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Psychology mindfulness personality

Nirbhay N Singh, Giulio E Lancioni, Bryan T Karazsia, Jeffrey Chan, Alan S W Winton
Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Training-as-Usual (TAU) for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Eva Fassbinder, Ulrich Schweiger, Desiree Martius, Odette Brand-de Wilde, Arnoud Arntz
Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Maria Grazia Spurio
For a long time, terms like "mind" and "emotion" have rarely been taken into account, not even mentioned in the medical texts. The latest scientific researches, including the studies of Candace Pert, on the contrary, have emphasized that the entire body thinks, because every single cell hears, and feels emotions. The international researcher has discovered the endocrines and a vast number of neuropeptides, that work as an "information network" that interconnects the entire body, the "psychic" molecules are transmitted and travel, communicating information as in a circular and recursive body - mind mechanism...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Nam-Gyu Ryu, Jin Kim
Unexpected iatrogenic facial nerve paralysis not only affects facial disfiguration, but also imposes a devastating effect on the social, psychological, and economic aspects of an affected person's life at once. The aims of this study were to postulate where surgeons had mistakenly drilled or where obscured by granulations or by fibrous bands and to look for surgical approach with focused on the safety of facial nerve in mastoid surgery. We had found 14 cases of iatrogenic facial nerve injury (IFNI) during mastoid surgery for 5 years in Korea...
September 2016: Journal of Audiology & Otology
Courtney L Ball, Judith G Smetana, Melissa L Sturge-Apple
Associations among hypothetical, prototypic moral, and conventional judgments; theory of mind (ToM); empathy; and personal distress were examined in 108 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (Mage  = 42.94 months, SD = 1.42). Repeated measures analysis of covariance with empathy, false beliefs, and their interaction as covariates indicated that empathy was significantly associated with judgments of greater moral but not conventional transgression severity, particularly for psychological harm, and with deserved punishment for unfairness...
August 25, 2016: Child Development
Taryn Jade Lores, Miriam Henke, Anna Chur-Hansen
Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention...
2016: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
Douglas D Murdoch
Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Declan Aherne, Katie Farrant, Louise Hickey, Emma Hickey, Lisa McGrath, Deirdre McGrath
BACKGROUND: Medical practitioners and students are at increased risk of a number of personal and psychological problems. Stress and anxiety due to work-load and study requirements are common and self-care methods are important in maintaining well-being. The current study examines perceptions of and satisfaction ratings with a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for 1(st) year (compulsory) and 2(nd) year (optional) Graduate Entry Medical School students. METHODS: A mixed method pre and post study of Year 1 (n = 140) and Year 2 (n = 88) medical students completing a 7 week MBSR course compared student satisfaction ratings...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Eve-Marie C Blouin-Hudon, John M Zelenski
In the present research, we looked at how positive-constructive daydreaming, guilty-dysphoric daydreaming, and poor attentional control associate with both broad (i.e., openness to experience) and specific (i.e., introspection) personality traits. A second aim was to determine how daydreaming styles were associated with psychological well-being. Across four studies, 1081 undergraduate (studies 1, 2, and 4) and MTurk (study 3) participants completed online questionnaires. A fixed-effect meta-analysis revealed that introspection was a significant predictor of both positive and negative daydreaming styles, but not a consistent predictor of poor attentional control...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Carlos S Alvarado
The study of mediumship received much impetus from the work of psychical researchers. This included ideas about the phenomena of personation, or changes in attitudes, dispositions and behaviours shown by some mediums that supposedly indicated discarnate action. The aim of this Classic Text is to reprint passages about this topic from the writings of French psychical researcher Joseph Maxwell (1858-1938), which were part of the contributions of some psychical researchers to reconceptualize the manifestations in psychological terms...
September 2016: History of Psychiatry
Seung-Ho Jang, Seung-Yeon Kang, Hye-Jin Lee, Sang-Yeol Lee
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) induces emotional relaxation in cancer patients and is a treatment known to improve psychological stability. The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment effects of MBAT for breast cancer patients. METHODS: Overall, 24 breast cancer patients were selected as subjects of the study. Two groups, the MBAT group and control group with 12 patients each, were randomly assigned. The patients in the MBAT group were given 12 sessions of treatments...
September 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Irene Lasorsa, Pierluigi D Antrassi, Miloš Ajčević, Kira Stellato, Andrea Di Lenarda, Sara Marceglia, Agostino Accardo
OBJECTIVE: Solutions for improving management of chronic conditions are under the attention of healthcare systems, due to the increasing prevalence caused by demographic change and better survival, and the relevant impact on healthcare expenditures. The objective of this study was to propose a comprehensive architecture of a mHealth system aimed at boosting the active and informed participation of patients in their care process, while at the same time overcoming the current technical and psychological/clinical issues highlighted by the existing literature...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Jasmine Heath Hearn, Katherine Anne Finlay, