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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141346/-etiologic-characteristics-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-from-some-areas-of-guangdong-province-and-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-of-china-2014-2016
#1
B S Li, L J Chen, B X Ke, J M Lin, L Q Xu, H L Tan, D M He, Y H Liang, C W Ke, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigated the etiologic characteristics of Shigella (S.) sonnei strains causing outbreaks and sporadic cases in some areas of Guangdong province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during 2014-2016. Methods: Fourteen S. sonnei strains isolated from outbreaks and 6 S. sonnei strains from sporadic cases from Guangdong and Liuzhou of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were tested for antimicrobial resistance and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Six typical strains were selected for whole genome sequencing typing and compared with 51 strains isolated both at home and abroad from NCBI genome database...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138446/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-in-ceftazidime-non-susceptible-bacterial-pathogens-from-ready-to-eat-street-foods-in-three-taiwanese-cities
#2
Lin Lin, Sheng-Fan Wang, Tsung-Ying Yang, Wei-Chun Hung, Min-Yu Chan, Sung-Pin Tseng
Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) street foods is a major concern worldwide. Dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens from food is an emerging public-health threat. To investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and ceftazidime resistance-associated efflux pumps in foodborne pathogens, 270 RTE street foods samples were collected in three densely populated Taiwanese cities. Among 70 ceftazidime non-susceptible isolates, 21 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 12 Pseudomonas spp., 22 Acinetobacter spp...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136947/the-effect-of-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-on-gentamicin-nephrotoxicity-in-mice
#3
Yousuf M Al Suleimani, Aly M Abdelrahman, Turan Karaca, Priyadarsini Manoj, Mohammed Ashique, Abderrahim Nemmar, Badreldin H Ali
This study aimed at investigating the possible ameliorative effects of sitagliptin in mice with gentamicin (GEN) nephrotoxicity. Sitagliptin was given to the animals at an oral dose of 10mgkg(-1) per day for 10days, and in some of these mice, GEN was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 100mgkg(-1) per day during the last seven days of the treatment. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated histopathologically by light microscopy and biochemically by measuring several indices in plasma, urine and renal cortex homogenates...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136156/increase-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-emergence-of-major-international-high-risk-clonal-lineages-in-dogs-and-cats-with-urinary-tract-infection-16-year-retrospective-study
#4
Cátia Marques, Adriana Belas, Andreia Franco, Catarina Aboim, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To evaluate temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance, over 16 years, in bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and the clonal lineages of bacteria harbouring critical antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted for 948 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI (1999-2014). Resistance mechanisms were detected by PCR, namely ESBL/AmpC in third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, mecA in methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and aac(6')-Ieaph(2″)-Ia and aph(2″)-1d in high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133559/mutations-in-gene-fusa1-as-a-novel-mechanism-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-clinical-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Arnaud Bolard, Patrick Plesiat, Katy Jeannot
Resistance of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to aminoglycosides can result from production of transferable aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, of 16S rRNA methylases, and/or mutational derepression of intrinsic multidrug efflux pump MexXY(OprM). The present study reports on characterization of a new type of mutants 4- to 8-fold more resistant to 2-deoxystreptamine derivatives (e.g., gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin), as compared with wild-type strain PAO1. The genetic alterations of three in vitro mutants were mapped on fusA1, and found to result in single amino acid substitutions in domains II, III and V of elongation factor G (EF-G1A), a key component of translational machinery...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132547/distribution-of-genes-encoding-resistance-to-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-strains
#6
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Atefeh Jenabi, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
Today Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have acquired multiple resistance to a wide range of antibiotics including aminoglycosides. So, this study was aimed to investigate the rate of aminoglycoside resistance and the frequency of aminoglycoside resistance mediated genes of aac(Ia)-2, aph(3)-IIIa and ant(4')-Ia among MRSA strains. A total of 467 staphylococci isolates were collected from various clinical samples. S. aureus strains were identified by standard culture and identification criteria and investigating of presence of 16S rRNA and nuc genes...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128692/coast-cisplatin-ototoxicity-attenuated-by-aspirin-trial-a-phase-ii-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-to-establish-if-aspirin-reduces-cisplatin-induced-hearing-loss
#7
Simon J Crabb, Karen Martin, Julia Abab, Ian Ratcliffe, Roger Thornton, Ben Lineton, Mary Ellis, Ronald Moody, Louise Stanton, Angeliki Galanopoulou, Tom Maishman, Thomas Geldart, Mike Bayne, Joe Davies, Carolynn Lamb, Sanjay Popat, Johnathan K Joffe, Chris Nutting, John Chester, Andrew Hartley, Gareth Thomas, Christian Ottensmeier, Robert Huddart, Emma King
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is one of the most ototoxic chemotherapy drugs, resulting in a permanent and irreversible hearing loss in up to 50% of patients. Cisplatin and gentamicin are thought to damage hearing through a common mechanism, involving reactive oxygen species in the inner ear. Aspirin has been shown to minimise gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that aspirin could also reduce ototoxicity from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 94 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for multiple cancer types were recruited into a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive aspirin 975 mg tid and omeprazole 20 mg od, or matched placebos from the day before, to 2 days after, their cisplatin dose(s), for each treatment cycle...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126144/multi-scale-mathematical-model-of-drug-induced-proximal-tubule-injury-linking-urinary-biomarkers-to-epithelial-cell-injury-and-renal-dysfunction
#8
Yeshitila Gebremichael, James Lu, Harish Shankaran, Gabriel Helmlinger, Jerome Mettetal, K Melissa Hallow
Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and thus detecting the potential for nephrotoxicity early in the drug development process is critical. Various urinary biomarkers exhibit different patterns following drug-induced injury that may provide greater information than traditional biomarkers like serum creatinine. In this study, we developed a multi-scale quantitative systems pharmacology model relating drug exposure to proximal tubule (PT) epithelial cell injury, and subsequently to expression of multiple urinary biomarkers and organ-level functional changes...
