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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333961/phytochemical-investigation-of-aloe-pulcherrima-roots-and-evaluation-for-its-antibacterial-and-antiplasmodial-activities
#1
Dele Abdissa, Girma Geleta, Ketema Bacha, Negera Abdissa
Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses remain an important source for the treatment of a wide range of ailments. Evidence shows that majority of the Ethiopian population are still dependent on traditional medicine. Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe is one of the endemic Aloe species traditionally used for the treatment of malaria and wound healing in central, Southern and Northern part of Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to isolate active compounds from roots of A. pulcherrima and evaluate for their antibacterial and antiplasmodial activities using standard test strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#2
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333393/laser-generated-shockwaves-enhance-antibacterial-activity-against-biofilms-in-vitro
#3
William Yao, Edward C Kuan, Nathan C Francis, Maie A St John, Warren S Grundfest, Zachary D Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacterial biofilm formation within chronic wound beds, which provides an effective barrier against antibiotics, is a known cause of recalcitrant infections and a significant healthcare burden, often requiring repeated surgical debridements. Laser-generated shockwaves (LGS) is a novel, minimally invasive, and nonthermal modality for biofilm mechanical debridement which utilizes compressive stress waves, generated by photonic absorption in thin titanium films to mechanically disrupt the biofilm...
March 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333351/ecological-impact-of-ciprofloxacin-on-commensal-enterococci-in-healthy-volunteers
#4
Victoire de Lastours, Elena Maugy, Vincent Mathy, Françoise Chau, Benjamin Rossi, François Guérin, Vincent Cattoir, Bruno Fantin
Background: The ecological impact of ciprofloxacin on commensal enterococci is unknown. Methods: Forty-eight healthy volunteers received ciprofloxacin from day (D) 0 to D14; stools were collected on D7, D14 and D42. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant enterococci (FQ-SE and FQ-RE) were detected and quantified by culture, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The relative abundance of FQ-RE over FQ-SE was determined. The genetic basis of fluoroquinolone resistance was deciphered by partial sequencing of gyrA and parC genes...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333312/establishment-maintenance-and-functional-integrity-of-the-blood-testis-barrier-in-organotypic-cultures-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-prepubertal-mouse-testes
#5
C Rondanino, A Maouche, L Dumont, A Oblette, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333283/rch51-a-multiply-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-st103ip-isolate-carries-resistance-genes-in-three-plasmids-including-a-novel-potentially-conjugative-plasmid-carrying-oxa235-in-transposon-tn6252
#6
Mohammad Hamidian, Steven J Nigro, Rebecca M Hartstein, Ruth M Hall
Objectives: To determine the identity and context of genes conferring antibiotic resistance in a sporadic multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii recovered at Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane. Methods: The antibiotic resistance phenotype for 23 antibiotics was determined using disc diffusion or MIC determination. The whole-genome sequence of RCH51 was determined using the Illumina HiSeq platform. Antibiotic resistance determinants were identified using ResFinder...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332931/unitary-ototoxic-gentamicin-exposure-may-not-disrupt-the-function-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-in-mice
#7
Ning Zhao, XuHui Tai, LiJie Zhai, Lin Shi, DaiShi Chen, Bo Yang, Fei Ji, Kun Hou, ShiMing Yang, ShuSheng Gong, Ke Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous study showed that mild ototoxic exposure could induce a reversible hearing impairment, and the loss and secondary incomplete recovery of cochlear ribbon synapses could be responsible for the hearing loss. However, it remains unclear whether cochlear outer hair cells' (OHCs) functions are affected. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the function of OHCs are also affected significantly after the ototoxic exposure. METHODS: Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg concentration of gentamicin daily for 14 days...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332345/high-incidence-of-virulence-factors-among-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-southwestern-iran
#8
Hamid Heidari, Somayeh Hasanpour, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Mohammad Motamedifar
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, enterococci have emerged as an important agent responsible for hospital acquired infection. Several virulence factors contribute to the adherence, colonization, evasion of the host immune response, and pathogenicity and severity of the infection. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common and virulent species causing infections in hospitalized patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E...
