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Neural crest

Daniel Pelaez, Zenith Acosta Torres, Tsz Kin Ng, Kwong Wai Choy, Chi Pui Pang, Herman S Cheung
Cellular therapies for the treatment of myocardial infarction have proven to be an invaluable tool in recent years and provide encouraging evidence for the possibility to restore normal heart function. However, questions still remain as to the optimal cell source, pre-conditioning methods and delivery techniques for such an application. This study explores the use of a population of stem cells arising from the neural crest and isolated from adult human periodontal ligament along with short-term mechanical strain as an inducer of cardiomyogenesis and possibly pre-conditioning stimulus for cellular cardiomyoplasty...
October 17, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Wen-Juan Lu, Scheffer C G Tseng, Shuangling Chen, Sean Tighe, Yuan Zhang, Xin Liu, Szu-Yu Chen, Chen-Wei Su, Ying-Ting Zhu
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) have limited proliferative capacity due to "contact-inhibition" at G1 phase. Such contact-inhibition can be delayed from Day 21 to Day 42 by switching EGF-containing SHEM to LIF/bFGF-containing MESCM through transient activation of LIF-JAK1-STAT3 signaling that delays eventual nuclear translocation of p16(INK4a). Using the latter system, we have reported a novel tissue engineering technique by implementing 5 weekly knockdowns with p120 catenin (p120) and Kaiso siRNAs since Day 7 to achieve effective expansion of HCEC monolayers to a transplantable size with a normal HCEC density, through reprogramming of HCECs into neural crest progenitors by activating p120-Kaiso-RhoA-ROCK-canonical BMP signaling...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Letizia Canu, Silvia Pradella, Elena Rapizzi, Rossella Fucci, Andrea Valeri, Vittorio Briganti, Valentino Giachè, Gabriele Parenti, Tonino Ercolino, Massimo Mannelli
Metastatic pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (sPGLs) are rare neural crest-derived tumors with a poor prognosis. About 50% of them are due to germ-line mutations of the SDHB gene. At present, there is no cure for these tumors. Their therapy is palliative and represented by different options among which antiangiogenic drugs, like sunitinib, have been hypothesized to be effective especially in malignant SDHB mutated tumors. We report the effects of sunitinib therapy in a SDHB mutation carrier affected by a malignant sPGL...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrew Tai, Martin Cheung, Yong-Heng Huang, Ralf Jauch, Marianne E Bronner, Kathryn S E Cheah
During chordate evolution, two genome-wide duplications facilitated acquisition of vertebrate traits, including emergence of neural crest cells (NCCs), in which neofunctionalization of the duplicated genes are thought to have facilitated development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. How these duplicated genes evolve and acquire the ability to specify NC and their derivatives are largely unknown. Vertebrate SoxE paralogues, most notably Sox9/10, are essential for NC induction, delamination and lineage specification...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Colleen A McGourty, David Akopian, Carolyn Walsh, Amita Gorur, Achim Werner, Randy Schekman, Diana Bautista, Michael Rape
The ubiquitin ligase CUL3 is an essential regulator of neural crest specification whose aberrant activation has been linked to autism, schizophrenia, and hypertension. CUL3 exerts its roles by pairing with ∼90 distinct substrate adaptors, yet how the different CUL3-complexes are activated is poorly understood. Here, we show that CUL3 and its adaptor KLHL12 require two calcium-binding proteins, PEF1 and ALG2, for recognition of their substrate SEC31. PEF1 and ALG2 form a target-specific co-adaptor that translates a transient rise in cytosolic calcium levels into more persistent SEC31 ubiquitylation, which in turn triggers formation of large COPII coats and promotes collagen secretion...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Yukinori Endo, Hiroko Ishiwata-Endo, Kenneth M Yamada
Anosmin is an extracellular matrix protein, and genetic defects in anosmin result in human Kallmann syndrome. It functions in neural crest formation, cell adhesion, and neuronal migration. Anosmin consists of multiple domains, and it has been reported to bind heparan sulfate, FGF receptor, and UPA. In this study, we establish cell adhesion/spreading assays for anosmin and use them for antibody inhibition analyses to search for an integrin adhesion receptor. We find that α5β1, α4β1, and α9β1 integrins are needed for effective adhesive receptor function in cell adhesion and cell spreading on anosmin; adhesion is inhibited by both RGD and α4β1 CS1-based peptides...
