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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675927/tributyltin-reduces-the-levels-of-serum-adiponectin-and-activity-of-akt-and-induces-metabolic-syndrome-in-male-mice
#1
Haotian Yan, Hao Guo, Dong Cheng, Ruirui Kou, Cuili Zhang, Jiliang Si
Tributyltin (TBT), a proven environmental obesogen, functions as a nanomolar agonist of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the adverse effects of TBT on metabolism are incompletely understood. In this study, male ICR mice were administered TBT (5 and 50 μg·kg- 1 ) by an intraperitoneal injection once every 3 days for 30 days from 28 days of age and bred for another 30 days after the last administration of TBT. We analyzed the effects of these exposures on the fat depot weights, serum lipid profile, serum leptin and adiponectin, hepatic lipid accumulation, and activity of AKT in the liver and skeletal muscle isolated from mice 8 mins after receiving an insulin injection...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675670/principles-of-exercise-prescription-and-how-they-influence-exercise-induced-changes-of-transcription-factors-and-other-regulators-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Cesare Granata, Nicholas A Jamnick, David J Bishop
Physical inactivity represents the fourth leading risk factor for mortality, and it has been linked with a series of chronic disorders, the treatment of which absorbs ~ 85% of healthcare costs in developed countries. Conversely, physical activity promotes many health benefits; endurance exercise in particular represents a powerful stimulus to induce mitochondrial biogenesis, and it is routinely used to prevent and treat chronic metabolic disorders linked with sub-optimal mitochondrial characteristics. Given the importance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial pool, it is vital to better characterize how manipulating the endurance exercise dose affects cellular mechanisms of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis...
April 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674659/histone-demethylase-jmjd1a-coordinates-acute-and-chronic-adaptation-to-cold-stress-via-thermogenic-phospho-switch
#3
Yohei Abe, Yosuke Fujiwara, Hiroki Takahashi, Yoshihiro Matsumura, Tomonobu Sawada, Shuying Jiang, Ryo Nakaki, Aoi Uchida, Noriko Nagao, Makoto Naito, Shingo Kajimura, Hiroshi Kimura, Timothy F Osborne, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Takeshi Inagaki, Juro Sakai
In acute cold stress in mammals, JMJD1A, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase, upregulates thermogenic gene expressions through β-adrenergic signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Aside BAT-driven thermogenesis, mammals have another mechanism to cope with long-term cold stress by inducing the browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Here, we show that this occurs through a two-step process that requires both β-adrenergic-dependent phosphorylation of S265 and demethylation of H3K9me2 by JMJD1A...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673954/oxidative-stress-in-osteoarthritis-and-antioxidant-effect-of-polysaccharide-from-angelica-sinensis
#4
Chao Zhuang, Yuji Wang, Yunkun Zhang, Nanwei Xu
This study aimed to investigate the oxidative stress in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes and the antioxidant effect of angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) on it. Human OA chondrocytes and human normal chondrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) alone or treated with ASP were cultured, then they were measured with cell viability, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), expression of related genes, such as collagen type II (Col2a1), Aggrecan, iNOS, SOD, CAT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670594/cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-dunaliella-tertiolecta-by-expression-of-a-plant-medium-chain-length-fatty-acid-specific-acyl-acp-thioesterase
#5
Huixin Lin, Hui Shen, Yuan K Lee
Metabolic engineering of microalgae to accumulate high levels of medium chain length fatty acids (MCFAs) has met with limited success. Traditional approaches employ single introduction of MCFA specific acyl-ACP thioesterases (TEs), but our current research in transgenic Dunaliella tertiolecta line has highlighted that, there is no single rate-limiting approach that can effectively increase MCFA levels. Here, we explore the accumulation of MCFAs in D. tertiolecta after transgenic expression of myristic acid biased TE (C14TE)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670247/effects-of-microrna-292-5p-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#6
Zhen-Dong Zhu, Ji-Yun Ye, Hua Niu, Yu-Mei Ma, Xue-Mei Fu, Zhong-Hua Xia, Xuan Zhang
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of cardiac damage following various pathological processes, such as free radical damage and cell apoptosis. This study aims to investigate whether microRNA-292-5p (miR-292-5p) protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α/-γ signaling pathway in myocardial IRI mice models. Mouse models of myocardial IRI were established. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into different groups. The hemodynamic indexes, levels of related inflammatory factors and serum myocardial enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected...
