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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926868/cmyc-regulates-the-size-of-the-premigratory-neural-crest-stem-cell-pool
#1
Laura Kerosuo, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923324/uncovering-the-in-vivo-source-of-adult-neural-crest-stem-cells
#2
Jorge B Aquino
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres, were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final prove for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells (NCCs)...
December 6, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910733/a-comparative-morphologic-and-morphometric-study-about-geniculate-ganglion-development-in-man-and-in-rat
#3
Ana Sánchez-Del-Rey, José Maria Sánchez-Fernández, Arantza Ibargutxi, Agustin Martinez-Ibargüen, Francisco Santaolalla
CONCLUSIONS: Human-rat geniculate ganglion (GG) have multiple origins: (1) An initial proximity (20 μm) to the endocranial foramen of the IAM, suggests neural crest induction; and (2) The influence of epibranchial placodes: the tensor tympani muscle (TTM) and the otic apical coil. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine the comparative development of human-rat GG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A light microscopic study of the GG in human material obtained from spontaneous abortions at 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, and 30 weeks, and one neonate was done...
December 2, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906583/isolation-of-bovine-skin-derived-precursor-cells-and-their-developmental-potential-after-nuclear-transfer
#4
Jiajia Xiao, Qiaoqiao Li, Pengxiang Qu, Zihan Zhang, Shaohui Pan, Yongsheng Wang, Yong Zhang
Nuclei from less differentiated stem cells yield high cloning efficiency. However, pluripotent stem cells are rather difficult to obtain from bovines. Skin-derived precursor (SKPs) cells exhibit a certain degree of pluripotency, which has been shown to enhance the efficiency of nuclear transfer (NT) in pigs. In this study, bovine SKPs were isolated and characterized. Results showed that bovine SKPs expressed nestin, fibronectin, vimentin, pluripotency-related genes, and characteristic neural crest markers, such as NGFR, PAX3, SOX9, SNAI2, and OCT4...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905407/endothelin-3-stimulates-cell-adhesion-and-cooperates-with-%C3%AE-1-integrins-during-enteric-nervous-system-ontogenesis
#5
Elodie Gazquez, Yuli Watanabe, Florence Broders-Bondon, Perrine Paul-Gilloteaux, Julie Heysch, Viviane Baral, Nadège Bondurand, Sylvie Dufour
Endothelin-3 (EDN3) and β1-integrins are required for the colonization of the embryonic gut by enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to form the enteric nervous system (ENS). β1-integrin-null ENCCs exhibit migratory defects in a region of the gut enriched in EDN3 and in specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We investigated the putative role of EDN3 on ENCC adhesion properties and its functional interaction with β1-integrins during ENS development. We show that EDN3 stimulates ENCC adhesion to various ECM components in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902883/metastatic-carotid-body-paraganglioma-of-lungs-and-lymph-nodes-unsuspected-diagnosis-on-ebus-tbna
#6
Kalpana Kumari, Deepali Jain, Rohit Kumar, Anant Mohan, Rakesh Kumar
Paragangliomas are tumors that originate from the extra-adrenal chromaffin and nonchromaffin cells of neural crest origin. Lymph node metastases are common, while distant metastases to lung, liver, and bone are rare events and usually occur in the presence of a long standing clinically evident primary tumor. Primary diagnosis of paraganglioma at a metastatic site without a known primary is a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of an adult woman with incidentally detected metastasis to bilateral lungs from an occult carotid body paraganglioma, which presented a cytopathological diagnostic dilemma on EBUS-TBNA from paratracheal lymph nodes...
November 30, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895972/genetic-basis-of-nonsyndromic-and-syndromic-tooth-agenesis
#7
REVIEW
Xiaoqian Ye, Ali B Attaie
Human dentition development is a long and complex process which involves a series of reciprocal and sequential interactions between the embryonic stomodeal epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Despite environment disturbances, tooth development is predominantly genetically controlled. To date, more than 200 genes have been identified in tooth development. These genes implied in various signaling pathways such as the bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor, sonic hedgehog homolog, ectodysplasin A, wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt), and transform growth factor pathways...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884342/optimizing-neurogenic-potential-of-enteric-neurospheres-for-treatment-of-neurointestinal-diseases
#8
Lily S Cheng, Hannah K Graham, Wei Hua Pan, Nandor Nagy, Alfonso Carreon-Rodriguez, Allan M Goldstein, Ryo Hotta
BACKGROUND: Enteric neurospheres derived from postnatal intestine represent a promising avenue for cell replacement therapy to treat Hirschsprung disease and other neurointestinal diseases. We describe a simple method to improve the neuronal yield of spontaneously formed gut-derived neurospheres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enteric neurospheres were formed from the small and large intestines of mouse and human subjects. Neurosphere size, neural crest cell content, cell migration, neuronal differentiation, and neuronal proliferation in culture were analyzed...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880803/wdr68-mediates-dorsal-and-ventral-patterning-events-for-craniofacial-development
#9
Estibaliz Alvarado, Mina Yousefelahiyeh, Greg Alvarado, Robin Shang, Taryn Whitman, Andrew Martinez, Yang Yu, Annie Pham, Anish Bhandari, Bingyan Wang, Robert M Nissen
Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879444/histologic-and-immunohistochemical-analyses-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-from-brca2-mutant-tp53-mutant-zebrafish-are-consistent-with-neural-crest-schwann-cell-origin
#10
L A White, J M Sexton, H R Shive
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides a powerful model for analyzing genetic contributors to cancer. Multiple zebrafish lines with cancer-associated genetic mutations develop soft tissue sarcomas that are histologically consistent with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). The goal of this study was to determine the phenotype of soft tissue sarcomas in a brca2-mutant/tp53-mutant zebrafish line using immunohistochemical markers that are commonly expressed in mammalian MPNST. We classified 70 soft tissue sarcomas from a brca2-mutant/tp53-mutant zebrafish cohort as MPNST, undifferentiated sarcoma, or other tumor based on histologic features...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875628/clinical-genomic-profiling-identifies-tyk2-mutation-and-overexpression-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors
#11
Angela C Hirbe, Madhurima Kaushal, Mukesh Kumar Sharma, Sonika Dahiya, Melike Pekmezci, Arie Perry, David H Gutmann
BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive sarcomas that arise at an estimated frequency of 8% to 13% in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Compared with their sporadic counterparts, NF1-associated MPNSTs (NF1-MPNSTs) develop in young adults, frequently recur (approximately 50% of cases), and carry a dismal prognosis. As such, most individuals affected with NF1-MPNSTs die within 5 years of diagnosis, despite surgical resection combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
November 22, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872209/depletion-of-neural-crest-derived-cells-leads-to-reduction-in-plasma-noradrenaline-and-alters-b-lymphopoiesis
#12
Naoki Tsunokuma, Toshiyuki Yamane, Chiaki Matsumoto, Motokazu Tsuneto, Kana Isono, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Hidetoshi Yamazaki
Hematopoietic stem cells and their lymphoid progenitors are supported by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironmental niches composed of various stromal cells and Schwann cells and sympathetic nerve fibers. Although neural crest (NC) cells contribute to the development of all the three, their function in BM is not well understood. In this study, NC-derived cells were ablated with diphtheria toxin in double-transgenic mice expressing NC-specific Cre and Cre-driven diphtheria toxin receptor with yellow fluorescent protein reporter...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871958/current-perspectives-on-stem-cell-therapy-for-erectile-dysfunction
#13
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, James Anaissie, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual disorder that affects the lives of millions of male patients and their partners. Various medical and surgical therapies exist, with the most common being oral intake of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. One therapeutic strategy in preclinical development to treat ED is stem cell transplantation. AIM: To examine the studies that have investigated stem cells for the treatment of ED. METHODS: A literature review was performed through PubMed focusing on stem cells and ED...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870340/developmental-and-evolutionary-significance-of-the-zygomatic-bone