August 9, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Shihai Jia, Hyuk-Jae Edward Kwon, Yu Lan, Jing Zhou, Han Liu, Rulang Jiang
Mutations in MSX1 cause craniofacial developmental defects, including tooth agenesis, in humans and mice. Previous studies suggest that Msx1 activates Bmp4 expression in the developing tooth mesenchyme to drive early tooth organogenesis. Whereas Msx1(-/-) mice exhibit developmental arrest of all tooth germs at the bud stage, mice with neural crest-specific inactivation of Bmp4 (Bmp4(ncko)(/ncko)), which lack Bmp4 expression in the developing tooth mesenchyme, showed developmental arrest of only mandibular molars...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Biology
Heidi Bildsoe, Xiaochen Fan, Emilie E Wilkie, Ator Ashoti, Vanessa J Jones, Melinda Power, Jing Qin, Junwen Wang, Patrick P L Tam, David A F Loebel
This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Transcriptional targets of TWIST1 in the cranial mesoderm regulate cell-matrix interactions and mesenchyme maintenance" by Bildsoe et al. (2016) [1]. The data presented here are derived from: (1) a microarray-based comparison of sorted cranial mesoderm (CM) and cranial neural crest (CNC) cells from E9.5 mouse embryos; (2) comparisons of transcription profiles of head tissues from mouse embryos with a CM-specific loss-of-function of Twist1 and control mouse embryos collected at E8...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Mitsunari Nakajima, Takashi Watanabe, Rui Aoki, Risei Shimizu, Satoshi Okuyama, Yoshiko Furukawa
Wnt1-Cre- and Wnt1-GAL4 double transgenic (dTg) mice are used to study neural crest cell lineages by utilizing either the Cre/loxP or the GAL4/UAS system. We have previously shown that these mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities that resemble certain behaviors of psychiatric disorders and histologic alterations in the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems in the brain. The objective of the current study was to extend the behavioral analyses in these mice and to determine whether there were any sex-specific differences in the prevalence or severity of these behaviors...
September 27, 2016: Brain Research
Nicholas L Bayless, Rachel S Greenberg, Tomek Swigut, Joanna Wysocka, Catherine A Blish
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to microcephaly, which is attributed to infection of developing brain structures. ZIKV infects neural progenitor cells in vitro, though its effects on other developmentally relevant stem cell populations, including cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs), have not been assessed. CNCCs give rise to most cranial bones and exert paracrine effects on the developing brain. Here, we report that CNCCs are productively infected by ZIKV, but not by the related dengue virus...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
G C Ginesu, M Barmina, P Paliogiannis, M Trombetta, M L Cossu, C F Feo, F Addis, A Porcu
BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are rare neoplasms that originate from the neural crest. They are malignant in approximately 10% of cases, with a 50% survival rate at 5 years from diagnosis. In most cases, manifestations of malignancy (such as metastasis) are lacking, and paragangliomas are considered benign lesions. Pancreatic paragangliomas are extremely rare, with only 31 cases described in the scientific literature to date. CASE SUMMARY: Here we describe a case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient referred to our institution in September 2013 for lumbar pain lasting five months...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Sheikh Asad, Jens Peters-Willke, Louise Nott
Paragangliomas (or extra-adrenal paragangliomas) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the extra-adrenal autonomic paraganglia, small organs consisting mainly of neuroendocrine cells that are derived from the embryonic neural crest and have the ability to secrete catecholamines. This is in contrast to pheochromocytomas, where tumors occur in the adrenal gland. Malignant paraganglioma is a very rare presentation. We present a case report of a 56-year-old woman with acute foot drop with no previous significant background history...