November 6, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124501/quality-and-clinical-outcomes-associated-with-a-gentamicin-use-system-change-for-managing-chorioamnionitis
#9
Jason B Sauberan, Brittney Choi, Alexander R Paradyse, Jennifer Le
Chorioamnionitis is an intra-amniotic infection with serious maternal and neonatal complications. Clinical studies suggest antibiotic administration before delivery reduces the risk of complications compared to after delivery. Our center implemented a standardized intrapartum gentamicin computerized provider order entry and dosage form dispensing system intended to improve treatment initiation efficiency in hospitalized obstetric patients. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to determine if these system changes were associated with decreased time from gentamicin ordering to administration in patients with chorioamnionitis...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120716/cost-comparison-of-commonly-used%C3%A2-postoperative-topical-ophthalmic%C3%A2-antibiotics
#10
Eric L Crowell, Vivek A Koduri, R Scott Groat, David A Lee
PURPOSE: To provide information on the actual fill level and cost of currently available antibiotic drops used perioperatively. DESIGN: Prospective laboratory investigation. SETTING: Robert Cizik Eye Clinic, Houston, Texas USA. METHODS: The following 9 medications were tested: moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin (branded and generic), besifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, trimethoprim/polymyxin B, tobramycin, and gentamicin...
October 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114207/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-are-protective-in-acute-but-not-in-chronic-models-of-ototoxicity
#11
Chao-Hui Yang, Zhiqi Liu, Deanna Dong, Jochen Schacht, Dev Arya, Su-Hua Sha
Previous studies have reported that modification of histones alters aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. In this study, we investigated three FDA-approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (vorinostat/SAHA, belinostat, and panobinostat) as protectants against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity in murine cochlear explants and in vivo in both guinea pigs and CBA/J mice. Individually, all three HDAC inhibitors reduced gentamicin (GM)-induced hair cell loss in a dose-dependent fashion in explants...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112974/impact-of-extensive-antibiotic-treatment-on-faecal-carriage-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteria-in-children-in-a-low-resistance-prevalence-setting
#12
Per Kristian Knudsen, Petter Brandtzaeg, E Arne Høiby, Jon Bohlin, Ørjan Samuelsen, Martin Steinbakk, Tore G Abrahamsen, Fredrik Müller, Karianne Wiger Gammelsrud
We prospectively studied the consequences of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in a cohort of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and a cohort of children with cancer compared to healthy children with no or low antibiotic exposure. The study was conducted in Norway in a low resistance prevalence setting. Sixty longitudinally collected faecal samples from children with CF (n = 32), 88 samples from children with cancer (n = 45) and 127 samples from healthy children (n = 70) were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112840/antibiotics-and-common-antibacterial-biocides-stimulate-horizontal-transfer-of-resistance-at-low-concentrations
#13
J Jutkina, N P Marathe, C-F Flach, D G J Larsson
There is a rising concern that antibiotics, and possibly other antimicrobial agents, can promote horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. For most types of antimicrobials their ability to induce conjugation below minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is still unknown. Our aim was therefore to explore the potential of commonly used antibiotics and antibacterial biocides to induce horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Effects of a wide range of sub-MIC concentrations of the antibiotics cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the antibacterial biocides chlorhexidine digluconate, hexadecyltrimethylammoniumchloride and triclosan were investigated using a previously optimized culture-based assay with a complex bacterial community as a donor of mobile resistance elements and a traceable Escherichia coli strain as a recipient...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#14
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109167/cloning-and-expression-of-novel-aminoglycoside-phosphotransferase-genes-from-campylobacter-and-their-role-in-the-resistance-to-six-aminoglycosides
#15
S Zhao, S Mukherjee, C Li, S B Jones, S Young, P F McDermott