#14
Yann Heuzé, Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Tobias Schwarz, Jeffrey J Schoenebeck, Joan T Richtsmeier
The zygomatic bone is derived evolutionarily from the orbital series. In most modern mammals the zygomatic bone forms a large part of the face and usually serves as a bridge that connects the facial skeleton to the neurocranium. Our aim is to provide information on the contribution of the zygomatic bone to variation in midfacial protrusion using three samples; humans, domesticated dogs, and monkeys. In each case, variation in midface protrusion is a heritable trait produced by one of three classes of transmission: localized dysmorphology associated with single gene dysfunction, selective breeding, or long-term evolution from a common ancestor...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#15
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868042/epithelial-dclk1-cells-are-not-neural-crest-derived
#16
COMMENT
C Benedikt Westphalen, Moritz Middelhoff, Michael Quante, Timothy C Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866864/anatomical-histochemical-and-immunohistochemical-characterisation-of-the-cardiac-outflow-tract-of-the-silver-arowana-osteoglossum-bicirrhosum-teleostei-osteoglossiformes
#17
Miguel Lorenzale, Miguel A López-Unzu, M Carmen Fernández, Ana C Durán, Borja Fernández, M Teresa Soto-Navarrete, Valentín Sans-Coma
The cardiac outflow tract of chondrichthyans and actinopterygians is composed of a myocardial conus arteriosus and a non-myocardial bulbus arteriosus. In teleosts, the conus has been subjected to a reduction in size over the evolution in conjunction with the further development of the bulbus. Most studies on the outflow tract of the teleost heart refer to species of modern groups and are mainly devoted to the bulbus. Knowledge on the outflow tract of species belonging to early teleost groups is scarce. The aim here was to characterise the structure of the cardiac outflow tract of the silver arowana, a representative of the ancient teleost clade of the Osteoglossomorpha...
September 28, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863187/cytology-of-primary-vaginal-melanoma-an-unusual-report-on-fine-needle-aspiration
#18
Poojan Agarwal, Manju Kaushal
Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely uncommon malignancy comprising of less than 10% malignancies of the female genital tract and 0.3% of all melanomas. Melanoblasts are neural crest derivatives and are notorious for causing primary cutaneous neoplasms. However, they involve virtually every organ of the body including eye, intestines and ocular mucosa, probably due to aberrancies in cell migration. Vagina is a rare site and primary melanoma of the vagina occurs in postmenopausal women with vaginal discharge, bleeding, or mass as common presenting complaints...
November 11, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862318/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-identifies-megf10-as-a-novel-epigenetically-repressed-candidate-tumour-suppressor-gene-in-neuroblastoma
#19
Jessica Charlet, Ayumi Tomari, Anthony R Dallosso, Marianna Szemes, Martina Kaselova, Thomas J Curry, Bader Almutairi, Heather C Etchevers, Carmel McConville, Karim T A Malik, Keith W Brown
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer in which many children still have poor outcomes, emphasising the need to better understand its pathogenesis. Despite recent genome-wide mutation analyses, many primary neuroblastomas do not contain recognisable driver mutations, implicating alternate molecular pathologies such as epigenetic alterations. To discover genes that become epigenetically deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, we took the novel approach of comparing neuroblastomas to neural crest precursor cells, using genome-wide DNA methylation analysis...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857127/consensus-statement-on-next-generation-sequencing-based-diagnostic-testing-of-hereditary-phaeochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#20
Rodrigo A Toledo, Nelly Burnichon, Alberto Cascon, Diana E Benn, Jean-Pierre Bayley, Jenny Welander, Carli M Tops, Helen Firth, Trish Dwight, Tonino Ercolino, Massimo Mannelli, Giuseppe Opocher, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Oliver Gimm, Eamonn R Maher, Mercedes Robledo, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, Patricia L M Dahia
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neural-crest-derived tumours of the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system that are often inherited and are genetically heterogeneous. Genetic testing is recommended for patients with these tumours and for family members of patients with hereditary forms of PPGLs. Due to the large number of susceptibility genes implicated in the diagnosis of inherited PPGLs, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is ideally suited for carrying out genetic screening of these individuals...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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