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Lipid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817690/resveratrol-and-caloric-restriction-prevent-hepatic-steatosis-by-regulating-sirt1-autophagy-pathway-and-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#1
Shibin Ding, Jinjin Jiang, Guofu Zhang, Yongjun Bu, Guanghui Zhang, Xiangmei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817674/new-insights-into-the-distribution-protein-abundance-and-subcellular-localisation-of-the-endogenous-peroxisomal-biogenesis-proteins-pex3-and-pex19-in-different-organs-and-cell-types-of-the-adult-mouse
#2
Claudia Colasante, Jiangping Chen, Barbara Ahlemeyer, Rocio Bonilla-Martinez, Srikanth Karnati, Eveline Baumgart-Vogt
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles mainly involved in ROS and lipid metabolism. Their abundance, protein composition and metabolic function vary depending on the cell type and adjust to different intracellular and environmental factors such as oxidative stress or nutrition. The biogenesis and proliferation of these important organelles are regulated by proteins belonging to the peroxin (PEX) family. PEX3, an integral peroxisomal membrane protein, and the cytosolic shuttling receptor PEX19 are thought to be responsible for the early steps of peroxisome biogenesis and assembly of their matrix protein import machinery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817657/metaproteomics-analysis-of-the-functional-insights-into-microbial-communities-of-combined-hydrogen-and-methane-production-by-anaerobic-fermentation-from-reed-straw
#3
Xuan Jia, Bei-Dou Xi, Ming-Xiao Li, Yang Yang, Yong Wang
A metaproteomic approach was used to analyse the proteins expressed and provide functional evidence of key metabolic pathways in the combined production of hydrogen and methane by anaerobic fermentation (CHMP-AF) for reed straw utilisation. The functions and structures of bacteria and archaea populations show significant succession in the CHMP-AF process. There are many kinds of bacterial functional proteins, mainly belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817434/everolimus-is-associated-with-less-weight-gain-than-tacrolimus-2-years-following-liver-transplantation-results-of-a-randomized-multicenter-study
#4
Michael Charlton, Mary Rinella, Dharmesh Patel, Kevin McCague, Julie Heimbach, Kymberly Watt
BACKGROUND: Weight gain early after transplant is a risk factor for posttransplant metabolic syndrome (PTMS), cardiovascular events, and renal insufficiency. The impact of mTOR inhibition on posttransplant weight gain and the development of PTMS components postliver transplantation were examined in a randomized, controlled study. METHODS: Following a run-in period, patients (N = 719) were randomized at 30±5 days posttransplant in a 1:1:1 ratio to 3 treatment groups: (i) everolimus (EVR) + reduced tacrolimus (TAC)(n=245); (ii) TAC control (n=243) or (iii) TAC elimination (n=231)...
August 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817063/changes-in-lipids-and-inflammatory-markers-after-consuming-diets-high-in-red-meat-or-dairy-for-four-weeks
#5
Kirsty M Turner, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter J Meikle, Peter M Clifton
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816926/feasibility-and-relevance-of-antipsychotic-safety-monitoring-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#6
Tamara Pringsheim, Josephine Ho, Justyna R Sarna, Tracy Hammer, Scott Patten
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are efficacious for tics and are increasingly prescribed to children with behavioral disorders. Antipsychotics have important adverse effects, and systematic monitoring of drug safety is infrequently performed. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of antipsychotic safety monitoring in children with Tourette Syndrome using a defined protocol and to evaluate the risk of adverse effects with chronic use. METHODS/PROCEDURES: A prospective longitudinal study of children prescribed antipsychotics was performed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816422/dolichol-kinase-deficiency-dolk-cdg-two-new-cases-and-expansion-of-phenotype
#7
Eric T Rush, Craig V Baker, William B Rizzo
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes that are necessary for the addition of oligosaccharides to acceptor proteins or lipids. An early step in this process requires dolichol kinase (DK) to catalyze the formation of dolichyl phosphate, which acts as a membrane anchor for initial attachment of sugar residues that are subsequently built up to oligosaccharides and transferred to acceptor proteins and lipids for further processing. Biallelic mutations in DOLK, the gene for DK, result in human in a CDG with variable symptoms, ranging from nonsyndromic dilated cardiomypopathy to severe multiorgan involvement...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816419/tubulin-acetylation-accompanies-autophagy-development-induced-by-different-abiotic-stimuli-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Vira Olenieva, Dmytro Lytvyn, Alla Yemets, Catherine Bergounioux, Yaroslav Blume
Microtubules (MTs) play an important role in the regulation of autophagy development in yeast and animal as well as in plant cells. MTs participate in maturation and traffic of autophagosomes through their dynamic state changes and post-translational modifications of tubulin, namely acetylation. We subjected Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to metabolic-, salt-, osmotic stresses as well as irradiation of ultraviolet B and investigated the involvement of plant MTs in the development of stress-induced autophagy via tubulin acetylation...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#9
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815718/a-potential-high-risk-for-fatty-liver-disease-was-found-in-mice-generated-after-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#10
Gu Ll, Zhang Jj, Zheng Mm, Dong Gy, Xu Jy, Zhang Wy, Yibo Wu, Yang Yang, Zhu H
Abnormal gametogenesis and embryonic development may lead to poor health status of the offspring. The operations involved in the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) occur during the key stage of gametogenesis and early embryonic development. To assess the potential risk of abnormal lipid metabolism in the liver of adult ARTs offspring, two ARTs mice models derived from preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD group) and in vitro cultured embryos without biopsy (IVEM group) were constructed. And control mice were from in vivo naturally conceived (Normal group)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815534/alterations-in-ca-2-signalling-via-er-mitochondria-contact-site-remodelling-in-cancer
#11
Martijn Kerkhofs, Carlotta Giorgi, Saverio Marchi, Bruno Seitaj, Jan B Parys, Paolo Pinton, Geert Bultynck, Mart Bittremieux
