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Lipid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#1
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786969/hippocampal-lipidome-and-transcriptome-profile-alterations-triggered-by-acute-exposure-of-mice-to-gsm-1800-mhz-mobile-phone-radiation-an-exploratory-study
#2
Adamantia F Fragopoulou, Alexandros Polyzos, Maria-Despoina Papadopoulou, Anna Sansone, Areti K Manta, Evangelos Balafas, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Alexandros Georgakilas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Carla Ferreri, Dimitris Thanos, Lukas H Margaritis
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR and potential cellular targets. The "omics" high-throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF-EMR on cellular physiology. METHODS: In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole-body exposed (nE xp  = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4...
May 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786859/synergistic-effects-of-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-a-case-study-of-nitrogen-limitation-and-saturating-light-intensity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Itay Cohen, Tal Rapaport, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Under natural conditions, plants are regularly exposed to combinations of stress factors. A common example is the conjunction between nitrogen (N) deficiency and excess light. The combined effect of stress factors is often ignored in studies using controlled conditions, possibly resulting in misleading conclusions. To address this issue, the current study examined the physiological behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana under the effect of varying nitrogen levels and light intensities. The joint influence of low N and excess light had an adverse effect on plant growth, chlorophyll and anthocyanin concentrations, photochemical capacity, and the abundance of proteins involved in carbon assimilation and anti-oxidative metabolism...
May 22, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786646/metabolic-reprogramming-by-3-iodothyronamine-t1am-a-new-perspective-to-reverse-obesity-through-co-regulation-of-sirtuin-4-and-6-expression
#4
Fariba M Assadi-Porter, Hannah Reiland, Martina Sabatini, Leonardo Lorenzini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Micheal Rogowski, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Marco Tonelli, Sandra Ghelardoni, Alessandro Saba, Riccardo Zucchi, Grazia Chiellini
Obesity is a complex disease associated with environmental and genetic factors. 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) has revealed great potential as an effective weight loss drug. We used metabolomics and associated transcriptional gene and protein expression analysis to investigate the tissue specific metabolic reprogramming effects of subchronic T1AM treatment at two pharmacological daily doses (10 and 25 mg/kg) on targeted metabolic pathways. Multi-analytical results indicated that T1AM at 25 mg/kg can act as a novel master regulator of both glucose and lipid metabolism in mice through sirtuin-mediated pathways...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786565/modelling-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-human-hepatocyte-like-cells
#5
Marcus J Lyall, Jessy Cartier, John P Thomson, Kate Cameron, Jose Meseguer-Ripolles, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Dagmara Szkolnicka, Baltasar Lucendo Villarin, Yu Wang, Giovanny Rodriguez Blanco, Warwick B Dunn, Richard R Meehan, David C Hay, Amanda J Drake
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease in developed countries. An in vitro NAFLD model would permit mechanistic studies and enable high-throughput therapeutic screening. While hepatic cancer-derived cell lines are a convenient, renewable resource, their genomic, epigenomic and functional alterations mean their utility in NAFLD modelling is unclear. Additionally, the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a cell lineage identifier, is rapidly lost during cell culture, alongside expression of the Ten-eleven-translocation ( TET ) methylcytosine dioxygenase enzymes, restricting meaningful epigenetic analysis...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786508/-use-of-the-evalobs-%C3%A2-adherence-scale-in-an-unselected-french-population-of-treated-subjects-with-antihypertensive-hypolipemiants-or-oral-antidiabetics-medications-the-flahs-2017-adherence-survey
#6
X Girerd, O Hanon, B Vaïsse
OBJECTIVE: A Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is useful for diagnosing medication nonadherence and its validity has been evaluated using electronic pillbox as the gold standard. We have developed the EvaLobs® scale for use on paper or on smartphone and the aim of the study was to administrate the scale among FLAHS 2017 participants treated for an hypertension, a dyslipidemia or diabetes. In subjects treated with antihypertensive medications, participants completed the 6-item Girerd Scale and EvaLobs® ...
May 18, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786448/serum-rbp4-positively-correlates-with-triglyceride-level-but-not-with-bmi-fat-mass-and-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-obese-and-non-obese-individuals
#7
Emilia Korek, Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska-Maciejewska, Hanna Krauss, Małgorzata Łagiedo-Żelazowska, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Paweł Bogdański
PURPOSE: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been identified as an adipokine possibly involved in the development of impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to test serum RBP4 in healthy non-obese individuals and in patients with well-characterized phenotype: obesity without confounding effects of diabetes, metabolic syndrome or dyslipidemia. Additionally, we examined whether serum RBP4 is associated with anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance and blood lipid parameters...
