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Jiangtong Peng, Yutian Li, Xiaohong Wang, Shan Deng, Jenna Holland, Emily Yates, Jing Chen, Haitao Gu, Kobina Essandoh, Xingjiang Mu, Boyu Wang, Robert K McNamara, Tianqing Peng, Anil G Jegga, Tiemin Liu, Takahisa Nakamura, Kai Huang, Diego Perez-Tilve, Guo-Chang Fan
Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Yuan Xu, Yi-Fan Han, Bing Ye, Yin-Long Zhang, Jian-Da Dong, Shao-Jun Zhu, Jiong Chen
Chemotherapy is one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment. It has been widely used in the treatment of various malignant tumors. In order to investigate molecular mechanisms responsible for the chemoresistance of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), we established the doxorubicin (Dox) resistance of human ATC SW1736 and 8305C cells and named them SW1736/Dox and 8305C/Dox, respectively. We evaluated the expression of various micro-RNAs (miRNAs) between control and Dox-resistant ATC cells and found that the expression of miR-27b-3p was significantly increased in Dox-resistant ATC cells...
June 20, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ann S Thomas, Arjen M Krikken, Rinse de Boer, Chris Williams
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aat2p contains a peroxisomal targeting signal type-1 and localises to peroxisomes in oleate-grown cells, but not in glucose-grown cells. Here, we have investigated Aat2p from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, which lacks a recognizable peroxisomal targeting signal. Aat2p tagged with GFP at its C-terminus displays a dual cytosol-peroxisome localisation in ethanol-grown cells. The partial peroxisomal localization of Aat2p persisted in the absence of the classical cycling receptors Pex5p and Pex7p but Aat2p targeting to peroxisomes was reduced in cells deleted for the matrix protein import factors PEX1, PEX2 and PEX13...
June 20, 2018: FEBS Letters
D Sathya Prabhu, V Devi Rajeswari
The agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) from natural victual products were used as antidiabetic agents. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a consequential legume that was known to possess potential antidiabetic activity, whose mechanism of action was unknown. The current study was focused to ascertain gene expression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by Faba bean pod extract in rat cell lines (RINm5F).The real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that Faba bean pod extract in concentrations of 160 µg/mL have shown 4...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Volodymyr V Balatskyi, Larysa L Macewicz, Ana-Maria Gan, Sergii V Goncharov, Paulina Pawelec, Georgiy V Portnichenko, Tetiana Yu Lapikova-Bryginska, Viktor O Navrulin, Victor E Dosenko, Adam Olichwier, Pawel Dobrzyn, Oksana O Piven
αE-catenin is a component of adherens junctions that link the cadherin-catenin complex to the actin cytoskeleton. The signaling function of this protein was recently revealed. In the present study, we investigated the role of αE-catenin in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We mated αE-catenin conditional knockout mice with αMHC-Cre mice and evaluated their mutant offspring. We found that αE-catenin knockout caused enlargement of the heart and atria, fibrosis, the upregulation of hypertrophic genes, and the dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism via the transcriptional activity of Yap and β-catenin...
June 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yao Jiang, Chuhan Fu, Guihua Liu, Jiao Guo, Zhengquan Su
Background: Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has shown potential antihyperlipidemic activity in a few studies as a functional food. Method: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effect and potential mechanisms of chitooligosaccharide capsules (COSTC) in male SD rats fed a high-fat diet. Results: COSTC could ameliorate serum lipid levels. Simultaneously, the cholesterol-lowering effect is probably attributed to its role in two pathways: upregulating the gene expression and activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor alpha (LXRA), and peroxisome proliferation activated receptor-α (PPARα), which facilitates the conversion of cholesterol into bile acid; downregulating the gene expression and activity of enzymes including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and sterol-responsive element binding protein-2 (SREBP2) and upregulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to reduce the denovo synthesis of cholesterol...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for Lcn2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or "beige" adipocytes. We found Lcn2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2-/- mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Vincenzo Miragliotta, Pier Luca Ricci, Francesco Albanese, Andrea Pirone, Danika Tognotti, Francesca Abramo
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) are gaining recognition as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disorders. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CBR1 and CBR2) and PPAR-α in feline skin and verify whether changes occur in the course of hypersensitivity dermatitis. ANIMALS: Twelve privately owned cats...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Julia Sellin, Christian Wingen, Dominic Gosejacob, Deniz Senyilmaz, Lea Hänschke, Sven Büttner, Katharina Meyer, Daniele Bano, Pierluigi Nicotera, Aurelio A Teleman, Margret H Bülow
Mutations in peroxin (PEX) genes lead to loss of peroxisomes, resulting in the formation of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and early lethality. Studying PBDs and their animal models has greatly contributed to our current knowledge about peroxisomal functions. Very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) accumulation has long been suggested as a major disease-mediating factor, although the exact pathological consequences are unclear. Here, we show that a Drosophila Pex19 mutant is lethal due to a deficit in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)...