Inter-organellar contact sites establish microdomains for localised Ca(2+)-signalling events. One of these microdomains is established between the ER and the mitochondria. Importantly, the so-called mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) contain, besides structural proteins and proteins involved in lipid exchange, several Ca(2+)-transport systems, mediating efficient Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. These Ca(2+) signals critically control several mitochondrial functions, thereby impacting cell metabolism, cell death and survival, proliferation and migration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815532/hepatitis-c-virus-replication
#12
Tetsuro Suzuki
Viruses use synthetic mechanism and organelles of the host cells to facilitate their replication and make new viruses. Host's ATP provides necessary energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, the HCV genome is thought to be synthesized by the replication complex, which consists of viral- and host cell-derived factors, in tight association with structurally rearranged vesicle-like cytoplasmic membranes. The virus-induced remodeling of subcellular membranes, which protect the viral RNA from nucleases in the cytoplasm, promotes efficient replication of HCV genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815530/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Jennifer Rieusset
Although mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and disrupted lipid and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis are classically associated with both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the interplay between these metabolic stresses is less known. Both organelles interact through contact points known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), in order to exchange both lipids and Ca(2+) and regulate cellular homeostasis. Recent evidences suggest that MAM could be an important hub for hormonal and nutrient signaling in the liver and that ER-mitochondria miscommunication could participate to hepatic insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of MAM in the control of glucose homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815528/alzheimer-disease
#14
Estela Area-Gomez, Eric A Schon
The most widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the amyloid cascade, in which the accumulation of extraneuritic plaques and intracellular tangles plays a key role in driving the course and progression of the disease. However, there are other biochemical and morphological features of AD, including altered calcium, phospholipid, and cholesterol metabolism and altered mitochondrial dynamics and function that often appear early in the course of the disease, prior to plaque and tangle accumulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815527/discovery-and-roles-of-er-endolysosomal-contact-sites-in-disease
#15
William Mike Henne
Inter-organelle membrane contact sites (MCSs) serve as unique microenvironments for the sensing and exchange of cellular metabolites and lipids. Though poorly defined, ER-endolysosomal contact sites are quickly becoming recognized as centers for inter-organelle lipid exchange and metabolic decision-making. Here, we review the discovery and current state of knowledge of ER-endolysosomal MCSs with particular focus on the molecular players that establish and/or utilize these contact sites in metabolism. We also discuss associations of ER-endolysosomal MCS-associated proteins in human disease, as well as the therapeutic promise these contact sites hold in modulating cellular physiology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815522/ceramide-transport-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-the-trans-golgi-region-at-organelle-membrane-contact-sites
#16
Kentaro Hanada
Lipids are the major constituents of all cell membranes and play dynamic roles in organelle structure and function. Although the spontaneous transfer of lipids between different membranes rarely occurs, lipids are appropriately transported between different organelles for their metabolism and to exert their functions in living cells. Proteins that have the biochemical capability to catalyze the intermembrane transfer of lipids are called lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). All organisms possess many types of LTPs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815519/over-six-decades-of-discovery-and-characterization-of-the-architecture-at-mitochondria-associated-membranes-mams
#17
Maria Sol Herrera-Cruz, Thomas Simmen
The discovery of proteins regulating ER-mitochondria tethering including phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2) and mitofusin-2 has pushed contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria into the spotlight of cell biology. While the field is developing rapidly and controversies have come and gone multiple times during its history, it is sometimes overlooked that significant research has been done decades ago with the original discovery of these structures in the 1950s and the first characterization of their function (and coining of the term mitochondria-associated membrane, MAM) in 1990...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815518/organelle-communication-at-membrane-contact-sites-mcs-from-curiosity-to-center-stage-in-cell-biology-and-biomedical-research
#18
Thomas Simmen, Mitsuo Tagaya
Cell biology has long recognized that organelles can communicate with each other. Initially, such communication was thought to occur primarily via vesicular trafficking between biochemically distinct organelles. However, studies starting in the 1970s on lipid metabolism have unearthed another way how organelles can communicate and have spawned the field of membrane contact sites (MCS). While, initially, MCS had been recognized as fluid entities that mediate lipid and ion transport in an ad hoc manner, more recently MCS have been found to depend on protein-protein interactions that control themselves a variety of MCS functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815154/spin-trapping-a-review-for-the-study-of-obesity-related-oxidative-stress-and-na-k-atpase
#19
Athar Nawab, Alexandra Nichols, Rebecca Klug, Joseph I Shapiro, Komal Sodhi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have gained attention with mounting evidence of their importance in cell signaling and various disease states. ROS is produced continuously as a natural by-product of normal oxygen metabolism. However, high levels ROS causes oxidative stress and damage to biomolecules. This results in loss of protein function, DNA cleavage, lipid peroxidation, or ultimately cell injury or death. Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic; studies show fat accumulation is associated with increased ROS and oxidative stress...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814977/worse-inflammatory-profile-in-omnivores-than-in-vegetarians-associates-with-the-gut-microbiota-composition
#20
Ana Carolina Franco-de-Moraes, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
AIMS: To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile. METHODS: A total of 268 non-diabetic individuals were stratified into groups of dietary types (strict vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and omnivores). The taxonomic composition and phylogenetic structure of the microbiota were obtained through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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