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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522593/small-gtpase-rab1b-is-associated-with-atg9a-vesicles-and-regulates-autophagosome-formation
#1
Soichiro Kakuta, Junji Yamaguchi, Chigure Suzuki, Mitsuho Sasaki, Saiko Kazuno, Yasuo Uchiyama
ATG9 is a membrane protein that is essential for autophagy and is considered to be directly involved in the early steps of autophagosome formation. Yeast Atg9 is mainly localized to small vesicles (Atg9 vesicles), whereas mammalian ATG9A is reportedly localized to the trans-Golgi network, the endosomal compartment, and other unidentified membrane structures. To dissect the ATG9A-containing membranes, we examined the subcellular localization of ATG9A and performed immunoisolation of those membranes. ATG9A-green fluorescent protein in human culture cells was observed as numerous puncta that move rapidly throughout the cytoplasm...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522222/neurochemical-correlates-of-functional-plasticity-in-the-mature-cortex-of-the-brain-of-rodents
#2
REVIEW
Ewa Siucinska
It is commonly accepted that increase of input to sensory structures in mammals is known to produce marked changes in cortical recipient areas. This paper reviews the data concerning manifestations of changes in primary somatosensory cortex of adult animals caused by classical conditioning with reinforcement: aversive (whisker-shock) and appetitive (whisker-water) trainings. These include: anatomical, electrophysiological responses, receptor autoradiography, expression of GABA, GAD at mRNA and protein levels, expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta and inhibitory synaptogenesis in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507162/lipophagy-prevents-activity-dependent-neurodegeneration-due-to-dihydroceramide-accumulation-in-vivo
#3
Wei-Hung Jung, Chung-Chih Liu, Yu-Lian Yu, Yu-Chin Chang, Wen-Yu Lien, Hsi-Chun Chao, Shu-Yi Huang, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chen Ho, Chih-Chiang Chan
Dihydroceramide desaturases are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that convert dihydroceramide (dhCer) to ceramide (Cer). While elevated Cer levels cause neurodegenerative diseases, the neuronal activity of its direct precursor, dhCer, remains unclear. We show that knockout of the fly dhCer desaturase gene, infertile crescent (ifc), results in larval lethality with increased dhCer and decreased Cer levels. Light stimulation leads to ROS increase and apoptotic cell death in ifc-KO photoreceptors, resulting in activity-dependent neurodegeneration...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502292/-autophagy-modulates-the-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-macrophages-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#4
Caiyuan Ren, Xiangying Zhang, Hongbo Shi, Dexi Chen, Zhongping Duan, Huanhu Zhang, Feng Ren
Objective To analyze the effect of autophagy on inflammatory response in macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and investigate its molecular mechanism. Methods Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which were separated from the femora of mice, were cultured and induced to differentiate into primary macrophages in vitro. The inflammatory cell model was established by stimulating the primary macrophages with LPS. Autophagy was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or promoted by rapamycin. Green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) plasmid was used to transfect primary macrophages and the percentage of cells with GFP-LC3 puncta were counted in the different groups...
May 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498492/multiple-roles-of-afadin-in-the-ultrastructural-morphogenesis-of-mouse-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#5
Kousyoku Sai, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Takeshi Fujiwara, Tomohiko Maruo, Yu Itoh, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Tomohiro Haruta, Hideo Nishioka, Yuki Motojima, Miyuki Komura, Kazushi Kimura, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai, Akira Mizoguchi
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse, which is implicated in learning and memory, has a complex structure in which mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. Here, we electron microscopically analyzed the ultrastructure of this synapse in afadin-deficient mice. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that typical PAJs with prominent symmetrical plasma membrane darkening undercoated with the thick filamentous cytoskeleton were observed in the control synapse, whereas in the afadin-deficient synapse, atypical PAJs with the symmetrical plasma membrane darkening, which was much less in thickness and darkness than those of the control typical PAJs, were observed...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492550/txnip-regulates-mitophagy-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-under-high-glucose-conditions-implications-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
Takhellambam Swornalata Devi, Mallika Somayajulu, Renu Anjan Kowluru, Lalit Pukhrambam Singh
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis in diabetic retinopathy. However, the role of TXNIP in the removal of damaged mitochondria (MT) via mitophagy, a process of macroautophagy, remains unexplored. Here we investigate the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying mitophagy in retinal cells under diabetic conditions. For this, we maintained a rat Müller cell line (rMC1) under high-glucose (25 mM, HG) or low-glucose (5.5 mM, LG) condition for 5 days...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489607/trans-scirpusin-a-showed-antitumor-effects-via-autophagy-activation-and-apoptosis-induction-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#7
Eun-Hye Hong, Eun-Young Heo, Jae-Hyoung Song, Bo-Eun Kwon, Jae-Young Lee, Yaejeong Park, Jinwoong Kim, Sun-Young Chang, Young-Won Chin, Sang-Min Jeon, Hyun-Jeong Ko
Trans-Scirpusin A (TSA) is a resveratrol oligomer found in Borassus flabellifer L. We found that TSA inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer Her2/CT26 cells in vivo in mice. Although some cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced against the tumor-associated antigen Her2, TSA treatment did not significantly increase the level of Her2-specific CTL response compared to that with vehicle treatment. However, there was a significant increase in the level of TNF-α mRNA in tumor tissue and Her2-specific Ab (antibody) production...
