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Lipid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102978/pretreatment-cardiometabolic-status-in-youth-with-early-onset-psychosis-baseline-results-from-the-tea-trial
#1
Karsten G Jensen, Christoph U Correll, Ditte Rudå, Dea G Klauber, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
OBJECTIVE: To describe pretreatment cardiometabolic constitution in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Baseline cardiometabolic assessment was performed in youths aged 12-17 years with FEP entering the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial and matched healthy controls. Patients were included between June 10, 2010, and January 29, 2014. ICD-10 was used as the diagnostic classification system. Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared between patients versus controls and antipsychotic-naive versus antipsychotic-exposed patients...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102463/marked-differences-of-haplotype-tagging-snp-distribution-linkage-and-haplotype-profile-of-apoa5-gene-in-roma-population-samples
#2
Katalin Sumegi, Balazs Duga, Bela I Melegh, Zsolt Banfai, Erzsebet Kovesdi, Anita Maasz, Bela Melegh
Roma people are underprivileged, neglected population worldwide, with severe healthcare problems. They have significantly increased prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity, presumably related to their poor social status, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. Assuming that genetic background also plays a role in their susceptibility for cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesized that APOA5 gene polymorphisms, an important role-player in lipid metabolism and in the development of metabolic syndrome and cardio/cerebrovascular events, may also be involved...
January 19, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#4
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101970/neuropeptide-y-resists-excess-loss-of-fat-by-lipolysis-in-calorie-restricted-mice-a-trait-potential-for-the-life-extending-effect-of-calorie-restriction
#5
Seongjoon Park, Toshimitsu Komatsu, Sang Eun Kim, Katsuya Tanaka, Hiroko Hayashi, Ryoichi Mori, Isao Shimokawa
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an orexigenic peptide that plays an essential role in caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the mechanisms underlying the NPY-mediated effects in CR are poorly defined. Here, we report that NPY deficiency in male mice during CR increases mortality in association with lipodystrophy. NPY(-/-) mice displayed a rapid decrease in body weight and fat mass, as well as increased lipolysis during CR. These alterations in fat regulation were inhibited by the lipolysis inhibitor, acipimox, a treatment associated with reduced mortality...
January 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101851/importance-of-radioactive-labelling-to-elucidate-inositol-polyphosphate-signalling
#6
REVIEW
Miranda S C Wilson, Adolfo Saiardi
Inositol polyphosphates, in their water-soluble or lipid-bound forms, represent a large and multifaceted family of signalling molecules. Some inositol polyphosphates are well recognised as defining important signal transduction pathways, as in the case of the calcium release factor Ins(1,4,5)P3, generated by receptor activation-induced hydrolysis of the lipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C. The birth of inositol polyphosphate research would not have occurred without the use of radioactive phosphate tracers that enabled the discovery of the "PI response"...
February 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101713/macro-and-microelement-content-and-other-properties-of-chaenomeles-japonica-l-fruit-and-protective-effects-of-its-aqueous-extract-on-hepatocyte-metabolism
#7
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Beata Bosiacka, Julita Rast, Izabela Gutowska, Jolanta Wolska, Ewa Rębacz-Maron, Kamila Dębia, Katarzyna Janda, Jan Korbecki, Dariusz Chlubek
This growing interest in the cultivation of Japanese quince Chaenomeles japonica L. results from the potentially beneficial properties of its fruit. Fresh fruits are very firm and too acidic to eat raw, but their bioactive components, distinctive aroma, and high amount of dietary fiber make the fruits well suited for industrial processing. However, not all the properties of the fruit have been investigated. For example, there are no comprehensive reports about the mineral content or potentially harmful effects on liver metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100883/soy-protein-isolate-suppresses-lipodystrophy-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-model-mice
#8
Koji Nagao, Akiko Matsumoto, Shunichi Kai, Tomoko Kayashima, Teruyoshi Yanagita
Lipodystrophies are acquired and genetic disorders characterized by the complete or partial absence of body fat with a line of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis. Because soy protein isolate (SPI) has been reported to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in animals and humans, we explored the effect of SPI on the pathophysiology of hepatic lipid accumutaion in a diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice. Four weeks of the lipodystrophy model diet induced hepatic lipid accumulation concomitant with marked deficiencies of adipose tissue and serum adipocytokines in mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100855/trace-elements-as-an-activator-of-antioxidant-enzymes
#9
Marta Wołonciej, Elżbieta Milewska, Wiesława Roszkowska-Jakimiec
Oxidative stress is a state of impaired balance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of the body. It causes many defects of the body, e.g. lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage. In order to prevent the effects of oxidative stress, the organism has developed defence mechanisms. These mechanisms capture and inhibit the formation of free radicals and also chelate ion metals that catalyse free radical reactions. Trace elements are components of antioxidant enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100772/de-novo-sphingolipid-biosynthesis-is-required-for-adipocyte-survival-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#10
Aikaterini Alexaki, Benjamin A Clarke, Oksana Gavrilova, Yinyan Ma, Hongling Zhu, Xinran Ma, Lingyan Xu, Galina Tuymetova, Bridget C Larman, Maria L Allende, Teresa M Dunn, Richard L Proia
Sphingolipids are a diverse class of essential cellular lipids that function as structural membrane components and as signaling molecules. Cells acquire sphingolipids by both de novo biosynthesis and recycling of exogenous sphingolipids. The individual importance of these pathways for the generation of essential sphingolipids in differentiated cells is not well understood. To investigate the requirement for de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis in adipocytes, a cell type with highly regulated lipid metabolism, we generated mice with an adipocyte-specific deletion of Sptlc1 Sptlc1 is an obligate subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100635/phospholipase-lpl1-links-lipid-droplet-function-with-quality-control-protein-degradation
