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Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jing Cheng, Qiang Shao, Zhiyong Pan, Jin You
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the operative approach, clinical pathological factors, and curative effect of the surgical treatment in the patients with craniopharyngioma; to provide a theoretical basis for determining the prognosis and reducing the recurrence rate during the long-term postoperative follow-up in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 92 children who underwent surgical treatment in our department from May 2011 to January 2005...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Jenny X Chen, Blake C Alkire, Allen C Lam, William T Curry, Eric H Holbrook
Objectives While bacterial meningitis is a concerning complication after endoscopic skull base surgery, the diagnosis can be made without consideration for aseptic meningitis. This article aims to (1) present a patient with recurrent craniopharyngioma and multiple postoperative episodes of aseptic meningitis and (2) discuss the diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis. Design Case report and literature review. Results A 65-year-old female patient with a symptomatic craniopharyngioma underwent transsphenoidal resection...
October 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Gabriela Carreno, Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Scott Haston, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
The presence of adult pituitary stem cells (PSCs) has been described in murine systems by comprehensive cellular profiling and genetic lineage tracing experiments. PSCs are thought to maintain multipotent capacity throughout life and give rise to all hormone-producing cell lineages, playing a role in pituitary gland homeostasis. Additionally, PSCs have been proposed to play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis, in both adenomas and adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas. In this manuscript, we discuss the different approaches used to demonstrate the presence of PSCs in the murine adult pituitary, from marker analyses to genetic tracing...
October 6, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Noel P Somasundaram, Chaminda Garusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a frequent occurrence among hospitalized patients. Severe hypernatremia is associated with mortality rates of over 60 %. Extreme hypernatremia, defined as sodium levels >190 mmol/l, is a rare occurrence. The literature on electrocardiographic changes occurring with this degree of hypernatremia is extremely scarce. We report the case of an 11-year-old Sri Lankan girl who presented with sodium levels of 226 mmol/l following infusion with 3 % hypertonic saline who developed diffuse QT prolongation leading to fatal ventricular tachycardia...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Ryuya Yamanaka, Azusa Hayano, Tomohiko Kanayama
By conducting a systemic search of the PubMed database, we performed a comprehensive literature review to characterize secondary gliomas following radiotherapy treatment and to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy. Our analysis included 296 cases of radiation-induced gliomas. The primary lesion was characterized as a hematological malignancy in 104 cases (35.1 %), pituitary adenoma in 35 (11.8 %), craniopharyngioma in 19 (6.4 %), medulloblastoma in 38 (12.8 %), germ cell tumor in 13 (4.3 %), low-grade glioma in 28 (9...
October 5, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Anthe S Sterkenburg, Anika Hoffmann, Julia Reichel, Kristin Lohle, Maria Eveslage, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Hermann L Müller
CONTEXT: Hypothalamic obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and relapse/progression have major impact on prognosis in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (CP). We analyzed nuchal skinfold thickness (NST) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for follow-up monitoring as a novel parameter for body composition (BC) and CVD in CP. OBJECTIVE: Identify association of NST with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), functional capacity, and blood pressure (BP) in CP and controls...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
T E Merchant, C H Hua, N D Sabin, S E Ezell, M A Madey, S Wu, R B Khan, D J Indelicato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
M Uto, T Mizowaki, K Ogura, K Nakamura, N Mukumoto, K Yokota, Y Miyabe, H Hirashima, M Hiraoka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
V Verma, E P Connolly, C Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Teruyoshi Kageji, Takeshi Miyamoto, Yumiko Kotani, Tsuyoshi Kaji, Yoshimi Bando, Yoshifumi Mizobuchi, Kohei Nakajima, Shinji Nagahiro
PURPOSE: Craniopharyngiomas are 5-10 % of all pediatric tumors, but are seldomly encountered in the perinatal period. Only seven instances of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a congenital craniopharyngioma that subsequently underwent radical surgery have been reported. We present the case of a patient who received the diagnosis of a suprasellar tumor during the prenatal period and received radical surgery. METHODS: We report a case of a neonatal craniopharyngioma treated surgically...
