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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224922/neurons-and-satellite-glial-cells-in-adult-rat-lumbar-dorsal-root-ganglia-express-connexin-36
#1
E Martha Pérez Armendariz, Monica Norcini, Beatriz Hernández-Tellez, Andrés Castell-Rodríguez, Cristina Coronel-Cruz, Raquel Guerrero Alquicira, Alexandra Sideris, Esperanza Recio-Pinto
Previous studies have shown that following peripheral nerve injury there was a downregulation of the gap junction protein connexin 36 (Cx36) in the spinal cord; however, it is not known whether Cx36 protein is expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), nor if its levels are altered following peripheral nerve injuries. Here we address these aspects in the adult rat lumbar DRG. Cx36 mRNA was detected using qRT-PCR, and Cx36 protein was identified in DRG sections using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF)...
December 7, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218324/intellicount-high-throughput-quantification-of-fluorescent-synaptic-protein-puncta-by-machine-learning
#2
J A Fantuzzo, V R Mirabella, A H Hamod, R P Hart, J D Zahn, Z P Pang
Synapse formation analyses can be performed by imaging and quantifying fluorescent signals of synaptic markers. Traditionally, these analyses are done using simple or multiple thresholding and segmentation approaches or by labor-intensive manual analysis by a human observer. Here, we describe Intellicount, a high-throughput, fully-automated synapse quantification program which applies a novel machine learning (ML)-based image processing algorithm to systematically improve region of interest (ROI) identification over simple thresholding techniques...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216769/zinc-prevents-mitochondrial-superoxide-generation-by-inducing-mitophagy-in-the-setting-of-hypoxia-reoxygenation-in-cardiac-cells
#3
Xiyun Bian, Tianming Teng, Huanhuan Zhao, Jiangyu Qin, Zhen Qiao, Yuemin Sun, Zhiqiang Liun, Zhelong Xu
Zinc plays a role in autophagy and protects cardiac cells from ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to test if zinc can induce mitophagy leading to attenuation of mitochondrial superoxide generation in the setting of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in cardiac cells. H9c2 cells were subjected to 4 h hypoxia followed by 2 h reoxygenation. Under normoxic conditions, treatments of cells with ZnCl2 increased both the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and GFP-LC3 puncta, implying that zinc induces autophagy. Further experiments showed that endogenous zinc is required for the autophagy induced by starvation and rapamycin...
December 7, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207165/combination-treatment-of-fty720-and-cisplatin-exhibits-enhanced-antitumour-effects-on-cisplatin-resistant-non-small-lung-cancer-cells
#4
Yang Li, Tinghua Hu, Tianjun Chen, Tian Yang, Hui Ren, Mingwei Chen
A major common medical treatment for lung carcinoma is cisplatin (DDP)-based therapy. However, the development or existence of chemoresistance frequently blocks its effectiveness. Currently, autophagy is recognised as a potential anticancer strategy, although there is controversy over its role in the development of cancer. In lung carcinoma, no studies of autophagy induced by FTY720, a sphingosine 1-phosphate analog and a novel immunosuppressant drug, have been published, while apoptosis has been shown to be induced by FTY720 in several cancer cell lines...
