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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626435/reproducibility-in-psychological-science-when-do-psychological-phenomena-exist
#1
Seppo E Iso-Ahola
Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611920/quality-of-life-in-patients-with-established-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-phenomenographic-study
#2
Karina Malm, Stefan Bergman, Maria LE Andersson, Ann Bremander, Ingrid Larsson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis perceive reduced quality of life in several domains, such as physical health, level of independence, environment and personal beliefs, compared with the healthy population. There is an increasing interest in quality of life in clinical and medical interventions. Few studies have explored patients' individual conceptions of quality of life, and interviews can thus complement quantitative studies. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the patients' experiences of quality of life, with regard to living with a long-term condition such as rheumatoid arthritis...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590766/examining-burnout-depression-and-self-compassion-in-veterans-affairs-mental-health-staff
#3
David M Atkinson, John L Rodman, Paul D Thuras, Paulo R Shiroma, Kelvin O Lim
OBJECTIVES: Burnout, a state of emotional exhaustion associated with negative personal and occupational outcomes, is prevalent among healthcare providers. A better understanding of the psychological factors that may be associated with resilience to burnout is essential to develop effective interventions. Self-compassion, which includes kindness toward oneself, recognition of suffering as part of shared human experience, mindfulness, and nonjudgment toward inadequacies and failures, may be one such factor...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545945/mindfulness-and-acceptance-based-interventions-for-psychosis-our-current-understanding-and-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie Louise, Molly Fitzpatrick, Clara Strauss, Susan L Rossell, Neil Thomas
In promoting optimal recovery in persons with psychosis, psychological interventions have become a key element of treatment, with cognitive behavioural therapy being widely recommended in clinical practice guidelines. One key area of development has been the trialling of "third wave" cognitive behavioural interventions, which promote mindfulness, acceptance and compassion as means of change. Trials to date have demonstrated encouraging findings, with beneficial effects observed on measures of psychotic symptoms...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545578/the-effect-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-in-cognitive-functions-and-psychological-well-being-applied-as-an-early-intervention-in-schizophrenia-and-high-risk-mental-state-in-a-chilean-sample-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Álvaro I Langer, Carlos Schmidt, Rocío Mayol, Marcela Díaz, Javiera Lecaros, Edwin Krogh, Aída Pardow, Carolina Vergara, Guillermo Vergara, Bernardita Pérez-Herrera, María José Villar, Alejandro Maturana, Pablo A Gaspar
BACKGROUND: According to the projections of the World Health Organization, 15% of all disabilities will be associated with mental illnesses by 2020. One of the mental disorders with the largest social impacts due to high personal and family costs is psychosis. Among the most effective psychological approaches to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders at the world level is cognitive behavioral therapy. Recently, cognitive behavioral therapy has introduced several tools and strategies that promote psychological processes based on acceptance and mindfulness...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529236/-all-in-the-day-s-work-cold-war-doctoring-and-its-discontents-in-william-burroughs-s-i-naked-lunch-i
#6
Michael Jarvis
In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self...
2017: Literature and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515800/dimensions-of-mindfulness-and-their-relations-with-psychological-well-being-and-neuroticism
#7
Luca Iani, Marco Lauriola, Valentina Cafaro, Fabrizio Didonna
In this study we examined whether differences in the habitual use of mindfulness skills were associated with specific well-being and neuroticism aspects. Two hundred eleven volunteers aged 21-84 years completed measures of mindfulness, neuroticism, psychological well-being (PWB), and subjective well-being (SWB). Describing, observing, and acting with awareness (i.e., the mindfulness "what" skills) were positively correlated with personal growth, purpose in life, and autonomy (i.e., the "core" eudaimonic components of PWB)...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507497/sense-of-coherence-as-a-protective-factor-in-chronic-urticaria
#8
Alicja Ograczyk, Joanna Miniszewska, Anna Pietrzak, Anna Zalewska-Janowska
INTRODUCTION: Chronic urticaria (CU) seems to be perceived as a psychodermatological disorder. Different psychological factors play an important role in CU triggering and course. One of them is a sense of coherence (SOC), which is believed to be a protective factor against anxiety and depression. AIM: To investigate quality of life (QoL) in CU patients and to compare selected psychological parameters (anxiety, depression and sense of coherence) between CU individuals and the control group...