September 26, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
In Ho Lee, Elcin Zan, W Robert Bell, Peter C Burger, Heejong Sung, David M Yousem
OBJECTIVE: To determine imaging features that may separate adamantinomatous and papillary variants of craniopharyngiomas given that tumors with adamantinomatous signature features are associated with higher recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality. We specifically reviewed calcification on CT, T1 bright signal intensity, and cystic change on T2 weighted images for differentiating these two types. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MRI and CT studies in 38 consecutive patients with pathologically proven craniopharyngiomas between January 2004 and February 2014 for the presence of calcification on CT scans, bright signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and cystic change on T2 weighted images...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Yuelong Wang, Jiaojiao Deng, Gang Guo, Aiping Tong, Xirui Peng, Haifeng Chen, Jianguo Xu, Yi Liu, Chao You, Liangxue Zhou
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a highly conserved Ca2(+)-regulated membrane binding protein, which affects cell mobility and tumor progression. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (AdaCP) are a kind of epithelial tumors of the sellar region with high tendency to recur. Robust biomarkers are required to predict tumor behavior and to establish follow-up individualized treatment approaches. In this study, we firstly compared four surgical AdaCP samples with normal brain by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) proteomic analysis...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Robert Nash, V Elwell, S Brew, M Powell, J P Grieve
We describe two cases of clinical and radiographic vasospasm after transsphenoidal resection of a craniopharyngioma. We review the literature on the association of vasospasm and craniopharyngioma and examine management options. Given the lack of evidence for the optimal management of these patients, treatment in concordance with protocols for vasospasm due to subarachnoid haemorrhage is recommended.
November 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
A Einstien, Rahul A Virani
INTRODUTION: Spatially resolved metabolic data obtained from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) provides information which increases the diagnostic accuracy of imaging sequences in predicting the histology of suprasellar tumors. AIM: To evaluate the role of (1)H MRS in the diagnosis of various suprasellar tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty cases of various suprasellar, hypothalamic and third ventricular neoplasms were investigated with long-echo single voxel (1)H -MRS using 1...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Christos Yapijakis, Maria Adamopoulou, Konstantina Tasiouka, Costas Voumvourakis, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND/AIM: A deeper understanding of the complex molecular pathology of brain malignancies is needed in order to develop more effective and targeted therapies of these highly lethal disorders. In an effort to further enlighten the molecular pathology of brain oncogenesis involving the her-2 (erbB-2/neu/ngl)/N-ras/nf1 pathway, we screened the genotypes of specimens from various types of brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studied specimens included 35 biopsies of four general categories: 13 neuroglial tumors (4 astrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 7 glioblastomas multiforme), 14 meningiomas, 3 other nervous system tumors (2 schwannomas, 1 craniopharyngioma) and 5 metastatic tumors (such as lung carcinomas and chronic myelocytic leukemia)...
September 2016: Anticancer Research
J Doyen, P-Y Bondiau, K Benezery, J Thariat, M Vidal, A Gérard, J Hérault, C Carrie, J-M Hannoun-Lévi
Purpose was to summarize results for proton therapy in cancer treatment. A systematic review has been done by selecting studies on the website (Medline) and using the following keywords: proton therapy, radiation therapy, cancer, chordoma, chondrosarcoma, uveal melanoma, retinoblastoma, meningioma, glioma, neurinoma, pituitary adenoma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma and nasal cavity. There are several retrospective studies reporting results for proton therapy in cancer treatments in the following indications: ocular tumors, nasal tumors, skull-based tumors, pediatric tumors...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Hermann L Müller
PURPOSE: This report is a review of findings on the diagnosis, treatment, clinical course, follow-up, and prognosis of craniopharyngioma patients with special regard to clinical trials and long-term management. METHODS: Literature search on Pubmed for paper published after 1994. RESULTS: Craniopharyngiomas are rare, embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region with low histological grade. Clinical manifestations are related to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment, and hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies...
September 7, 2016: Pituitary
Mohamad-Motaz Al Mahdi, Joachim K Krauss, Makoto Nakamura, Almuth Brandis, Bujung Hong
Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma in the cerebellopontine angle after surgical resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma is rare. Thus, only 5 cases were reported with a delay ranging between 4 and 26 years after removal of the primary tumor. We report a unique case of ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma in the cerebellopontine angle, which occurred at only 4 months after surgical resection of the primary tumor. A 24-year-old man underwent resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma via a right pterional approach four months earlier...
March 28, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
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