March 13, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#9
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330494/pseudomonas-oryzihabitans-sepsis-in-a-1-year-old-child-with-multiple-skin-rashes-a-case-report
#10
Michael Owusu, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Godfred Acheampong, Isaac Osei, John Amuasi, Nimako Sarpong, Augustina Annan, Hsin-Ying Chiang, Chih-Horng Kuo, Se Eun Park, Florian Marks, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas oryzihabitans is a Pseudomonas bacterial organism rarely implicated in human infections. The bacterium has been isolated in a few reported cases of neurosurgical infections and patients with end-stage cirrhosis, sickle cell disease, and community-acquired urinary tract infections. Limited information exists in developing countries, however, because of the lack of advanced microbiological tools for identification and characterization of this bacterium. This case report describes the isolation of a rare Pseudomonas bacterium in a patient presenting with sepsis and skin infection...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329088/short-course-adjunctive-gentamicin-as-empirical-therapy-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#11
David S Y Ong, Jos F Frencken, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, Nicole Juffermans, Tom van der Poll, Marc Bonten, Olaf Cremer
Background.: Meta-analyses failed to demonstrate clinical benefits of beta lactam plus aminoglycoside combination therapy, compared to beta lactam monotherapy, in patients with sepsis. However, few data exist on the effects of short-course adjunctive aminoglycoside therapy in sepsis patients with organ failure or shock. Methods.: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in two intensive care units in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2015...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328967/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacter-spp-isolates-from-companion-animals-in-japan
#12
Kazuki Harada, Takae Shimizu, Yujiro Mukai, Ken Kuwajima, Tomomi Sato, Akari Kajino, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Yui Kimura, Tadashi Miyamoto, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Asami Ohki, Yasushi Kataoka
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323095/megalin-targeted-enhanced-transfection-efficiency-in-cultured-human-hk-2-renal-tubular-proximal-cells-using-aminoglycoside-carboxyalkyl-polyethylenimine-containing-nanoplexes
#13
Fatemeh Oroojalian, Ali Hossein Rezayan, Wayne Thomas Shier, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Ramezani
Non-viral vectors are of interest as therapeutic gene delivery agents in gene therapy, because they are simple to prepare, easy to modify and have definable safety profiles compared to viral vectors. The potential of gene therapy in the treatment of renal diseases is limited by a lack of effective kidney-targeted gene delivery systems. Aminoglycoside antibiotics gentamicin and neomycin were connected by amide linkages to carboxyl groups on carboxyalkylated-PEI25 (25kDa PEI) or carboxyalkylated-PEI10 (10kDa PEI)...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322207/first-report-of-rahnella-aquatilis-infection-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-in-china
#14
Ai-Jun Lü, Rui-Xia Wang, Xiu-Cai Hu, Jing-Feng Sun, Li Li, Chao Pei, Chao Zhang, Guo-Xing Nie
Rahnella aquatilis infection is rare in aquaculture. Here, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased crucian carp Carassius auratus in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. The isolate was tentatively named strain KCL-5, and subsequently identified as R. aquatilis by biochemical properties and molecular techniques. The results showed that the isolate KCL-5 was most closely related to the type strain ATCC33071 (= DSM4594) of R. aquatilis, which shared 99.67, 96.26 and 99.58% nucleotide sequence identities for 16S rDNA, gyrB and toxin yhaV genes, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321533/perioperative-antibiotic-use-in-vagus-nerve-stimulator-implantation-a-clinical-series
#15
Jeffrey S Raskin, Daniel Hansen, Arvind Mohan, I-Wen Pan, Daniel J Curry, Sandi Lam
PURPOSE: Preoperative antibiosis contributes up to one third of total antibiotic use in major hospitals. Choice of antibiotic is not uniformly standardized, and polypharmacy regimens may be used without knowing the effect on rates of surgical site infection, nonsurgical infections, or antibiotic resistance. Careful examination of trends in surgical prophylaxis is warranted. In this study, we aimed to examine our institution's experience with vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation, focusing on association between perioperative antibiotic practices and postoperative infectious outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321212/microbiological-characteristics-and-clinical-features-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-infections-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#16
Ruobing Wang, Xuebin Li, Qi Wang, Yawei Zhang, Hui Wang
The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of symptomatic CIED infections are not well described. The present study included patients with CIED infections in China, and their pocket tissues were collected for clinical microbiological determination. A total of 219 patients with CIED infections were investigated; of these patients, 145 (66.2%) were positive for CIED infection in pocket tissue cultures and 24 (11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320712/efficacy-of-telavancin-alone-and-in-combination-with-ampicillin-in-a-rat-model-of-enterococcus-faecalis-endocarditis
#17
Truc T Tran, Vincent H Tam, Barbara E Murray, Cesar A Arias, Kavindra V Singh
We first assessed telavancin (TLV) pharmacokinetics after a single subcutaneous dose of 35 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic data were used to predict a TLV dose that simulates human exposure and the efficacy of TLV was then evaluated using TLV 21 mg/kg Q 12 h against Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF (TLV MIC of 0.06 μg/ml) in a rat endocarditis model with an indwelling catheter. Therapy was given for 3 days with TLV, daptomycin (DAP) or ampicillin (AMP) monotherapy and with combinations of TLV plus AMP, AMP plus gentamicin (GEN), and AMP plus ceftriaxone (CRO); rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316009/safety-assessment-of-commensal-enterococci-from-dogs
#18
Ivana Kubašová, Viola Strompfová, Andrea Lauková
Enterococci form a complex, diverse, and very important group of bacteria from the technological and food safety aspect, or from the health-improving aspect as probiotics. Generally, enterococci are considered to be of low pathogenic potential, which is associated mostly with clinical strains. In these strains, production of virulence factors as well as resistance to many antimicrobial drugs could complicate treatment of nosocomial infections. Because there is a lack of information on incidence of these attributes in animal commensal enterococci, we screened 160 strains originating from feces of clinically healthy dogs in Eastern Slovakia (n = 105)...
March 18, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306602/cure-rate-of-fungal-keratitis-with-antibacterial-therapy
#19
Alice Y Matoba, Ryan Barrett, Anna E Lehmann
PURPOSE: To study the cure rate of fungal keratitis with moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis who initially received moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy was performed. RESULTS: Eleven patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis were initially treated with moxifloxacin. One case each of Curvularia and Alternaria keratitis resolved with moxifloxacin monotherapy (18%). CONCLUSIONS: Moxifloxacin may have a significant clinical therapeutic effect in a subset of patients with fungal keratitis...
March 16, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304328/bactericidal-effect-of-pterostilbene-alone-and-in-combination-with-gentamicin-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#20
Wee Xian Lee, Dayang Fredalina Basri, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali
The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index < 0...
March 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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