April 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496356/evaluation-of-a-specialized-yoga-program-for-persons-with-a-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Kathryn Curtis, Sander L Hitzig, Gitte Bechsgaard, Candice Stoliker, Charlene Alton, Nicole Saunders, Nicole Leong, Joel Katz
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a specialized yoga program for individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) on pain, psychological, and mindfulness variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants with SCI (n=23) were outpatients or community members affiliated with a rehabilitation hospital. Participants were randomized to an Iyengar yoga (IY; n=11) group or to a 6-week wait-list control (WLC; n=12) group...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481618/the-experience-of-secrecy
#10
Michael L Slepian, Jinseok S Chun, Malia F Mason
The concept of secrecy calls to mind a dyadic interaction: one person hiding a secret from another during a conversation or social interaction. The current work, however, demonstrates that this aspect of secrecy is rather rare. Taking a broader view of secrecy as the intent to conceal information, which only sometimes necessitates concealment, yields a new psychology of secrecy. Ten studies demonstrate the secrets people have, what it is like to have a secret, and what about secrecy is related to lower well-being...
July 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461433/living-both-well-and-sustainably-a-review-of-the-literature-with-some-reflections-on-future-research-interventions-and-policy
#11
REVIEW
Tim Kasser
The idea that human well-being (WB) can be supported and even enhanced by using, producing, buying, selling and consuming less 'stuff' is anathema to many living under consumer capitalism. Yet a growing research literature actually finds that frequent engagement in pro-ecological behaviours (PEBs) is positively correlated with personal WB. This paper reviews data relevant to three possible explanations for the apparent compatibility of PEBs and WB: (i) engaging in PEBs leads to psychological need satisfaction, which in turn causes WB; (ii) being in a good mood causes people to engage in more prosocial behaviours, including PEBs; and (iii) personal characteristics and lifestyles such as intrinsic values, mindfulness and voluntary simplicity cause both PEBs and WB...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458125/a-systematic-mixed-methods-review-of-interventions-outcomes-and-experiences-for-midwives-and-student-midwives-in-work-related-psychological-distress
#12
Sally Pezaro, Wendy Clyne, Emily A Fulton
BACKGROUND: within challenging work environments, midwives and student midwives can experience both organisational and occupational sources of work-related psychological distress. As the wellbeing of healthcare staff directly correlates with the quality of maternity care, this distress must be met with adequate support provision. As such, the identification and appraisal of interventions designed to support midwives and student midwives in work-related psychological distress will be important in the pursuit of excellence in maternity care...
April 13, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454522/from-the-neurobiological-basis-of-comorbid-alcohol-dependence-and-depression-to-psychological-treatment-strategies-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Alena Becker, Anna M Ehret, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder and depression occur commonly in the community. Even though this high-prevalence comorbidity is associated with poorer posttreatment outcomes and greater utilization of costly treatment services, existing treatment trials often exclude patients with comorbid depressive and alcohol use disorders. Past research suggests that symptoms such as craving and anhedonia might be associated with alterations within the reward circuit, while emotion regulation deficits are related to disruptions within the default mode network...
April 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443523/do-non-reflective-thinkers-apply-extreme-personal-meanings-to-their-activated-moods
#14
Alyson L Dodd, Matthew Haigh
BACKGROUND: The integrative cognitive model of mood swings proposes that mood symptoms are driven by extreme, self-referent appraisals. For example, if activated mood is appraised positively, this prompts selection of mood regulation strategies that act to up-regulate mood. Appraisals are driven by fast and automatic Type 1 cognitive processes, which, left unchecked, can cause activated mood to escalate. AIMS: It was hypothesized that greater propensity to override these automatic processes by engaging in reflective (Type 2) thinking would be negatively associated with extreme appraisals of activation and activation...