December 2015: J Spine Surg
Luis Jaime Castro-Vega, Soto Romuald Kiando, Nelly Burnichon, Alexandre Buffet, Laurence Amar, Christophe Simian, Amandine Berdelou, Pilar Galan, Martin Schlumberger, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Judith Favier, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo
CONTEXT: The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) regulates the survival, proliferation and differentiation of neural crest-derived lineages. Recent studies reported an increased risk of melanoma in individuals carrying the rare variant MITF, p.E318K (rs149617956). Whether this variant plays a role in other neural-crest derived tumors is unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed at determining the prevalence of the MITF, p.E318K variant in a well characterized French cohort of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PCC/PGL)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tyler Square, David Jandzik, Maria Cattell, Andrew Hansen, Daniel Meulemans Medeiros
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are highly patterned embryonic cells that migrate along stereotyped routes to give rise to a diverse array of adult tissues and cell types. Modern NCCs are thought to have evolved from migratory neural precursors with limited developmental potential and patterning. How this occurred is poorly understood. Endothelin signaling regulates several aspects of NCC development, including their migration, differentiation, and patterning. In jawed vertebrates, Endothelin signaling involves multiple functionally distinct ligands (Edns) and receptors (Ednrs) expressed in various NCC subpopulations...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Debra E Weese-Mayer, Casey M Rand, Amy Zhou, Michael S Carroll, Carl E Hunt
The "bedside-to-bench" CCHS research journey has led to increased phenotypic-genotypic knowledge regarding autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation, and improved clinical outcomes. CCHS is a neurocristopathy characterized by hypoventilation and ANS dysregulation. Initially described in 1970, timely diagnosis and treatment remained problematic until the first large cohort report (1992), delineating clinical presentation and treatment options. A central role of ANS dysregulation (2001) emerged, precipitating evaluation of genes critical to ANS development, and subsequent 2003 identification of PHOX2B as the disease-defining gene for CCHS...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Swati Mishra, Youngshik Choe, Samuel J Pleasure, Julie A Siegenthaler
Growth and maturation of the cerebrovasculature is a vital event in neocortical development however mechanisms that control cerebrovascular development remain poorly understood. Mutations in or deletions that include the FOXC1 gene are associated with congenital cerebrovascular anomalies and increased stroke risk in patients. Foxc1 mutant mice display severe cerebrovascular hemorrhage at late gestational ages. While these data demonstrate Foxc1 is required for cerebrovascular development, its broad expression in the brain vasculature combined with Foxc1 mutant's complex developmental defects have made it difficult to pinpoint its function(s)...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Reiko Satow, Tomomi Nakamura, Chiaki Kato, Miku Endo, Mana Tamura, Ryosuke Batori, Shiori Tomura, Yumi Murayama, Kiyoko Fukami
Insights into mechanisms of drug resistance could extend the efficacy of cancer therapy. To probe mechanisms in melanoma, we performed siRNA screening of genes which mediate the development of neural crest cells from which melanocytes are derived. Here we report the identification of ZIC5 as a mediator of melanoma drug resistance. ZIC5 is a transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin expressed highly in human melanoma. ZIC5 enhanced melanoma cell proliferation, survival, drug resistance, in vivo growth and metastasis...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Research
Bodo C Melnik
Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is the most effective sebum-suppressive drug for the treatment of severe acne. Its effect depends on sebocyte apoptosis, which results from isotretinoin-induced expression of the apoptotic protein tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. This review proposes that the pharmacological mode of action of isotretinoin in the treatment of severe acne, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and neuroblastoma results from apoptosis...
September 27, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Margherita Tussellino, Raffaele Ronca, Rosa Carotenuto, Maria M Pallotta, Maria Furia, Teresa Capriglione
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide used primarily to control foliage and soil-borne insect pests on a variety of food and feed crops. In mammals, maternal exposure to CPF has been reported to induce dose-related abnormalities such as slower brain growth and cerebral cortex thinning. In lower vertebrates, for example, fish and amphibians, teratogenic activity of this compound is correlated with several anatomical alterations. Little is known about the effects of CPF on mRNA expression of genes involved in early development of the anatomical structures appearing abnormal in embryos...
October 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Karyn Jourdeuil, Tamara Anne Franz-Odendaal
The induction and patterning of the conjunctival papillae (i.e. epithelial thickenings of the conjunctiva required for the induction of the underlying, neural crest-derived scleral ossicles) is complex. It takes place over a period of two days and follows a defined spatiotemporal sequence. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal expression pattern of four genes over seven morphological stages of development of these papillae. We show that β-catenin is expressed during the pre-patterning of the epithelium prior to papilla induction and second that β-catenin, Ednrb and Inhba are expressed during the induction and patterning of the conjunctival papillae...
September 21, 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
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