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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469952/profiling-and-imaging-of-phospholipids-in-brains-of-abcd1-deficient-mice
#1
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Masashi Morita, Fumiyoshi Yamazaki, Yuko Nakashima, Shiro Takei, Shigeo Takashima, Mitsutoshi Setou, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Tsuneo Imanaka, Kazuaki Yokoyama
ABCD1 is a gene responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), and is critical for the transport of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into peroxisomes and subsequent β-oxidation. VLCFA-containing lipids accumulate in X-ALD patients, although the effect of ABCD1-deficiency on each lipid species in the central nervous system has not been fully characterized. In this study, each phospholipid and lysophospholipid species in Abcd1-deficient mice brains were profiled by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 22, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469940/different-qualifiers-of-aus-flus-thyroid-fna-have-distinct-braf-ras-ret-ptc-and-pax8-pparg-alterations
#2
Claudio Bellevicine, Roberta Sgariglia, Ilaria Migliatico, Elena Vigliar, Melania D'Anna, Maria Antonia Nacchio, Nicola Serra, Umberto Malapelle, Massimo Bongiovanni, Giancarlo Troncone
BACKGROUND: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) includes fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens that cannot straightforwardly be classified as benign or malignant. To determine whether morphological subcategorization based on atypia qualifiers and molecular testing could improve malignancy risk stratification of AUS/FLUS patients, this study assessed the correlation between these qualifiers and the molecular alterations commonly harbored by thyroid neoplasms...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469041/natural-extracts-abolished-lipid-accumulation-in-cells-harbouring-non-favourable-pnpla3-genotype
#3
Ángela Rojas, Paloma Gallego, Antonio Gil-Gómez, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Lourdes Rojas, Rosario Maldonado, Rocío Gallego, Marta García-Valdecasas, José A Del Campo, Juan D Bautista, Manuel Romero-Gómez
Background & aims. G-allele of PNPLA3 (rs738409) favours triglycerides accumulation and steatosis. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin and natural extracts from mushroom and artichoke on reducing lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were exposed to oleic acid (OA) and treated with quercetin and extracts to observe the lipid accumulation, the intracellular-TG concentration and the LD size. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα-γ) and cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) gene expression levels were analysed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467799/exposure-to-maternal-cafeteria-diets-during-the-suckling-period-has-greater-effects-on-fat-deposition-and-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-srebp-1c-gene-expression-in-rodent-offspring-compared-to-exposure-before-birth
#4
M A Vithayathil, J R Gugusheff, Z Y Ong, S C Langley-Evans, R A Gibson, B S Muhlhausler
Background: While the adverse metabolic effects of exposure to obesogenic diets during both the prenatal and early postnatal period are well established, the relative impact of exposure during these separate developmental windows remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the relative contribution of exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet during pregnancy and lactation on body weight, fat mass and expression of lipogenic and adipokine genes in the offspring. Methods: Wistar rats were fed either a control chow (Control, n  = 14) or obesogenic cafeteria diet (CAF, n  = 12) during pregnancy and lactation...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467759/magnolol-alleviates-inflammatory-responses-and-lipid-accumulation-by-amp-activated-protein-kinase-dependent-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-activation
#5
Ye Tian, Haihua Feng, Lu Han, Lin Wu, Hongming Lv, Bingyu Shen, Zheng Li, Qiaoling Zhang, Guowen Liu
Magnolol (MG) is a kind of lignin isolated from Magnolia officinalis , which serves several different biological functions, such as antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective functions. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of MG against oleic acid (OA)-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammatory damage in HepG2 cells and in a tyloxapol (Ty)-induced hyperlipidemia mouse model. Our findings indicated that MG can effectively inhibit OA-stimulated tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion, reactive oxygen species generation, and triglyceride (TG) accumulation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467670/zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-is-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-people-and-hfd-induced-obese-mice
#6
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466880/telmisartan-reverses-antiretroviral-induced-adipocyte-toxicity-and-insulin-resistance-in-vitro
#7
