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Puncta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030434/cadherin-10-maintains-excitatory-inhibitory-ratio-through-interactions-with-synaptic-proteins
#1
Katharine R Smith, Kelly A Jones, Katherine J Kopeikina, Alain C Burette, Bryan A Copits, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc Forrest, Jessica M Fawcett-Patel, Jonathan G Hanley, Richard J Weinberg, Geoffrey T Swanson, Peter Penzes
Appropriate excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance is essential for normal cortical function and is altered in some psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Cell-autonomous molecular mechanisms that control the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse function remain poorly understood; no proteins that regulate excitatory and inhibitory synapse strength in a coordinated reciprocal manner have been identified. Using super-resolution imaging, electrophysiology, and molecular manipulations we show that cadherin-10, encoded by CDH10 within the ASD risk locus 5p14...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027991/n6-isopentenyladenosine-dual-targeting-of-ampk-and-rab7-prenylation-inhibits-melanoma-growth-through-the-impairment-of-autophagic-flux
#2
Roberta Ranieri, Elena Ciaglia, Giuseppina Amodio, Paola Picardi, Maria Chiara Proto, Patrizia Gazzerro, Chiara Laezza, Paolo Remondelli, Maurizio Bifulco, Simona Pisanti
Targeting the autophagic process is considered a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer since a great number of tumors, including melanoma, show high basal levels of protective autophagy that contributes to tumor progression and chemoresistance. Here, exploiting both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we identified N6-isopentenyladenosine (iPA), an end product of the mevalonate pathway, as a novel autophagy inhibitor with an interesting anti-melanoma activity. iPA, after being phosphorylated by adenosine kinase into 5'-iPA-monophosphate, induces autophagosome accumulation through AMPK activation, measured by increased fluorescent GFP-LC3 puncta and enhanced conversion into the lipidated autophagosome-associated LC3-II...
October 13, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994268/classification-of-lacrimal-punctal-stenosis-and-its-related-histopathological-feature-in-patients-with-epiphora
#3
Mun Chong Hur, Sang Wook Jin, Mi Sook Roh, Woo Jin Jeong, Won Yeol Ryu, Yoon Hyung Kwon, Hee Bae Ahn
PURPOSE: To evaluate the classification of punctal stenosis based on the shape of the external punctum, clinical characteristics and histopathologic features. METHODS: Patients who experienced tearing and were diagnosed with punctal stenosis were evaluated in this study. Punctal stenosis was classified according to the shape of the lower external punctum, which included membranous type, slit type, horseshoe type, and pinpoint type. Tear meniscus height, 2% fluorescein dye disappearance test and lacrimal pathway irrigation were measured or performed...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993908/ros-generation-and-jnk-activation-contribute-to-4-methoxy-tempo-induced-cytotoxicity-autophagy-and-dna-damage-in-hepg2-cells
#4
Zhuhong Zhang, Zhen Ren, Si Chen, Xiaoqing Guo, Fang Liu, Lei Guo, Nan Mei
4-Methoxy-TEMPO, a derivative of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), is a stable nitroxide radical and is generally used in organic and pharmaceutical syntheses for the oxidation of alcohols. Previously, we reported the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in TEMPO-induced apoptosis in mouse L5178Y cells. In this study, we investigated 4-methoxy-TEMPO induced toxicity in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and its underlying mechanisms. Treatments with 4-methoxy-TEMPO (0...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972134/live-imaging-reveals-distinct-modes-of-neutrophil-and-macrophage-migration-within-interstitial-tissues
#5
Francisco Barros-Becker, Pui-Ying Lam, Robert Fisher, Anna Huttenlocher
Cell motility is required for diverse processes during immunity and inflammation. Classically, leukocyte motility is defined as an amoeboid type of migration, however some leukocytes, like macrophages, also employ a more mesenchymal mode. Here, we sought to characterize the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil and macrophage migration in vivo using dual real time imaging of leukocyte motility within interstitial tissues in zebrafish larvae. Neutrophils displayed a rounded morphology and rapid protease independent motility, lacked defined paxillin punctae and had persistent rearward polarization of stable F-actin and the microtubule network...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970336/scd1-and-scd2-form-a-complex-that-functions-with-the-exocyst-and-rabe1-in-exocytosis-and-cytokinesis
#6
Jonathan Russell Mayers, Tianwei Hu, Chao Wang, Jessica J CĂ rdenas, Yuqi Tan, Jianwei Pan, Sebastian Bednarek
Although exocytosis is critical for the proper trafficking of materials to the plasma membrane, relatively little is known about the mechanistic details of post-Golgi trafficking in plants. Here we demonstrate that the DENN (Differentially Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic cells) domain protein SCD1 (STOMATAL CYTOKINESIS DEFECTIVE 1) and SCD2 form a previously unknown protein complex, the SCD complex, that functionally interacts with subunits of the exocyst complex and a member of the RabE1 family of GTPases in Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 29, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966111/cationic-liposomes-suppress-intracellular-calcium-ion-concentration-increase-via-inhibition-of-pi3-kinase-pathway-in-mast-cells
#7
Yoshikazu Inoh, Aki Haneda, Satoshi Tadokoro, Satoru Yokawa, Tadahide Furuno
Cationic liposomes are commonly used as vectors to effectively introduce foreign genes (antisense DNA, plasmid DNA, siRNA, etc.) into target cells. Cationic liposomes are also known to affect cellular immunocompetences such as the mast cell function in allergic reactions. In particular, we previously showed that the cationic liposomes bound to the mast cell surface suppress the degranulation induced by cross-linking of high affinity IgE receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This suppression is mediated by impairment of the sustained level of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) via inhibition of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE)...