April 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486555/autophagy-is-a-signature-of-a-signaling-network-that-maintains-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#8
Michelle Nguyen-McCarty, Peter S Klein
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are able to self-renew and to differentiate into all blood cells. HSCs reside in a low-perfusion niche and depend on local signals to survive and to maintain the capacity for self-renewal. HSCs removed from the niche are unable to survive without addition of hematopoietic cytokines and rapidly lose their ability to self-renew. We reported previously that inhibition of both GSK-3 and mTORC1 is essential to maintain long-term HSCs ex vivo. Although Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of GSK-3 is required for this response, the downstream effectors of mTORC1 remain undefined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480600/ophthalmic-parameters-in-adult-lowland-paca-cuniculus-paca-raised-in-captivity
#9
Camila P Balthazar da Silveira, Tiago B Lima, Roberta M Crivelaro, Luciana C C de Lacerda, Ivan R M Pádua, Roberta Renzo, Alexandre A F de Barros Sobrinho, Fabrício S Oliveira, Marcela Aldrovani, José L Laus
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ophthalmic parameters of lowland pacas, including the anatomic features, tear production, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and morphology of the corneal endothelium. ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirteen adult, anesthetized Cuniculus paca. PROCEDURE: Eyes were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, the Schirmer tear test I, digital applanation tonometry, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and noncontact specular microscopy...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474748/connexin36-localization-to-pinealocytes-in-the-pineal-gland-of-mouse-and-rat
#10
S G Wang, D D Tsao, K G Vanderpool, T Yasumura, J E Rash, J I Nagy
Several cell types in the pineal gland are known to establish intercellular gap junctions, but the connexin constituents of those junctions have not been fully characterized. Specifically, the expression of connexin36 (Cx36) protein and mRNA has been examined in the pineal, but the identity of cells that produce Cx36 and that form Cx36-containing gap junctions has not been determined. We used immunofluorescence and freeze fracture replica immunogold labelling (FRIL) of Cx36 to investigate the cellular and subcellular localization of Cx36 in the pineal gland of adult mouse and rat...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470584/myelin-basic-protein-citrullination-a-hallmark-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination-assessed-by-novel-monoclonal-antibodies-in-prion-diseases
#11
Byungki Jang, Yong-Chul Jeon, Hae-Young Shin, Yun-Jung Lee, Hyunji Kim, Yoshitaka Kondo, Akihito Ishigami, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Myelin basic protein (MBP) citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes leads to incomplete protein-lipid bilayer interactions and vulnerability to proteolytic enzymes, resulting in disorganization of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system. Therefore, citrullinated MBP (citMBP) has been suggested as a hallmark of demyelination, but how citMBP is implicated in prion diseases remains unknown. For the first time, we developed mouse monoclonal anti-citMBP IgG1 (clones 1B8, 1H1, and 3C6) and IgM (clone 3G5) antibodies that recognize human citMBP at its R25, R122, and R130 residues and at its C-terminal region (or the corresponding sites in mouse MBP), respectively...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455726/developmental-expression-of-claudins-in-the-mammary-gland
#12
Heidi K Baumgartner, Michael C Rudolph, Palaniappian Ramanathan, Valerie Burns, Patricia Webb, Benjamin G Bitler, Torsten Stein, Ken Kobayashi, Margaret C Neville
Claudins are a large family of membrane proteins whose classic function is to regulate the permeability of tight junctions in epithelia. They are tetraspanins, with four alpha-helices crossing the membrane, two extracellular loops, a short cytoplasmic N-terminus and a longer and more variable C-terminus. The extracellular ends of the helices are known to undergo side-to-side (cis) interactions that allow the formation of claudin polymers in the plane of the membrane. The extracellular loops also engage in head-to-head (trans) interactions thought to mediate the formation of tight junctions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454435/15-deoxy-%C3%AE-12-14-prostaglandin-j2-inhibits-migration-of-human-thyroid-carcinoma-cells-by-disrupting-focal-adhesion-complex-and-adherens-junction
#13
Ya-Chieh Wu, Yun-Ting Jhao, Yu-Chen Cheng, Ying Chen
Metastasis is frequently observed in human follicular thyroid carcinoma. The present study investigated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ2), and its effect on the migration of CGTH W-2 human thyroid carcinoma cells. 15d-PGJ2 decreased the survival rate of CGTH W-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The Transwell migration assay demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 reduced the migration rate of CGTH W-2 cells by 35% following treatment with 30 µM 15d-PGJ2 compared with control cells...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448495/dysregulation-of-inf2-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-in-spop-mutated-prostate-cancer
#14
Xiaofeng Jin, Jie Wang, Kun Gao, Pingzhao Zhang, Longfang Yao, Yan Tang, Lisha Tang, Jian Ma, Jiantao Xiao, Enceng Zhang, Jie Zhu, Bin Zhang, Shi-Min Zhao, Yao Li, Shancheng Ren, Haojie Huang, Long Yu, Chenji Wang