Nine aph genes, including aph(2″)-Ib, Ic, Ig, If, If1, If3, Ih, aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia, and aac(6')-Ie/aph(2″)-If2 were previously identified in Campylobacter. To measure the contribution of these alleles to aminoglycoside resistance, we cloned nine genes into the pBluescript and expressed them in E. coli DH5α. The nine aph expressed in E.coli showed varying levels of resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and tobramycin. Three genes, aac(6″)-Ie/aph(2″)-Ia, aph2″-If1 and aph2″-Ig showed increased MICs to amikacin and five aph genes were transferrable...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109011/a-temperature-sensitive-replicon-enables-efficient-gene-inactivation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Ramadevi Prathapam, Tsuyoshi Uehara
Tools to enable genome editing are essential for understanding physiology. Here we report a gene replacement method in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a temperature-sensitive replicon plasmid that does not require mating or isolation of a merodiploid intermediate. This approach was validated by replacing the non-essential ampD gene with a gentamicin resistance cassette. In addition lpxA and lpxD, both located in a complex gene cluster including multiple downstream essential genes, were inactivated when complemented by each target gene in trans...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107747/vanillin-selectively-modulates-the-action-of-antibiotics-against-resistant-bacteria
#17
Camila Fonseca Bezerra, Cicera Janaine Camilo, Maria Karollyna do Nascimento Silva, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
The treatment of infections caused by microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics represent one of the main challenges of medicine today, especially due to the inefficacy of long-term drug therapy. In the search for new alternatives to treat these infections, many researchers have been looking for new substances derived from natural products to replace, or be used in combination with conventional antibiotics. Vanillin is a phenolic compound whose antimicrobial activity has been used in the elimination of pathogens present in fruits and vegetables...
October 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107607/emergence-and-mechanism-of-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-henan-china-2014
#18
Wen-Juan Liang, Hui-Ying Liu, Guang-Cai Duan, Yong-Xin Zhao, Shuai-Yin Chen, Hai-Yan Yang, Yuan-Lin Xi
The emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains is a main risk for global public health, but little is known of carbapenemase producing E. coli in Henan, China. The study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and mechanism of carbapenem-resistant E. coli strains in a hospital in Xinxiang, Henan, China, 2014. A total of 5 carbapenemase-producing E. coli strains were screened from 1014 isolates. We found that they were all resistant to meropenem and imipenem. Amikacin showed the best sensitivity, with gentamicin coming up next...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106929/gentamicin-induced-readthrough-and-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-of-serpinb7-nonsense-mutant-transcripts
#19
Yuka Ohguchi, Toshifumi Nomura, Shotaro Suzuki, Masae Takeda, Toshinari Miyauchi, Osamu Mizuno, Satoru Shinkuma, Yasuyuki Fujita, Osamu Nemoto, Kota Ono, W H Irwin McLean, Hiroshi Shimizu
Nagashima-type palmoplantar keratosis (NPPK) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder with a high, unmet medical need that is caused by mutations in SERPINB7. Almost all NPPK patients carry the founder nonsense mutation c.796C>T (p.Arg266Ter) in the last exon of SERPINB7. Here we sought to determine whether topical "nonsense-suppression (readthrough)" therapy using gentamicin is applicable to NPPK. First, we demonstrated that gentamicin enhanced readthrough activity in cells transfected with SERPINB7 cDNA carrying the mutation and promoted full-length SERPINB7 protein synthesis in NPPK keratinocytes...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105116/a-mitochondrial-targeting-tetrapeptide-bendavia-protects-lateral-line-hair-cells-from-gentamicin-exposure
#20
Xiao Kuang, Yanhui Sun, Zhenjie Wang, Shuang Zhou, Hongzhuo Liu
The hearing loss induced by aminoglycosides is caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. The aim of the present study is therefore to evaluate the protective effect of Bendavia, a novel antioxidant, on gentamicin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish lateral lines. The results demonstrated the pretreatment of Bendavia exhibited dose-dependent protection against gentamicin in both acute and chronic exposure. We found that Bendavia at 150 μm conferred optimal protection from either acute or chronic exposure with ototoxin...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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