September 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949785/avian-metapneumovirus-subgroup-c-induces-autophagy-through-the-atf6-upr-pathway
#8
Lei Hou, Li Wei, Shanshan Zhu, Jing Wang, Rong Quan, Zixuan Li, Jue Liu
An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that macroautophagy/autophagy plays an important role in the infectious processes of diverse pathogens. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy is induced in avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-infected host cells, and, if so, how this occurs. Here, we report that aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) induces autophagy in cultured cells. We demonstrated this relationship by detecting classical autophagic features, including the formation of autophagsomes, the presence of GFP-LC3 puncta and the conversation of LC3-I into LC3-II...
October 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949381/autophagy-mediated-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-enhances-the-caffeine-induced-apoptosis-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#9
Yongjian Li, Yunyang Chen, Haiyan Huang, Minmin Shi, Weiping Yang, Jie Kuang, Jiqi Yan
Caffeine has been identified to have beneficial effects against chronic liver diseases, particularly liver fibrosis. Many studies have reported that caffeine ameliorates liver fibrosis by directly inducing hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. The presents study aimed to detect the underlying mechanisms by which caffeine mediates HSC apoptosis and eliminates activated HSCs. For this purpose, the LX-2 cell line was applied in this study and the cells were exposed to various concentrations of caffeine for the indicated times...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940405/actin-membrane-interactions-mediated-by-networked2-in-arabidopsis-pollen-tubes-through-associations-with-pollen-receptor-like-kinase-4-and-5
#10
Patrick Duckney, Michael J Deeks, Martin R Dixon, Johan Kroon, Timothy J Hawkins, Patrick J Hussey
During fertilization, Pollen Receptor-Like Kinases (PRKs) control pollen tube growth through the pistil in response to extracellular signals, and regulate the actin cytoskeleton at the tube apex to drive tip growth. We investigated a novel link between membrane-integral PRKs and the actin cytoskeleton, mediated through interactions between PRKs and NET2A; a pollen-specific member of the NETWORKED superfamily of actin-binding proteins. We characterize NET2A as a novel actin-associated protein that localizes to punctae at the plasma membrane of the pollen tube shank, which are stably associated with cortical longitudinal actin cables...
September 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936487/platelet-dense-granules-begin-to-selectively-accumulate-mepacrine-during-proplatelet-formation
#11
Hayley A Hanby, Jialing Bao, Ji-Yoon Noh, Danuta Jarocha, Mortimer Poncz, Mitchell J Weiss, Michael S Marks
Platelet dense granules (DGs) are storage organelles for calcium ions, small organic molecules such as ADP and serotonin, and larger polyphosphates that are secreted upon platelet stimulation to enhance platelet activation, adhesion, and stabilization at sites of vascular damage. DGs are thought to fully mature within megakaryocytes (MKs) prior to platelet formation. Here we challenge this notion by exploiting vital fluorescent dyes to distinguish mildly acidic DGs from highly acidic compartments by microscopy in platelets and MKs...
August 22, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935720/suppression-of-store-operated-ca-2-entry-by-activation-of-gper-contribution-to-a-clamping-effect-on-endothelial-ca-2-signaling
#12
Lara E Terry, Mark VerMeer, Jennifer Giles, Quang-Kim Tran
The G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 (GPER, formerly a.k.a. GPR30) modulates many Ca(2+)-dependent activities in endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We recently reported that GPER acts to prolong cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals by interacting with and promoting inhibitory phosphorylation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase. In this study, we examined the role of GPER activation in modulating store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) via effects on the Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1)...