Sudeep P Pushpakom, Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Andrew Owen, David J Back, Gyanendra Tripathi, Sudhesh Kumar, Philip McTernan, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose-response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. METHODS: Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465730/dihomo-gamma-linolenic-acid-induces-fat-loss-in-c-elegans-in-an-omega-3-independent-manner-by-promoting-peroxisomal-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation
#8
David Navarro-Herrera, Paula Aranaz, Laura Eder-Azanza, María Zabala, Cristina Hurtado, Ana Romo-Hualde, J Alfredo Martínez, Carlos J González-Navarro, José L Vizmanos
Bioactive compounds, including some fatty acids (FAs), can induce beneficial effects on body fat-content and metabolism. In this work, we have used C. elegans as a model to examine the effects of several FAs on body fat accumulation. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids induced a reduction of fat content in C. elegans, with linoleic, gamma-linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids being the most effective ones. These three FAs are sequential metabolites especially in omega-6 PUFA synthesis pathway and the effects seem to be primarily due to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and independent of its transformation into omega-3 or arachidonic acid...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465565/peripheral-whole-blood-lncrna-expression-analysis-in-patients-with-eosinophilic-asthma
#9
Yu-Jin Zhu, Dan Mao, Wei Gao, Hong Hu
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays roles in many diseases including asthma. Several lncRNAs function in the early differentiation of T-helper cells. lncRNA controls gene transcription, protein expression, and epigenetic regulation. Of the 4 asthma phenotypes, eosinophilic asthma (EA) is the most common. However, the lncRNAs associated with eosinophilic asthma have yet to be identified.We designed a study to identify the circulating lncRNA signature in EA samples. We tested whether significant differences in lncRNA expression were observed between blood samples from patients with EA and healthy individuals (control)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464885/effect-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-liver-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-rat-model-of-obesity
#10
Jessica Sacks, Anny Mulya, Ciaran E Fealy, Hazel Huang, John D Mosinski, Mangesh R Pagadala, Hideharu Shimizu, Esam Batayyah, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, John P Kirwan
Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464546/gene-diet-related-factors-of-hyperglycaemia-in-postmenopausal-women
#11
Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Maria Mosor, Juliusz Przysławski, Jerzy Nowak
As ageing and increased body fat are the signs of insulin resistance, we have studied whether the presence of Pro12Ala and C1431T of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 gene and Trp64Arg of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene may predispose to the hyperglycaemia development in postmenopausal women, who have never undergone hypoglycaemic treatment. The distributions of selected allele and genotype frequencies were determined by the PCR-RFLP method in normo- and hyperglycaemic, who have never been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus were measured...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463649/ligand-dependent-corepressor-lcor-is-a-rexinoid-inhibited-ppar%C3%AE-rxr%C3%AE-coactivator
#12
Tali Shalom-Barak, Jaclyn Liersemann, Babak Memari, Lawrence Flechner, Caitlin Devor, Tiffany M Bernardo, Suyeon Kim, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Scott L Friedman, Ronald M Evans, John H White, Yaacov Barak
The nuclear receptor Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is an essential regulator of placental development. To gain deeper insights into placental PPARγ signaling, we dissected its regulation of the Muc1 promoter. We find that unlike prototypic target activation by heterodimeric receptors, which is either stimulated by or refractory to Retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligands (rexinoids), induction of Muc1 by liganded PPARγ requires RXRα, but is inhibited by rexinoids. We demonstrate that this inhibition is mediated by the activation function 2 (AF2) domain of RXRα and that Muc1 activation entails altered AF2 structures of both PPARγ and RXRα...
February 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462922/differential-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-status-and-placental-transport-in-adolescent-pregnancies
#13
Fernanda Carrilho Pinto da Fonseca, Daniela de Barros Mucci, Renata Pereira Assumpção, Henrique Marcondes, Fátima Lúcia de Carvalho Sardinha, Simone Vargas Silva, Marta Citelli, Maria das Graças Tavares do Carmo
Adolescent pregnancy increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Placental delivery of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is essential for fetal growth and development. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess maternal and fetal status of fatty acids (FA) measured at birth and the expression of key genes involved in FA uptake, transport and metabolism in the placenta of fifteen adolescents and fifteen adults. FA were quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Placental expression of FA transporters was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was quantified by Western Blot...