May 22, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786159/gestational-dyslipidaemia-and-adverse-birthweight-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
J Wang, D Moore, A Subramanian, K K Cheng, K A Toulis, X Qiu, P Saravanan, M J Price, K Nirantharakumar
BACKGROUND: Low and high birthweight is known to increase the risk of acute and longer-term adverse outcomes, such as stillbirth, infant mortality, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Gestational dyslipidaemia is associated with a numbers of adverse birth outcomes, but evidence regarding birthweight is still inconsistent to reliably inform clinical practice and treatment recommendations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal gestational dyslipidaemia and neonatal health outcomes, namely, birthweight, metabolic factors and inflammatory parameters...
May 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786154/topical-polyhydroxy-acid-treatment-for-autosomal-recessive-congenital-ichthyosis-in-the-golden-retriever-a-prospective-pilot-study
#9
Anna Puigdemont, Nicla Furiani, Michela De Lucia, Isaac Carrasco, Laura Ordeix, Dolors Fondevila, Laura Ramió-Lluch, Pilar Brazis
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) in golden retrievers is due to a PNPLA1 gene mutation, which plays a role in epidermal lipid organization and metabolism. Topical therapies are used to reduce scaling; however, there are few published efficacy studies. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of topical treatment based on gluconolactone, a polyhydroxy acid with known beneficial effects on stratum corneum structure. ANIMALS: Sixteen golden retriever dogs with clinical signs of ARCI and PCR-confirmed PNPLA1 gene mutation...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785940/metabolic-effects-safety-and-acceptability-of-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-dietetic-scheme-on-candidates-for-bariatric-surgery
#10
Vincenzo Pilone, Salvatore Tramontano, Michele Renzulli, Mafalda Romano, Luigi Cobellis, Tiziano Berselli, Luigi Schiavo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated significant advantages from a preoperative dietetic regimen for candidates to bariatric procedure. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of safety, efficacy, and acceptability of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet in patients before bariatric surgery. SETTING: University Hospital. METHODS: A standardized 30-day sequential preoperative diet regimen has been analyzed, optimizing metabolic response with gradual carbohydrate reintroduction...
March 21, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785900/insulin-suppresses-the-ampk-signaling-pathway-to-regulate-lipid-metabolism-in-primary-cultured-hepatocytes-of-dairy-cows
#11
Xinwei Li, Yu Li, Hongyan Ding, Jihong Dong, Renhe Zhang, Dan Huang, Lin Lei, Zhe Wang, Guowen Liu, Xiaobing Li
Dairy cows with type II ketosis display hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia, but the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of lipid metabolism by insulin in cow hepatocytes. In vitro, cow hepatocytes were treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 nm insulin in the presence or absence of AICAR (an AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) activator). The results showed that insulin decreased AMPKα phosphorylation. This inactivation of AMPKα increased the gene and protein expression levels of carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785760/thyroid-function-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study-from-denmark
#12
I M Miller, G Vinding, H A Sørensen, H Rytgaard, U B Mogensen, C Ellervik, G B Jemec
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Numerous studies have associated HS with obesity, and recently with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both obesity and MetS are linked with metabolic changes. Thyroid hormones play a central role in metabolism and exert pleiotropic effects on adipogenesis and the basal metabolism of lipids and glucose. We hypothesized that patients with HS have an altered or dysfunctional metabolism expressed as thyroid function. AIM: To investigate thyroid function in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls (HCs)...
May 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785272/abdominal-obesity-in-type-1-diabetes-associated-with-gender-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-complications-and-difficulties-achieving-treatment-targets-a-cross-sectional-study-at-a-secondary-care-diabetes-clinic
#13
Eva O Melin, Hans O Thulesius, Magnus Hillman, Mona Landin-Olsson, Maria Thunander
Background: Abdominal obesity is linked to cardiovascular diseases in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The primary aim was to explore associations between abdominal obesity and cardiovascular complications, metabolic and inflammatory factors. The secondary aim was to explore whether achieved recommended treatment targets differed between the obese and non-obese participants. Methods: Cross sectional study of 284 T1D patients (age 18-59 years, men 56%), consecutively recruited from one secondary care specialist diabetes clinic in Sweden...