September 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934326/the-effect-of-electronic-health-record-software-design-on-resident-documentation-and-compliance-with-evidence-based-medicine
#13
Yasaira Rodriguez Torres, Jordan Huang, Melanie Mihlstin, Mark S Juzych, Heidi Kromrei, Frank S Hwang
This study aimed to determine the role of electronic health record software in resident education by evaluating documentation of 30 elements extracted from the American Academy of Ophthalmology Dry Eye Syndrome Preferred Practice Pattern. The Kresge Eye Institute transitioned to using electronic health record software in June 2013. We evaluated the charts of 331 patients examined in the resident ophthalmology clinic between September 1, 2011, and March 31, 2014, for an initial evaluation for dry eye syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934149/oncolytic-reovirus-infection-is-facilitated-by-the-autophagic-machinery
#14
Vera Kemp, Iris J C Dautzenberg, Ronald W Limpens, Diana J M van den Wollenberg, Rob C Hoeben
Mammalian reovirus is a double-stranded RNA virus that selectively infects and lyses transformed cells, making it an attractive oncolytic agent. Despite clinical evidence for anti-tumor activity, its efficacy as a stand-alone therapy remains to be improved. The success of future trials can be greatly influenced by the identification and the regulation of the cellular pathways that are important for reovirus replication and oncolysis. Here, we demonstrate that reovirus induces autophagy in several cell lines, evident from the formation of Atg5-Atg12 complexes, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, p62 degradation, the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles, and LC3 puncta...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924349/autophagy-promotes-degradation-of-polyethyleneimine-alginate-nanoparticles-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#15
Guo-Dong Wang, Yu-Zhen Tan, Hai-Jie Wang, Pei Zhou
Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-alginate (Alg) nanoparticle (NP) is a safe and effective vector for delivery of siRNA or DNA. Recent studies suggest that autophagy is related to cytotoxicity of PEI NPs. However, contribution of autophagy to degradation of PEI-Alg NPs remains unknown. CD34(+)VEGFR-3(+) endothelial progenitor cells isolated from rat bone marrow were treated with 25 kDa branched PEI modified by Alg. After treatment with the NPs, morphological changes and distribution of the NPs in the cells were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopies...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921532/the-morphological-characterization-of-orientation-biased-displaced-large-field-ganglion-cells-in-the-central-part-of-goldfish-retina
#16
Hideo Hoshi, Fumi Sato
The vertebrate retina has about 30 subtypes of ganglion cells. Each ganglion cell receives synaptic inputs from specific types of bipolar and amacrine cells ramifying at the same depth of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), each of which is thought to process a specific aspect of visual information. Here, we identified one type of displaced ganglion cell in the goldfish retina which had a large and elongated dendritic field. As a population, all of these ganglion cells were oriented in the horizontal axis and perpendicular to the dorsal-ventral axis of the goldfish eye in the central part of retina...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900909/the-stim-orai-pathway-the-interactions-between-stim-and-orai
#17
Marc Fahrner, Rainer Schindl, Martin Muik, Isabella Derler, Christoph Romanin
A primary Ca(2+) entry pathway in non-excitable cells is established by the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels. Their two limiting molecular components include the Ca(2+)-sensor protein STIM1 located in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Orai channel in the plasma membrane. STIM1 senses the luminal Ca(2+) content, and store depletion induces its oligomerization into puncta-like structures, thereby triggering coupling to as well as activation of Orai channels. A C-terminal STIM1 domain is assumed to couple to both C- and N-terminal, cytosolic strands of Orai, accomplishing gating of the channel...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893091/lutein-induces-autophagy-via-beclin-1-upregulation-in-iec-6-rat-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#18
Chi-Jen Chang, Ji-Fan Lin, Chien-Yu Hsiao, Hsun-Hao Chang, Hsin-Ju Li, Hsun-Hsien Chang, Gon-Ann Lee, Chi-Feng Hung
Lutein is a carotenoid with anti-oxidant properties. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic cellular pathway for coping with stress conditions, is responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degrades damaged organelles. We previously demonstrated that lutein can induce anti-oxidant enzymes to relieve methotrexate-induced ROS stress. We therefore hypothesized that lutein, which activates ROS-scavenging enzymes, can also induce autophagy for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrated that lutein treatment attenuated the reduction in cell viability caused by H2O2...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886014/downregulation-of-autophagy-is-associated-with-severe-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-overexpressing-c-reactive-protein-mice
#19
Ao Bian, Mingjun Shi, Brianna Flores, Nancy Gillings, Peng Li, Shirley Xiao Yan, Beth Levine, Changying Xing, Ming Chang Hu
C-reactive protein (CRP), was recently reported to be closely associated with poor renal function in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), but whether CRP is pathogenic or a mere biomarker in AKI remains largely unclear. Impaired autophagy is known to exacerbate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We examined whether the pathogenic role of CRP in AKI is associated with reduction of autophagy. We mated transgenic rabbit CRP over-expressing mice (Tg-CRP) with two autophagy reporter mouse lines, Tg-GFP-LC3 mice (LC3) and Tg-RFP-GFP-LC3 mice (RG-LC3) respectively to generate Tg-CRP-GFP-LC3 mice (PLC3) and Tg-CRP-RFP-GFP-LC3 mice (PRG-LC3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854341/the-protease-inhibitor-e64d-improves-ox-ldl-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-aortic-endothelial-cells
#20
Min Chen, Lina Ren, Yanyan Meng, Liye Shi, Ling Chen, Bo Yu, Qianqian Wu, Guoxian Qi
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced endothelial dysfunction in human vascular endothelial cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. E64d, a cysteine protease inhibitor, blocks the elastolytic activity of cathepsin essential for vascular matrix remodeling and reduces neurovascular endothelial apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and the underling mechanisms of E64d on ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs)...
August 30, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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