November 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196648/sequestosome1-p62-protects-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-against-low-dose-methylercury-induced-cytotoxicity-and-is-involved-in-clearance-of-ubiquitinated-proteins
#5
Yasukazu Takanezawa, Ryosuke Nakamura, Ryohei Harada, Yuka Sone, Shimpei Uraguchi, Masako Kiyono
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widely distributed environmental pollutant that causes a series of cytotoxic effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity are not fully understood. Here, we report that sequestosome1/p62 protects mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) against low-dose MeHg cytotoxicity via clearance of MeHg-induced ubiquitinated proteins. p62 mRNA and protein expression in MEFs were temporally induced by MeHg exposure p62-deficient MEFs exhibited higher sensitivity to MeHg exposure compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196522/moti-dgra-acts-as-a-molecular-clutch-on-the-flagellar-stator-protein-mota-in-bacillus-subtilis
#6
Sundharraman Subramanian, Xiaohui Gao, Charles E Dann, Daniel B Kearns
Stator elements consisting of MotA4MotB2 complexes are anchored to the cell wall, extend through the cell membrane, and interact with FliG in the cytoplasmic C ring rotor of the flagellum. The cytoplasmic loop of MotA undergoes proton-driven conformational changes that drive flagellar rotation. Functional regulators inhibit motility by either disengaging or jamming the stator-rotor interaction. Here we show that the YcgR homolog MotI (formerly DgrA) of Bacillus subtilis inhibits motility like a molecular clutch that disengages MotA...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194257/clinical-significance-of-biofilm-on-silicone-tubes-removed-from-patients-with-nasolacrimal-duct-stenosis
#7
Sung Hyun Kim, Choul Yong Park, Sang Won Hwang, Minwook Chang
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between the optical density of biofilms on silicone tubes and surgical outcomes. METHODS: A total of 43 silicone tubes from 33 patients with nasolacrimal duct stenosis were enrolled at 6 months after bicanalicular silicone tube intubation. The removed silicone tubes were divided into 2 segments. One segment of silicone tube was cultured while the other segment was used to measure optical density of biofilm. Each segment was divided into 3 pieces according to average normal human nasolacrimal anatomy...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194104/comparison-of-outcomes-of-3-snip-punctoplasty-versus-simple-punctal-dilatation-with-monocanalicular-intubation-for-acquired-punctal-stenosis
#8
Swati Singh, Mohammad Javed Ali, Ashik Mohamed
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the outcomes of invasive (rectangular 3-snip punctoplasty) versus minimally invasive (punctal dilatation with monocanalicular intubation) treatment modalities for the management of acquired punctal stenosis. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative, interventional case series was performed on 60 eyes of 36 patients with acquired punctal stenosis. Patients were categorized in 2 groups based on the intervention as 3-snip punctoplasty (group A) and punctal dilatation with monocanalicular intubation (group B)...
November 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192322/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-induce-cell-death-through-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-glioblastoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Soyeon Kim, Kaipeng Jing, Soyeon Shin, Soyeon Jeong, Seung-Hyeon Han, Heyrim Oh, Yoon-Seon Yoo, Jeongsu Han, Young-Joo Jeon, Jun-Young Heo, Gi-Ryang Kweon, Seung-Kiel Park, Jong-Il Park, Tong Wu, Kyu Lim
Among brain tumors, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type and is associated with the lowest patient survival rate. Numerous lines of evidence have established that omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) have potential for the prevention and therapy of several types of cancers. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3-PUFA, was reported to inhibit growth and induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death in several cancer cell lines; however, its effects on GBM cells are still unknown. in the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of DHA on the GBM cell lines, D54MG, U87MG, U251MG and GL261...
January 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180572/the-atpase-activity-of-asna1-trc40-is-required-for-pancreatic-progenitor-cell-survival
#10
Stefan Norlin, Vishal Parekh, Helena Edlund
Asna1, also known as TRC40, is implicated in delivery of tail anchored (TA) proteins into the ER, in vesicle-mediated transport, and in chaperoning unfolded proteins during oxidative stress/ATP depletion. We recently showed that Asna1 inactivation in β-cells resulted in impaired retrograde transport, ER stress and diabetes in mice. Here we show that Asna1 inactivation in pancreatic progenitor cells leads to redistribution of the Golgi TA SNAREs Syntaxin-5 and Syntaxin-6, Golgi fragmentation, and accumulation of cytosolic p62+ puncta...
