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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339978/ozone-sensitive-arabidopsis-mutants-with-deficiencies-in-photorespiratory-enzymes
#1
Shoko Saji, Srinivas Bathula, Akihiro Kubo, Masanori Tamaoki, Mitsuko Aono, Tomoharu Sano, Kazuo Tobe, Stefan Timm, Hermann Bauwe, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Hikaru Saji
An ozone-sensitive mutant was isolated from T-DNA-tagged lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. The T-DNA was inserted at a locus on chromosome 3, where two genes encoding glycolate oxidases, GOX1 and GOX2, peroxisomal enzymes involved in photorespiration, reside contiguously. The amounts of the mutant's foliar transcripts for these genes were reduced, and glycolate oxidase activity was approximately 60% of that of the wild-type plants. No difference in growth and appearance was observed between the mutant and the wild-type plants under normal conditions with ambient air under a light intensity of 100 µmol photons m-2 s-1...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339712/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-treatment-on-plasma-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-hetian-broiler
#2
Z Xie, J Zhang, S Ma, X Huang, Y Huang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adding a Chinese herbal hedicine (CHM, including astragalus membranaceus, codonopsis pilosula, poria cocos, bighead atractylodes rhizome, fructus crataegi, folium epimedii, radix saposhnikoviae, and pericarpium citri reticulatae) diet has effects on lipid metabolism in the liver of the broiler. Six-hundred-thirty Hetian broilers were divided into 3 groups including base diet (control), 0.3%, or 1% CHM diets, for 130 days. The results showed that CHM treatment significantly increased the slaughter performance...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339556/influence-of-temperature-and-growth-selection-on-turkey-pectoralis-major-muscle-satellite-cell-adipogenic-gene-expression-and-lipid-accumulation
#3
D L Clark, G M Strasburg, K M Reed, S G Velleman
Immature poults have an inefficient thermoregulatory system, and therefore extreme ambient temperatures can impact their internal body temperature. Satellite cells, the only posthatch myonuclei source, are multipotential stem cells and sensitive to temperature. Selection for faster-growing, high-yielding birds has altered satellite-cell properties. The objective of the current study was to determine how temperature affects adipogenic properties of satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major ( ) muscle of Randombred Control line ( ) and F line turkeys selected only for increased 16-wk body weight from the RBC2 line...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334197/ppar%C3%AE-regulates-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-senescence-via-a-novel-target-gene-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1c
#5
Yixin Chen, Yongtao Wang, Yaoyao Huang, Hang Zeng, Bingfang Hu, Lihuan Guan, Huizhen Zhang, Ai-Ming Yu, Caroline H Johnson, Frank J Gonzalez, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), an enzyme located in the outer mitochondria membrane, has a crucial role in fatty acid transport and oxidation. It is also involved in cell proliferation and is a potential driver for cancer cell senescence. However, its upstream regulatory mechanism is unknown. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid metabolism and tumor progression. The current study aimed to elucidate whether and how PPARα regulates CPT1C and then affects cancer cell proliferation and senescence...
March 3, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#6
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333384/transcriptional-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#7
Paula Mota de Sá, Allison J Richard, Hardy Hang, Jacqueline M Stephens
Adipocytes are the defining cell type of adipose tissue. Once considered a passive participant in energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as a dynamic organ that contributes to several important physiological processes, such as lipid metabolism, systemic energy homeostasis, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in its development and function is of great importance. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly orchestrated process which can vary between different fat depots as well as between the sexes...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333151/fto-is-required-for-myogenesis-by-positively-regulating-mtor-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-mediated-mitochondria-biogenesis
#8
Xiaobo Wang, Ning Huang, Min Yang, Dandan Wei, Haoran Tai, Xiaojuan Han, Hui Gong, Jiao Zhou, Jianqiong Qin, Xiawei Wei, Honghan Chen, Tingting Fang, Hengyi Xiao
Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332893/monascus-ruber-fermented-buckwheat-red-yeast-buckwheat-suppresses-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells
#9
Heeok Hong, Jiyoung Park, Wenchie L Lumbera, Seong Gu Hwang
Although various treatments have been used for weight loss to date, obese people rarely have safe and effective treatment options. Therefore, the antiobesity effects of several natural compounds are being actively investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the antiadipogenic effects of Monascus ruber-fermented Fagopyrum esculentum (red yeast buckwheat, RYB) in 3T3-L1 cells. We assessed the intracellular lipid content and adipocyte differentiation by oil red O staining and the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in 3T3-L1 cells...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#10
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#11
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330869/molecular-mechanisms-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-1-idh1-mutations-identified-in-tumors-the-role-of-size-and-hydrophobicity-at-residue-132-on-catalytic-efficiency
#12
Diego Avellaneda Matteo, Adam J Grunseth, Eric R Gonzalez, Stacy L Anselmo, Madison A Kennedy, Precious Moman, David A Scott, An Hoang, Christal D Sohl
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) catalyzes the reversible NADP+-dependent conversion of isocitrate (ICT) to α-ketoglutarate (αKG) in the cytosol and peroxisomes. Mutations in IDH1 have been implicated in > 80% of lower grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and primarily affect residue 132, which helps coordinate substrate binding. However, other mutations found in the active site have also been identified in tumors. IDH1 mutations typically result in a loss of catalytic activity, but many also can catalyze a new reaction, the NADPH-dependent reduction of αKG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330868/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-1-modulates-innate-immune-responses-through-regulation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-dependent-macrophage-differentiation
#13
Irina Tikhanovich, Jie Zhao, Jody Olson, Abby Adams, Ryan Taylor, Brian Bridges, Laurie Marshall, Benjamin Roberts, Steven A Weinman
Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification that has been shown to regulate both gene expression and extranuclear signaling events. We recently reported defects in Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) activity and arginine methylation in the livers of cirrhosis patients with a history of recurrent infections. To examine the role of PRMT1 in innate immune responses in vivo, we created a cell type specific knockout mouse model. We showed that myeloid specific PRMT1 knockout mice demonstrate higher proinflammatory cytokine production and a lower survival rate after cecal ligation and puncture...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330809/piperine-attenuates-pathological-cardiac-fibrosis-via-ppar-%C3%AE-akt-pathways
#14
Zhen-Guo Ma, Yu-Pei Yuan, Xin Zhang, Si-Chi Xu, Sha-Sha Wang, Qi-Zhu Tang
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) play critical roles in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have demonstrated that piperine activates AMPKα and reduces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). However, the effect of piperine on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Here, we show that piperine-treated mice had similar hypertrophic responses as mice treated with vehicle but exhibited significantly attenuated cardiac fibrosis after pressure overload or isoprenaline (ISO) injection...