April 26, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438729/gathering-opinions-on-depression-information-needs-and-preferences-samples-and-opinions-in-clinic-versus-web-based-surveys
#15
Matthew T Bernstein, John R Walker, Kathryn A Sexton, Alan Katz, Brooke E Beatie
BACKGROUND: There has been limited research on the information needs and preferences of the public concerning treatment for depression. Very little research is available comparing samples and opinions when recruitment for surveys is done over the Web as opposed to a personal invitation to complete a paper survey. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) to explore information needs and preferences among members of the public and (2) compare Clinic and Web samples on sample characteristics and survey findings...
April 24, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434241/-facilitating-role-of-traumatic-experiences-in-art
#16
József Gerevich
Traumatic experiences can not only have unfavourable consequences, they can also contribute, with a kind of creative twist, to the development of the person affected by the trauma. The artistic responses to traumas can be examined on the basis of the different types of trauma. This study reports on an investigation focusing on six types of trauma: emotional deprivation/neglect; near-death experience; becoming the victim of violence; war; accident/sickness and emotional frustration. Examples taken from the history of art indicate that works of art can draw attention to the traumatic experiences of the artists with frequently repeated motifs and portrayal techniques (sun, mother image, objects referring to the person lost, motifs of violence or symbols of violence, artistic manifestations of an exaggerated self-image, surreal visions, dry irony, substituting other objects for the beloved person), or a sudden change of style and subject that can express a heightened interest in human suffering (Lovis Corinth)...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405338/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-2-borderline-personality-disorder-epistemic-trust-and-the-developmental-significance-of-social-communication
#17
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
In Part 1 of this paper, we discussed emerging evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or 'p' factor underlying the various forms of psychopathology should be conceptualized in terms of the absence of resilience, that is, the absence of positive reappraisal mechanisms when faced with adversity. These impairments in the capacity for positive reappraisal seem to provide a comprehensive explanation for the association between the p factor and comorbidity, future caseness, and the 'hard-to-reach' character of many patients with severe personality pathology, most notably borderline personality disorder (BPD)...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385036/ethnic-inequalities-in-doctor-patient-communication-regarding-personal-care-plans-the-mediating-effects-of-positive-mental-wellbeing
#18
Kanayo F Umeh
OBJECTIVE: There is limited understanding of ethnic inequalities in doctor-patient communication regarding personal care plans (PCPs). This study investigated the mediating effects of positive mental wellbeing on differences in PCP-related doctor-patient communication amongst South Asian and Caucasian UK residents. DESIGN: Data from 10,980 respondents to the 2013 Health Survey for England was analysed using bootstrapping methods. Constructs from the WEMWBS (Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale) (Stewart-Brown, S...
April 6, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384006/the-effect-of-a-mind-body-intervention-on-mental-health-and-coping-self-efficacy-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-feasibility-study
#19
Lotte Oerneborg Rodkjaer, Tinne Laursen, Kirsten Seeberg, Marc Drouin, Heinrich Johansen, Charlotte Dyrehave, Bo Langhoff Hønge, Lars Ostergaard
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a stressful disease, and depression is the most common form of psychologic distress experienced by those infected. The aim of this study was to further develop and validate a mind-body intervention to improve coping self-efficacy strategies and increase mental health. DESIGN: Feasibility study, a randomized trial. Participants were assigned into two blocks (female/male) and simple randomization in a 1:1 ratio was performed within each block to one of two arms (1) intervention group, (2) control group who received usual care...
May 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346113/wisdom-in-context
#20
Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and psychological scientists have converged on the idea that wisdom involves certain aspects of thinking (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change), enabling application of knowledge to life challenges. Empirical evidence indicates that people's ability to think wisely varies dramatically across experiential contexts that they encounter over the life span. Moreover, wise thinking varies from one situation to another, with self-focused contexts inhibiting wise thinking...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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