November 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178418/dense-core-vesicle-biogenesis-and-exocytosis-in-neurons-lacking-chromogranins-a-and-b
#11
Natalia Dominguez, Jan Rt van Weering, Ricardo Borges, Ruud F Toonen, Matthijs Verhage
Chromogranin A and B (Cgs) are considered to be master regulators of cargo sorting for the regulated secretory pathway (RSP) and Dense-Core Vesicle (DCV) biogenesis. To test this, we analyzed the release of NPY-pHluorin, a live RSP reporter, and the distribution, number and appearance of DCVs, in mouse hippocampal neurons lacking expression of CHGA and CHGB genes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of other granin family members was not significantly altered in CgA/B-/- neurons. As synaptic maturation of developing neurons depends on secretion of trophic factors in the RSP, we first analyzed neuronal development in standardized neuronal cultures...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177545/porcine-teschovirus-2-induces-an-incomplete-autophagic-response-in-pk-15-cells
#12
Yuanxing Gu, Yingshan Zhou, Xinfeng Shi, Yongping Xin, Ying Shan, Cong Chen, Tong Cao, Weihuan Fang, Xiaoliang Li
Autophagy is a homeostatic process that has been shown to be vital in the innate immune defense against pathogens. However, little is known about the regulatory role of autophagy in porcine teschovirus 2 (PTV-2) replication. In this study, we found that PTV-2 infection induces a strong increase in GFP-LC3 punctae and endogenous LC3 lipidation. However, PTV-2 infection did not enhance autophagic protein degradation. When cellular autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by wortmannin or 3-methyladenine, PTV-2 replication increased...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175367/spatial-heterogeneity-of-glycogen-and-its-metabolizing-enzymes-in-aspergillus-nidulans-hyphal-tip-cells
#13
Shunsuke Masuo, Airi Komatsuzaki, Norio Takeshita, Eriko Ito, Okazoe Takaaki, Shengmin Zhou, Naoki Takaya
Glycogen is a homopolymer of glucose and a ubiquitous cellular-storage carbon. This study investigated which Aspergillus nidulans genes are involved in glycogen metabolism. Gene disruptants of predicted glycogen synthase (gsyA) and glycogenin (glgA) genes accumulated less cellular glycogen than the wild type strain, indicating that GsyA and GlgA synthesize glycogen similarly to other eukaryotes. Meanwhile, gene disruption of gphA encoding glycogen phosphorylase increased the amount of glycogen to a higher degree than wild type during the stationary phase that accompanies carbon-source limitation...
November 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174311/mdivi-1-alleviates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-cell-death-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-by-mitigating-autophagy-dysfunction-and-mitophagy-activation
#14
Chengliang Luo, Qiong Wu, Qianqian Li, Xinmu Zhang, Xiuyu Shi, Xin Wang, Luyang Tao
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission. Our previous studies proved that the inhibition of Drp1 may help attenuate traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced functional outcome and cell death through maintaining normal mitochondrial morphology and inhibiting activation of apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of Drp1 after TBI remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1), a small molecule inhibitor of Drp1, in underlying mechanisms of general autophagy and mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) after experimental TBI...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169176/ablation-of-atg4b-suppressed-autophagy-and-activated-ampk-for-cell-cycle-arrest-in-cancer-cells
#15
Pei-Feng Liu, Chien-Jen Hsu, Wei-Lun Tsai, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Jih-Jung Chen, I-Fei Huang, Ho-Hsing Tseng, Hsueh-Wei Chang, Chih-Wen Shu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: ATG4B is a cysteine protease required for autophagy, which is a cellular catabolic pathway involved in energy balance. ATG4B expression is elevated during tumor growth in certain types of cancer, suggesting that ATG4B is an attractive target for cancer therapy. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which ATG4B deprivation suppresses the growth of cancer cells. METHODS: Cancer cells were transfected with either siRNA against ATG4B or an expression vector encoding wild-type ATG4BWT or encoding catalytic mutant ATG4BC74A to determine cell cycle progression by propidium iodide staining or by BrdU incorporation assay using flow cytometry...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165042/suppressed-translation-as-a-mechanism-of-initiation-of-casp8-caspase-8-dependent-apoptosis-in-autophagy-deficient-nsclc-cells-under-nutrient-limitation
#16
Giulia Allavena, Francesca Cuomo, Georg Baumgartner, Tadeja Bele, Alexander Yarar Sellgren, Kyaw Soe Oo, Kaylee Johnson, Vladimir Gogvadze, Boris Zhivotovsky, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy
Macroautophagy/autophagy inhibition under stress conditions is often associated with increased cell death. We found that under nutrient limitation, activation of CASP8/caspase-8 was significantly increased in autophagy-deficient lung cancer cells, which precedes mitochondria outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), CYCS/cytochrome c release, and activation of CASP9/caspase-9, indicating that under such conditions the activation of CASP8 is a primary event in the initiation of apoptosis as well as essential to reduce clonogenic survival of autophagy-deficient cells...
