osteoblasts are derived as well as a comparison between the osteogenic efficiency of multiple cell lines. Here, we compared the osteogenic potential of two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (RIV9 and RIV4) to human H9 embryonic stem cells...
November 29, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192291/kif1bp-loss-in-mice-leads-to-defects-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-and-perinatal-death
#15
Caroline S Hirst, Lincon A Stamp, Annette J Bergner, Marlene M Hao, Mai X Tran, Jan M Morgan, Matthias Dutschmann, Andrew M Allen, George Paxinos, Teri M Furlong, Sonja J McKeown, Heather M Young
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome is a poorly understood condition characterized by learning difficulties, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, and Hirschsprung disease. GOSHS is due to recessive mutations in KIAA1279, which encodes kinesin family member 1 binding protein (KIF1BP, also known as KBP). We examined the effects of inactivation of Kif1bp in mice. Mice lacking Kif1bp died shortly after birth, and exhibited smaller brains, olfactory bulbs and anterior commissures, and defects in the vagal and sympathetic innervation of the gut...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190819/the-ectodomain-of-cadherin-11-binds-to-erbb2-and-stimulates-akt-phosphorylation-to-promote-cranial-neural-crest-cell-migration
#16
Ketan Mathavan, Vikram Khedgikar, Vanessa Bartolo, Dominique Alfandari
During development, a multi-potent group of cells known as the cranial neural crest (CNC) migrate to form craniofacial structures. Proper migration of these cells requires proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules, such as cadherins. In Xenopus laevis, preventing extracellular cleavage of cadherin-11 impairs CNC migration. However, overexpression of the soluble cleavage product (EC1-3) is capable of rescuing this phenotype. The mechanism by which EC1-3 promotes CNC migration has not been investigated until now...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184067/identification-of-a-neural-crest-stem-cell-niche-by-spatial-genomic-analysis
#17
Antti Lignell, Laura Kerosuo, Sebastian J Streichan, Long Cai, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is an embryonic population of multipotent stem cells that form numerous defining features of vertebrates. Due to lack of reliable techniques to perform transcriptional profiling in intact tissues, it remains controversial whether the neural crest is a heterogeneous or homogeneous population. By coupling multiplex single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization with machine learning algorithm based cell segmentation, we examine expression of 35 genes at single cell  resolution in vivo. Unbiased hierarchical clustering reveals five spatially distinct subpopulations within the chick dorsal neural tube...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181082/sox10-mitf-pathway-activity-in-melanoma-cells
#18
Karol B Tudrej, Edyta Czepielewska, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous and lethal skin cancers, with a considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance. It involves a malignant transformation of melanocytes. The exact course of events in which melanocytes become melanoma cells remains unclear. Nevertheless, this process is said to be dependent on the occurrence of cells with the phenotype of progenitor cells - cells characterized by expression of proteins such as nestin, CD-133 or CD-271. The development of these cells and their survival were found to be potentially dependent on the neural crest stem cell transcription factor SOX10...
October 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179815/charge-syndrome-modeling-using-patient-ipscs-reveals-defective-migration-of-neural-crest-cells-harboring-chd7-mutations
#19
Hironobu Okuno, Francois Renault Mihara, Shigeki Ohta, Kimiko Fukuda, Kenji Kurosawa, Wado Akamatsu, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Kanehiro Hayashi, Kazunori Nakajima, Takao Takahashi, Joanna Wysocka, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hideyuki Okano
CHARGE syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chromatin remodeler, CHD7, and is characterized by a set of malformations that, on clinical grounds, were historically postulated to arise from defects in neural crest formation during embryogenesis. To better delineate neural crest defects in CHARGE syndrome, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients with typical syndrome manifestations, and characterized neural crest cells differentiated in vitro from these iPSCs (iPSC-NCCs)...
November 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175861/ngf-reprograms-metastatic-melanoma-to-a-bipotent-glial-melanocyte-neural-crest-like-precursor
#20
Jennifer C Kasemeier-Kulesa, Morgan H Romine, Jason A Morrison, Caleb M Bailey, Danny R Welch, Paul M Kulesa
Melanoma pathogenesis from normal neural crest-derived melanocytes is often fatal due to aggressive cell invasion throughout the body. The identification of signals that reprogram de-differentiated, metastatic melanoma cells to a less aggressive and stable phenotype would provide a novel strategy to limit disease progression. In this study, we identify and test the function of developmental signals within the chick embryonic neural crest microenvironment to reprogram and sustain the transition of human metastatic melanoma to a neural crest cell-like phenotype...
November 24, 2017: Biology Open
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