April 18, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670150/visualizing-multiple-inter-organelle-contact-sites-using-the-organelle-targeted-split-gfp-system
#7
Yuriko Kakimoto, Shinya Tashiro, Rieko Kojima, Yuki Morozumi, Toshiya Endo, Yasushi Tamura
Functional integrity of eukaryotic organelles relies on direct physical contacts between distinct organelles. However, the entity of organelle-tethering factors is not well understood due to lack of means to analyze inter-organelle interactions in living cells. Here we evaluate the split-GFP system for visualizing organelle contact sites in vivo and show its advantages and disadvantages. We observed punctate GFP signals from the split-GFP fragments targeted to any pairs of organelles among the ER, mitochondria, peroxisomes, vacuole and lipid droplets in yeast cells, which suggests that these organelles form contact sites with multiple organelles simultaneously although it is difficult to rule out the possibilities that these organelle contacts sites are artificially formed by the irreversible associations of the split-GFP probes...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669911/mpc1-is-essential-for-pgc-1%C3%AE-induced-mitochondrial-respiration-and-biogenesis
#8
Eunjin Koh, Young Kyung Kim, Daye Shin, Kyung-Sup Kim
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is essential for mitochondrial pyruvate usage, mediates transport of cytosolic pyruvate into mitochondria. Low MPC expression is associated with various cancers, and functionally associated with glycolytic metabolism and stemness. However, the mechanism by which MPC expression is regulated is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that MPC1 is downregulated in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) due to strong suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1 alpha (PGC-1α)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669721/ppar-%C3%AE-contributes-to-immunity-by-cancer-vaccines-that-secrete-gm-csf
#9
Girija Goyal, Karrie Wong, Christopher J Nirschl, Nicholas Souders, Donna Neuberg, Niroshana Anandasabapathy, Glenn Dranoff
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a lipid-activated nuclear receptor that promotes immune tolerance through effects on macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces PPARγ expression in multiple myeloid cell types. GM-CSF contributes to both immune tolerance and protection, but the role of PPARγ in these pathways is poorly understood. Here we reveal an unexpected stimulatory role for PPARγ in the generation of antitumor immunity with irradiated, GM-CSF-secreting tumor-cell vaccines (GVAX)...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669255/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#10
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669060/plasticizer-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-renal-fibrosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Cheng-Tien Wu, Ching-Chia Wang, Li-Chen Huang, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
Plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is known as an endocrine disruptor and a peroxisome proliferator. A currently epidemiological study has suggested that daily high di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) intake from phthalate-tainted foods in children may be a risk factor for renal dysfunction. DEHP can leach from medical devices such as blood storage bags and the tubing. Long-term exposure to DEHP is associated with nephropathy and exacerbates chronic kidney diseases (CKD) progression. However, the detailed effects and molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
April 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666119/depot-specific-characteristics-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-in-thyroid-associated-orbitopathy
#12
Janice Siu Chong Wong, Wai Kit Chu, Benjamin Fuk-Loi Li, Chi-Pui Pang, Kelvin Kam-Lung Chong
BACKGROUND: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) causes inflammatory fibroproliferation of periocular connective tissues. We compared adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs) from three adipose depots of each patient with TAO on mesenchymal, myofibrogenic, adipogenic properties and associated hyaluronan (HA) synthesis. METHODS: ADSCs were generated from periocular (eyelid, orbital) and subcutaneous (abdominal) adipose tissues of three patients with TAO...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665659/suppressive-effect-of-4-hydroxy-2-4-hydroxyphenethyl-isoindoline-1-3-dione-on-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-asthma
#13
Jin Huang, Mingzhi Su, Bo-Kyung Lee, Mee-Jeong Kim, Jee H Jung, Dong-Soon Im
4-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (PD1) is a synthetic phthalimide derivative of a marine compound. PD1 has peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ agonistic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PD1 on allergic asthma using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma mouse model. In vitro , PD1 suppressed β-hexosaminidase activity in RBL-2H3 cells. In the OVA-induced allergic asthma mouse model, increased inflammatory cells and elevated Th2 and Th1 cytokine levels were observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue...