March 14, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330580/biochemical-and-clinical-profiles-of-52-tunisian-patients-affected-by-zellweger-syndrome
#15
Fahmi Nasrallah, Wiem Zidi, Moncef Feki, Samia Kacem, Neji Tebib, Naziha Kaabachi
BACKGROUND: Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a peroxisome biogenesis disorder attributed to a mutation of the PEX genes family. The incidence of this disease in Africa and the Arab world remains unknown. This contribution is aimed at describing the clinical phenotype and biochemical features in Tunisian patients with ZS in order to improve the detection and management of this severe disorder. METHODS: A total of 52 patients diagnosed with ZS and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study...
February 17, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327554/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-a-novel-regulator-for-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-phenotypic-modulation-and-vascular-remodeling-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#16
Hongrong Zhang, Li Jiang, Zongduo Guo, Jianjun Zhong, Jingchuan Wu, Junchi He, Han Liu, Zhaohui He, Haitao Wu, Chongjie Cheng, Xiaochuan Sun
Cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic switch is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying it remains largely speculative. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has been implicated to modulate the vascular cells proliferation and vascular homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of PPARβ/δ in VSMC phenotypic switch following SAH. Activation of PPARβ/δ by GW0742 and adenoviruses PPARβ/δ (Ad-PPARβ/δ) significantly inhibited hemoglobin-induced VSMC phenotypic switch...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326944/fatty-acid-binding-protein-inhibition-produces-analgesic-effects-through-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms
#17
Xiaoxue Peng, Keith Studholme, Martha P Kanjiya, Jennifer Luk, Diane Bogdan, Matthew W Elmes, Gregory Carbonetti, Simon Tong, Yu-Han Gary Teng, Robert C Rizzo, Huilin Li, Dale G Deutsch, Iwao Ojima, Mario J Rebecchi, Michelino Puopolo, Martin Kaczocha
Background Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and related lipids. Previous work indicates that systemically administered FABP5 inhibitors produce analgesia in models of inflammatory pain. It is currently not known whether FABP inhibitors exert their effects through peripheral or central mechanisms. Here, we examined FABP5 distribution in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and examined the analgesic effects of peripherally and centrally administered FABP5 inhibitors...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326017/adiponectin-regulates-the-polarization-and-function-of-microglia-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signaling-under-amyloid-%C3%AE-toxicity
#18
Juhyun Song, Seong-Min Choi, Byeong C Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ), is gradually increasing globally. Given that AD is considered a neuroinflammatory disease, recent studies have focused on the cellular mechanisms in brain inflammatory conditions that underlie AD neuropathology. Microglia are macrophage cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that are activated in response to Aβ condition. The function of microglia contributes to the neuroinflammation in AD brain, suggesting that microglia regulate the production of inflammatory mediators and contribute to the regeneration of damaged tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325759/predicting-the-targeting-of-tail-anchored-proteins-to-subcellular-compartments-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Joseph L Costello, Inês G Castro, Fátima Camões, Tina A Schrader, Doug McNeall, Jing Yang, Evdokia-Anastasia Giannopoulou, Sílvia Gomes, Vivian Pogenberg, Nina A Bonekamp, Daniela Ribeiro, Matthias Wilmanns, Gregory Jedd, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single transmembrane domain (TMD) at the C-terminus which anchors them to the membranes of organelles where they mediate critical cellular processes. Accordingly, mutations in genes encoding TA proteins have been identified in a number of severe inherited disorders. Despite the importance of correctly targeting a TA protein to its appropriate membrane, the mechanisms and signals involved are not fully understood. In this study we identify additional peroxisomal TA proteins, discover more proteins which are shared by multiple organelles and reveal that a combination of TMD hydrophobicity and tail charge determines targeting to distinct organelle locations in mammals...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324037/autotaxin-is-regulated-by-glucose-and-insulin-in-adipocytes
#20
Kenneth D'Souza, Daniel A Kane, Mohamed Touaibia, Erin E Kershaw, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C Kienesberger
Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipokine that generates the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid. Despite recent studies implicating adipose-derived ATX in metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance, the nutritional and hormonal regulation of ATX in adipocytes remains unclear. The present study examined the regulation of ATX in adipocytes by glucose and insulin and the role of ATX in adipocyte metabolism. Induction of insulin resistance in adipocytes with high glucose and insulin concentrations increased ATX secretion, whereas co-incubation with the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, prevented this response...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
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