Next-generation sequencing of the exome and genome of prostate cancers has identified numerous genetic alternations. SPOP (Speckle-type POZ Protein) was one of the most frequently mutated genes in primary prostate cancer, suggesting SPOP is a potential driver of prostate cancer development and progression. However, how SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis remains poorly understood. SPOP acts as an adaptor protein of the CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that generally recruits substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447717/knockdown-of-zfpl1-results-in-increased-autophagy-and-autophagy%C3%A2-related-cell-death-in-nci%C3%A2-n87-and-bgc%C3%A2-823-human-gastric-carcinoma-cell-lines
#15
Yong-Zheng Xie, Wan-Li Ma, Ji-Ming Meng, Xue-Qun Ren
Macroautophagy, which will hereafter be referred to as autophagy, is an evolutionarily conserved process, during which cells recycle and remove damaged organelles and proteins in response to cellular stress. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of autophagy remain to be fully elucidated. The present study demonstrated that knockdown of zinc finger protein like 1 (ZFPL1) induces autophagy and increases autophagic cell death in NCI‑N87 and BGC‑823 human gastric carcinoma cell lines. To examine the role of ZFPL1 in gastric carcinoma cells, ZFPL1 expression was downregulated by lentiviral infection...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437526/prominin-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-autophagy-in-the-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#16
Sujoy Bhattacharya, Jinggang Yin, Christina S Winborn, Qiuhua Zhang, Junming Yue, Edward Chaum
Purpose: Prominin-1 (Prom1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in stem cell lineages, and has recently been implicated in cancer stem cell survival. Mutations in the Prom1 gene have been shown to disrupt photoreceptor disk morphogenesis and cause an autosomal dominant form of Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD4). Despite the apparent structural role of Prom1 in photoreceptors, its role in other cells of the retina is unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of Prom1 in the highly metabolically active cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433650/long-noncoding-rna-malat1-is-a-potent-autophagy-inducer-protecting-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-injury-by-sponging-mir-26b-and-upregulating-ulk2-expression
#17
Zhijun Li, Jing Li, Na Tang
Brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is the initial stage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which results in a poor prognosis in ischemic stroke patients. Autophagy has been shown to have protective effects on BMECs against cerebral ischemic insults. However, molecular mechanism of BMEC autophagy during I/R is unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new factors involved in cell autophagy. LncRNA Malat1 is one of the most highly upregulated I/R or OGD/R-responsive endothelial lncRNA and plays a protective role in BMECs against cerebral ischemic insults...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432142/structural-similarities-between-neuregulin-1-3-isoforms-determine-their-subcellular-distribution-and-signaling-mode-in-central-neurons
#18
Detlef Vullhorst, Tanveer Ahmad, Irina Karavanova, Carolyn Keating, Andres Buonanno
The Neuregulin (NRG) family of ErbB ligands is comprised of numerous variants originating from the use of different genes, alternative promoters and splice variants. NRGs have generally been thought to be transported to axons and presynaptic terminals where they signal via ErbB3/4 receptors in paracrine or juxtacrine mode. However, we recently demonstrated that unprocessed pro-NRG2 accumulates on cell bodies and proximal dendrites, and that NMDAR activity is required for shedding of its ectodomain by metalloproteinases...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427888/dopamine-elevates-intracellular-zinc-concentration-in-cultured-rat-embryonic-cortical-neurons-through-the-camp-nitric-oxide-signaling-cascade
#19
Hui-Hsing Hung, Lung-Sen Kao, Pei-Shan Liu, Chien-Chang Huang, De-Ming Yang, Chien-Yuan Pan
Zinc ion (Zn(2+)), the second most abundant transition metal after iron in the body, is essential for neuronal activity and also induces toxicity if the concentration is abnormally high. Our previous results show that exposure of cultured cortical neurons to dopamine elevates intracellular Zn(2+) concentrations ([Zn(2+)]i) and induces autophagosome formation but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we characterized the signaling pathway responsible for the dopamine-induced elevation of [Zn(2+)]i and the effect of [Zn(2+)]i in modulating the autophagy in cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415949/%C3%AE-catenin-promotes-intracellular-bacterial-killing-via-suppression-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-triggered-macrophage-autophagy
#20
Qiang Fu, Kang Chen, Qian Zhu, Weijia Wang, Fuda Huang, Lishao Miao, Xinger Wu
Objective To investigate β-catenin-mediated bacterial elimination during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Methods Cell viability and catenin beta 1 ( CTNNB1) expression in RAW264.7 cells following P. aeruginosa infection versus uninfected cells, were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay and β-catenin Western blots. RAW264.7 cells with CTNNB1 overexpression were established with β-catenin lentivirus using flow cytometry and clonogenic limiting dilution assays. Bacterial killing was measured by plate counts; phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by flow cytometry; and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using Griess reaction...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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