April 18, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664296/ppar%C3%AE-mediates-the-hepatoprotective-effects-of-nutmeg
#14
Xiao Nan Yang, Xue-Mei Liu, JIan-He Fang, Xu Zhu, Xiu-Wei Yang, Xue-Rong Xiao, Jian-Feng Huang, Frank J Gonzalez, Fei Li
Nutmeg is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Some reports indicated that nutmeg has hepatoprotective activity. In this study, a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury model in mice was used to explore the mechanism of the protective effects of nutmeg extract (NME), including its major bioactive component myrislignan. The results indicated that NME could effectively protect TAA-induced liver damage as assessed by recovery of increased serum liver transaminases, decrease hepatic oxidative stress and lower hepatic inflammation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662634/caloric-restriction-delays-yeast-chronological-aging-by-remodeling-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-altering-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-functionalities-and-postponing-the-onsets-of-apoptotic-and-liponecrotic-modes-of-regulated-cell-death
#15
Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Anna Leonov, Adam Beach, Vincent R Richard, Simon D Bourque, Michelle T Burstein, Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Olivia Koupaki, Rachel Feldman, Vladimir I Titorenko
A dietary regimen of caloric restriction delays aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences morphological, biochemical and cell biological properties of chronologically aging yeast advancing through different stages of the aging process. Our findings revealed that this low-calorie diet slows yeast chronological aging by mechanisms that coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics of various cellular processes before entry into a non-proliferative state and after such entry...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662614/transcriptional-orchestration-of-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-a-cellular-model-of-pgc-1-related-coactivator-dependent-thyroid-tumor
#16
Solenne Dumont, Soazig Le Pennec, Audrey Donnart, Raluca Teusan, Marja Steenman, Catherine Chevalier, Rémi Houlgatte, Frédérique Savagner
The PGC-1 (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma Coactivator-1) family of coactivators (PGC-1α, PGC-1β, and PRC) plays a central role in the transcriptional control of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) processes. These coactivators integrate mitochondrial energy production into cell metabolism using complementary pathways. The XTC.UC1 cell line is a mitochondria-rich model of thyroid tumors whose biogenesis is almost exclusively dependent on PRC. Here we aim to propose an integrative view of the cellular pathways regulated by PRC through integration of cDNA and miRNA microarray data and chromatin immunoprecipitation results obtained from XTC...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662503/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-long-intergenic-non-coding-rnas-underlying-intramuscular-fat-content-in-pigs
#17
Cheng Zou, Long Li, Xiaofang Cheng, Cencen Li, Yuhua Fu, Chengchi Fang, Changchun Li
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important trait that can affect pork quality. Previous studies have identified many genes that can regulate IMF. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are emerging as key regulators in various biological processes. However, lincRNAs related to IMF in pig are largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they regulate IMF are yet to be elucidated. Here we reconstructed 105,687 transcripts and identified 1,032 lincRNAs in pig longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of four stages with different IMF contents based on published RNA-seq...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662003/ppar-agonists-and-metabolic-syndrome-an-established-role
#18
REVIEW
Margherita Botta, Matteo Audano, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Cesare R Sirtori, Nico Mitro, Massimiliano Ruscica
Therapeutic approaches to metabolic syndrome (MetS) are numerous and may target lipoproteins, blood pressure or anthropometric indices. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the metabolic regulation of lipid and lipoprotein levels, i.e., triglycerides (TGs), blood glucose, and abdominal adiposity. PPARs may be classified into the α, β/δ and γ subtypes. The PPAR-α agonists, mainly fibrates (including newer molecules such as pemafibrate) and omega-3 fatty acids, are powerful TG-lowering agents...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661566/lichen-planopilaris-and-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia-as-model-epithelial-stem-cell-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Matthew J Harries, Francisco Jimenez, Ander Izeta, Jonathan Hardman, Sreejith Parameswara Panicker, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Inflammation-associated, irreversible damage to epithelial stem cells (eSCs) of the hair follicle in their immunologically privileged niche lies at the heart of scarring alopecia, which causes permanent difficult-to-treat hair loss. We propose that the two most common and closely related forms, lichen planopilaris (LPP) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), provide excellent model diseases for studying the biology and pathology of adult human eSCs in an easily accessible human mini-organ. Emphasising the critical roles for interferon (IFN)-γ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ-mediated signalling in immune privilege (IP) collapse and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of these eSCs respectively, we argue that these pathways deserve therapeutic targeting in the future management of LPP/FFA and other eSC diseases associated with IP collapse and EMT...
April 13, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659887/homeostasis-model-assessment-of-insulin-resistance-and-survival-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#20
Barbara E Stähli, Anna Nozza, Ilse C Schrieks, John B Buse, Klas Malmberg, Linda Mellbin, Bruce Neal, Stephen J Nicholls, Lars Rydén, Anders Svensson, Hans Wedel, Arlette Weichert, A Michael Lincoff, Diederick E Grobbee, Jean-Claude Tardif, Gregory G Schwartz
Purpose: Insulin resistance has been linked to development and progression of atherosclerosis and is present in most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether the degree of insulin resistance predicts adverse outcomes in patients with T2D and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is uncertain. Methods: The AleCardio trial compared the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α/γ agonist aleglitazar with placebo in patients with T2D and recent ACS. In participants not treated with insulin, we determined whether baseline homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, n=4303) or the change in HOMA-IR on assigned study treatment (n=3568) was related to the risk of death or major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in unadjusted and adjusted models...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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