February 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462792/-arabidopsis-thaliana-gh3-15-acyl-acid-amido-synthetase-has-a-highly-specific-substrate-preference-for-the-auxin-precursor-indole-3-butyric-acid
#14
Ashley M Sherp, Corey S Westfall, Sophie Alvarez, Joseph M Jez
Various phytohormones control plant growth and development and mediate biotic and abiotic stress responses. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) acyl acid amido synthetases are plant enzymes that typically conjugate amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or jasmonic acid (JA) to inactivate or activate these phytohormones, respectively; however, the physiological and biological roles of many of these enzymes remain unclear. Using a biochemical approach, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana GH3.15 (AtGH3.15) preferentially uses the acyl acid and auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the amino acid glutamine as substrates...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462658/affinity-based-separation-methods-for-the-study-of-biological-interactions-the-case-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-drug-discovery
#15
REVIEW
Caterina Temporini, Gloria Brusotti, Giorgio Pochetti, Gabriella Massolini, Enrica Calleri
Affinity-based methods using immobilized proteins are important approaches for understanding the interactions between small molecules and biological targets. This review is intended to provide an overview of different affinity based separation methods that have been applied to the study of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). The screening of compound to increase screening rates for synthetic and natural ligands of PPAR are reported. Pros and cons of the approaches in ligand discovery initiatives...
February 17, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462574/adiponectin-receptor-agonist-adiporon-decreased-ceramide-and-lipotoxicity-and-ameliorated-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Sun Ryoung Choi, Ji Hee Lim, Min Young Kim, Eun Nim Kim, Yaeni Kim, Beom Soon Choi, Yong-Soo Kim, Hye Won Kim, Kyung-Min Lim, Min Jeong Kim, Cheol Whee Park
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is known to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. AdipoRon, an orally-active synthetic adiponectin agonist, binds to both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR)1/R2 and ameliorates diabetic complications. Among the lipid metabolites, the ceramide subspecies of sphingolipids have been linked to features of lipotoxicity, including inflammation, cell death, and insulin resistance. We investigated the role of AdipoRon in the prevention and development of type 2 diabetic nephropathy...
February 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458144/disruption-of-peroxisome-function-leads-to-metabolic-stress-mtor-inhibition-and-lethality-in-liver-cancer-cells
#17
Mengjiao Cai, Xiao Sun, Wenchao Wang, Zhusheng Lian, Ping Wu, Suxia Han, Huan Chen, Pumin Zhang
Peroxisome houses a large number of enzymes involved in lipid and phytochemical oxidation as well as synthesis of bile acid and other specialized lipids. Peroxisome resident enzymes are imported into the organelle via a conserved cargo transport system composed of many peroxins, protein factors essential for the biogenesis of peroxisome. Among the peroxins, PEX5 plays a transporter role, and PEX2, 10, and 12 are thought to form a complex that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to help recycle PEX5 in an ubiquitin modification-dependent process...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457143/reciprocity-in-ros-and-autophagic-signaling
#18
Daric J Wible, Shawn B Bratton
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules that mediate oxidative stress and cellular damage when improperly regulated. ROS and oxidative stress can activate autophagy, which generally serves as a cytoprotective negative feedback mechanism to selectively eliminate sources of ROS, including mitochondria and peroxisomes. In this review we describe the mechanisms by which ROS directly and indirectly activate autophagy, and conversely, how selective autophagy suppresses the formation of ROS...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456675/correlation-between-ppar-%C3%AE-methylation-level-in-peripheral-blood-and-atherosclerosis-of-nafld-patients-with-dm
#19
Jianghua Ju, Qingxian Huang, Jing Sun, Xiaoyun Zhao, Xiuli Guo, Yongcheng Jin, Wenjie Ma, Wenhui Wang
We investigated the correlation between the methylation levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in the peripheral blood and atherosclerosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 50 normal subjects (group N) and 50 NAFLD patients with DM (group M) were selected at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in groups N and M were detected...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455954/the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-is-dispensable-for-cold-induced-adipose-tissue-browning-in-mice
#20
Merel Defour, Wieneke Dijk, Philip Ruppert, Emmani B M Nascimento, Patrick Schrauwen, Sander Kersten
OBJECTIVE: Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. METHODS: Male wildtype and PPARα-/- mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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