2018: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785038/reduced-peak-stimulated-growth-hormone-is-associated-with-hyperuricemia-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#14
Shuang Liang, Dejian Zhang, Jianhong Qi, Xiaobo Song, Jiang Xue
The purpose of the study is to investigate whether reduced peak GH response to arginine-levodopa test is associated with hyperuricemia in obese children and adolescents. The study population consisted of a total sample of 78 obese and 30 normal-weight children and adolescents without known hypopituitarism. All participants underwent clinical examination and GH stimulation testing. IGF-1, lipid profile and other metabolic markers were assessed. The obese subjects were then divided into two groups according to the serum levels of uric acid...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785010/genome-wide-analyses-identify-68-new-loci-associated-with-intraocular-pressure-and-improve-risk-prediction-for-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#15
Anthony P Khawaja, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Nicholas J Wareham, Robert A Scott, Mark Simcoe, Robert P Igo, Yeunjoo E Song, Robert Wojciechowski, Ching-Yu Cheng, Peng T Khaw, Louis R Pasquale, Jonathan L Haines, Paul J Foster, Janey L Wiggs, Chris J Hammond, Pirro G Hysi
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness globally 1 . Despite its gravity, the disease is frequently undiagnosed in the community 2 . Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)3,4 . Here we present a meta-analysis of 139,555 European participants, which identified 112 genomic loci associated with IOP, 68 of which are novel. These loci suggest a strong role for angiopoietin-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and developmental processes underlying risk for elevated IOP...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785004/a-direct-tissue-grafting-approach-to-increasing-endogenous-brown-fat
#16
Nicole R Blumenfeld, Hwan June Kang, Anna Fenzl, Ziwei Song, Janice J Chung, Ranjodh Singh, Roshawn Johnson, Ayse Karakecili, Jun B Feranil, Ninna S Rossen, Vivian Zhang, Sahir Jaggi, Bret McCarty, Steven Bessler, Gary J Schwartz, Robert Grant, Judith Korner, Florian W Kiefer, Brian M Gillette, Samuel K Sia
There is widespread evidence that increasing functional mass of brown adipose tissue (BAT) via browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) could potentially counter obesity and diabetes. However, most current approaches focus on administration of pharmacological compounds which expose patients to highly undesirable side effects. Here, we describe a simple and direct tissue-grafting approach to increase BAT mass through ex vivo browning of subcutaneous WAT, followed by re-implantation into the host; this cell-therapy approach could potentially act synergistically with existing pharmacological approaches...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784972/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-mouse-cytochrome-p450-family-responsible-for-omega-3-epoxidation-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid
#17
Yosuke Isobe, Mai Itagaki, Yuko Ito, Satoko Naoe, Kotoe Kojima, Mitsunori Ikeguchi, Makoto Arita
Metabolites generated via oxygenation of the omega-3 double bond (omega-3 oxygenation) in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have recently been identified as novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. Therefore, oxygenase(s) responsible for this metabolic pathway are of particular interest. We performed genome-wide screening of mouse cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms to explore enzymes involved in omega-3 oxygenation of EPA. As a result, 5 CYP isoforms (mouse Cyp1a2, 2c50, 4a12a, 4a12b, and 4f18) were selected and identified to confer omega-3 epoxidation of EPA to yield 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE)...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784665/srebf1-activity-is-regulated-by-an-ar-mtor-nuclear-axis-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Etienne Audet-Walsh, Mathieu Vernier, Tracey Yee, Chloe E Laflamme, Susan Li, Yonghong Chen, Vincent Giguere
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is an important feature of prostate cancer (PCa), including altered lipid metabolism. Recently, it was observed that the nuclear fraction of mTOR is essential for the androgen-mediated metabolic reprogramming of PCa cells. Herein, it is demonstrated that the androgen receptor (AR) and mTOR bind to regulatory regions of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) to control its expression, while dual activation of these signaling pathways also promotes SREBF1 cleavage and its translocation to the nucleus...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784585/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-ii-with-rnai-prevents-liver-injury-in-mouse-models-of-glycogen-storage-diseases
#19
Natalie Pursell, Jessica Gierut, Wei Zhou, Michael Dills, Rohan Diwanji, Monika Gjorgjieva, Utsav Saxena, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Anee Shah, Nandini Venkat, Rachel Storr, Boyoung Kim, Weimin Wang, Marc Abrams, Margaux Raffin, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Henryk Dudek, Bob D Brown, Chengjung Lai
Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) of the liver are devastating disorders presenting with fasting hypoglycemia as well as hepatic glycogen and lipid accumulation, which could lead to long-term liver damage. Diet control is frequently utilized to manage the potentially dangerous hypoglycemia, but there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment for preventing hepatomegaly and concurrent liver metabolic abnormalities, which could lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of glycogen synthesis using an RNAi approach to silence hepatic Gys2 expression effectively prevents glycogen synthesis, glycogen accumulation, hepatomegaly, fibrosis, and nodule development in a mouse model of GSD III...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784041/lipid-metabolism-reprogramming-and-its-potential-targets-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Chunming Cheng, Feng Geng, Xiang Cheng, Deliang Guo
Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. Increased lipid uptake, storage and lipogenesis occur in a variety of cancers and contribute to rapid tumor growth. Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SREBPs are highly up-regulated in various cancers and promote tumor growth...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
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