#11
Nina Weisshaar, Hendrik Welsch, Angel Guerra-Moreno, John Hanna
Protein misfolding is toxic to cells and is thought to underlie many human diseases, including many neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, cells have developed stress responses to deal with misfolded proteins. The transcription factor Rpn4 mediates one such response, and is best known for regulating the abundance of the proteasome, the complex multisubunit protease that destroys proteins. Here we identify Lpl1 as an unexpected target of the Rpn4 response. Lpl1 is a phospholipase and a component of the lipid droplet...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100512/postexercise-repletion-of-muscle-energy-stores-with-fructose-or-glucose-in-mixed-meals
#12
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Karin Zwygart, Chris Boesch, Roland Kreis, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
BACKGROUND: Postexercise nutrition is paramount to the restoration of muscle energy stores by providing carbohydrate and fat as precursors of glycogen and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) synthesis. Compared with glucose, fructose ingestion results in lower postprandial glucose and higher lactate and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that these differences in substrate concentration would be associated with a different partition of energy stored as IMCLs or glycogen postexercise...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100478/adropin-acts-in-the-rat-paraventricular-nucleus-to-influence-neuronal-excitability
#13
Spencer P Loewen, Alastair V Ferguson
Adropin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and metabolic roles in the periphery, including effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Central administration of adropin has been shown to inhibit water intake in rats, however, the site at which central adropin acts has yet to be elucidated. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a critical autonomic control center, plays essential roles in the control of fluid balance, energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, and is therefore a potential target for centrally acting adropin...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100287/characterisation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-different-insulin-resistant-phenotypes-by-means-of-stable-isotopes
#14
Ellen E Blaak
The obese insulin resistant and/or prediabetic state is characterised by systemic lipid overflow, mainly driven by an impaired lipid buffering capacity of adipose tissue, and an impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to increase fat oxidation upon increased supply. This leads to the accumulation of bioactive lipid metabolites in skeletal muscle interfering with insulin sensitivity via various mechanisms. In this review, the contribution of dietary v. endogenous fatty acids to lipid overflow, their extraction or uptake by skeletal muscle as well as the fractional synthetic rate, content and composition of the muscle lipid pools is discussed in relation to the development or presence of insulin resistance and/or an impaired glucose metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099843/human-carboxylesterase-2-reverses-obesity-induced-diacylglycerol-accumulation-and-glucose-intolerance
#16
Maxwell A Ruby, Julie Massart, Devon M Hunerdosse, Milena Schönke, Jorge C Correia, Sharon M Louie, Jorge L Ruas, Erik Näslund, Daniel K Nomura, Juleen R Zierath
Serine hydrolases are a large family of multifunctional enzymes known to influence obesity. Here, we performed activity-based protein profiling to assess the functional level of serine hydrolases in liver biopsies from lean and obese humans in order to gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. We identified reduced hepatic activity of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in human obesity. In primary human hepatocytes, CES2 knockdown impaired glucose storage and lipid oxidation...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099784/investigating-the-extent-of-parallelism-in-morphological-and-genomic-divergence-among-lake-trout-ecotypes-in-lake-superior
#17
Alysse Perreault-Payette, Andrew M Muir, Frederick Goetz, Charles Perrier, Eric Normandeau, Pascal Sirois, Louis Bernatchez
Understanding the emergence of species through the process of ecological speciation is a central question in evolutionary biology which also has implications for conservation and management. Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is renowned for the occurrence of different ecotypes linked to resource and habitat use throughout North America. We aimed to unravel the fine genetic structure of the four Lake Trout ecotypes in Lake Superior. A total of 486 individuals from four sites were genotyped at 6822 filtered SNPs using RADseq technology...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099469/the-prevalence-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-related-metabolic-comorbidities-was-associated-with-age-at-onset-of-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Xin Xu, Lina Su, Yunlu Gao, Yangfeng Ding
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been found to be highly prevalent in psoriatic patients. Adult onset psoriasis could be divided into either early or late onset psoriasis. The associations between NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities and age at onset of psoriasis have not yet been investigated. Our study was to evaluate the associations between prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic conditions and early, late, and childhood onset psoriasis. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#19
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098593/familial-dysbetalipoproteinemia-an-underdiagnosed-lipid-disorder
#20
Charlotte Koopal, A David Marais, Frank L J Visseren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; a model disease for remnant metabolism and remnant-associated cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia is characterized by remnant accumulation caused by impaired remnant clearance, and premature cardiovascular disease. Most familial dysbetalipoproteinemia patients are homozygous for apolipoprotein ε2, which is associated with decreased binding of apolipoprotein E to the LDL receptor...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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