June 19, 2018: PLoS Biology
Federico M Daray, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Suicide and nonfatal suicidal behaviors are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Variability in rates of suicide and suicidal behaviors within and between countries has been attributed to population and individual risk factors, including economic status and cultural differences, both of which can have suicide risk effects mediated through a variety of factors, of which perhaps the least understood is the role of diet. We therefore review the scientific literature concerning two major dietary lipid classes, cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), that have been associated with higher risk of suicide attempts and suicide...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yen-Cheng Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng, Chung-Te Liu, Yuh-Mou Sue, Tso-Hsiao Chen, Yung-Ho Hsu, Pai-An Hwang, Cheng-Hsien Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Brown seaweed is a common food for Asians, and the bioactive ingredient fucoxanthin exerts anti-apoptotic activities in several cell types. Renal tubular cell apoptosis is one of the common cellular events leading to renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the influence of fucoxanthin-containing brown seaweed extract on CKD is still unknown. We intended to evaluate the inhibitory effect of fucoxanthin-containing extract from brown seaweed on renal apoptosis under CKD condition and its molecular mechanism...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yusuke Ishida, Hidetoshi Fujita, Satoko Aratani, Miyuki Chijiiwa, Noboru Taniguchi, Maho Yokota, Yukihiko Ogihara, Naomi Uoshima, Fumiaki Nagashima, Hiroyuki Uchino, Toshihiro Nakajima
Sepsis‑associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome of which the precise associated mechanisms remain unclear. Synoviolin (Syvn1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in conditions associated with chronic inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. However, the role of Syvn1 in acute inflammation is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Syvn1 in a septic mouse model induced by cecal ligation/perforation (CLP)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dmitry Manakov, David Kolar, Jitka Zurmanova, Michal Pravenec, Jiri Novotny
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) can be alleviated by rescuing CD36 fatty acid translocase. The present study investigated whether transgenic rescue of CD36 in SHR could affect mitochondrial function and activity of selected metabolic enzymes in the heart. These analyses were conducted on ventricular preparations derived from SHR and from transgenic strain SHR-Cd36 that expresses a functional wild-type CD36. Our respirometric measurements revealed that mitochondria isolated from the left ventricles exhibited two times higher respiratory activity than those isolated from the right ventricles...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoling Liu, Qian Xu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shunji Hattori, Hitomi Fujisaki, Takaaki Ogura, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Masayuki Yamato, Takashi Ikejima
Preadipocyte migration is a fundamental and important process for the development of tissue organization, especially in the development of primitive adipose tissue and adipocyte tissue wound healing. However, excessive migration may result in abnormal development and fibrosis-related diseases such as hypertrophic scar. We previously reported that type I collagen (collagen I) enhanced migration of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes via phosphorylation and/or acetylation of NF-κB p65, and the enhanced cell migration is repressed by silibinin treatment through sirt1...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
David M Herrington, Chunhong Mao, Sarah J Parker, Zongming Fu, Guoqiang Yu, Lulu Chen, Vidya Venkatraman, Yi Fu, Yizhi Wang, Timothy D Howard, Goo Jun, Caroline F Zhao, Yongmei Liu, Georgia Saylor, Weston R Spivia, Grace B Athas, Dana Troxclair, James E Hixson, Richard S Vander Heide, Yue Wang, Jennifer E Van Eyk
BACKGOUND: The inability to detect premature atherosclerosis significantly hinders implementation of personalized therapy to prevent coronary heart disease. A comprehensive understanding of arterial protein networks and how they change in early atherosclerosis could identify new biomarkers for disease detection and improved therapeutic targets. METHODS: Here we describe the human arterial proteome and proteomic features strongly associated with early atherosclerosis based on mass spectrometry analysis of coronary artery and aortic specimens from 100 autopsied young adults (200 arterial specimens)...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Jayoung Shon, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is associated with the increased risk of hypertension (HTN). This cross-sectional study is aimed to identify the association between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARD) polymorphism and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), an oxidative stress marker which is related to HTN development, and to determine whether PPARD gene is a candidate gene for HTN. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred ninety-three individuals with normal blood pressure (BP) and HTN were included in this cross-sectional study...
June 18, 2018: Human Genomics
Mark Christian Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Kazuo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Diets containing fats of different proportions and types have been demonstrated to influence metabolism. These fats differ in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) or medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) content. In our laboratory using swimming as the training modality, MCFAs increased endurance attributed to increased activities of oxidative enzymes. How it affects whole-body metabolism remains unexplored. The present study investigated the metabolic, biochemical and genetic adaptations with treadmill running as the training modality...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Matteo Tardelli, Thierry Claudel, Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Michael Trauner
Nuclear receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha (PPAR-γ, -α), are major metabolic regulators in adipose tissue and the liver, where they govern lipid, glucose, and bile acid homeostasis, as well as inflammatory cascades. Glycerol and free fatty acids are the end products of lipid droplet catabolism driven by PPARs. Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of 13 small transmembrane proteins, facilitate the shuttling of water, urea, and/or glycerol...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Monique Cristine de Oliveira, Lilian Brites Campos-Shimada, Maria Raquel Marçal-Natali, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto, Clairce Luzia Salgueiro-Pagadigorria
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes caused by estrogen deficiency in lipid metabolism. METHODS:  This study encompassed direct measurements of plasma biochemical analyses, liver lipid contents, and assessments of the mitochondrial β-oxidation capacity as well as an evaluation of the liver redox status in an animal model of estrogen deficiency. RESULTS:  When compared with control mice, the livers of ovariectomized (OVX) mice presented considerable accretions in their lipid contents, which were accompanied by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates and mitochondria from OVX groups and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) contents...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Jue-Long Wang, Chin-Wang Chen, Mu-Rou Tsai, Shu-Fen Liu, Tsuing-Jeu Hung, Yu-Ju-Hung, Wen-Teng Chang, Ming-Der Shi, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yu-Lin Yang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated as an established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. However, whether PGC-1α is involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we treated NRK-49F (normal rat kidney fibroblast) cells with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) for 24h to establish an in vitro fibrosis model...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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