November 22, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164995/novel-polyubiquitin-imaging-system-polyub-fc-reveals-that-k33-linked-polyubiquitin-is-recruited-by-sqstm1-p62
#17
Yoichi Nibe, Shigeru Oshima, Masanori Kobayashi, Chiaki Maeyashiki, Yu Matsuzawa, Kana Otsubo, Hiroki Matsuda, Emi Aonuma, Yasuhiro Nemoto, Takashi Nagaishi, Ryuichi Okamoto, Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Tetsuya Nakamura, Shinichiro Nakada, Mamoru Watanabe
Ubiquitin chains are formed with 8 structurally and functionally distinct polymers. However, the functions of each polyubiquitin remain poorly understood. We developed a polyubiquitin-mediated fluorescence complementation (PolyUb-FC) assay using Kusabira Green (KG) as a split fluorescent protein. The PolyUb-FC assay has the advantage that monoubiquitination is nonfluorescent and chain-specific poly-ubiquitination can be directly visualized in living cells without using antibodies. We applied the PolyUb-FC assay to examine K33-linked polyubiquitin...
November 22, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163768/inhibitor-of-growth-protein-4-interacts-with-beclin-1-and-represses-autophagy
#18
Valentina Sica, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guo Chen, Guillermo Mariño, Sylvie Lachkar, Valentina Izzo, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Mireia Niso-Santano, Guido Kroemer
Beclin 1 (BECN1) is a multifunctional protein that activates the pro-autophagic class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3C3, best known as VPS34), yet also interacts with multiple negative regulators. Here we report that BECN1 interacts with inhibitor of growth family member 4 (ING4), a tumor suppressor protein that is best known for its capacity to interact with the tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) and the acetyltransferase E1A binding protein p300 (EP300). Removal of TP53 or EP300 did not affect the BECN1/ING4 interaction, which however was lost upon culture of cells in autophagy-inducing, nutrient free conditions...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163049/tagging-of-endogenous-bk-channels-with-a-fluorogen-activating-peptide-reveals-%C3%AE-4-mediated-control-of-channel-clustering-in-cerebellum
#19
Christopher P Pratt, Dika A Kuljis, Gregg E Homanics, Jianjun He, Dmytro Kolodieznyi, Srikanth Dudem, Mark A Hollywood, Alison L Barth, Marcel P Bruchez
BK channels are critical regulators of neuronal activity, controlling firing, neurotransmitter release, cerebellar function, and BK channel mutations have been linked to seizure disorders. Modulation of BK channel gating is well characterized, regulated by accessory subunit interactions, intracellular signaling pathways, and membrane potential. In contrast, the role of intracellular trafficking mechanisms in controlling BK channel function, especially in live cells, has been less studied. Fluorogen-activating peptides (FAPs) are well-suited for trafficking and physiological studies due to the binding of malachite green (MG)-based dyes with sub-nanomolar affinity to the FAP, resulting in bright, photostable, far-red fluorescence...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157804/anti-parkinsonian-effects-of-%C3%AE-amyrin-are-regulated-via-lgg-1-involved-autophagy-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Chia-Cheng Wei, Chun-Han Chang, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is associated with aging and is characterized as a movement disorder. Currently, there is still no complete therapy for PD. In recent years, the identification and characterization of medicinal plants to cure or treat PD has gained increasing scientific interest. PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, β-amyrin, which is found in many medicinal plants for its anti-Parkinsonian effects, using Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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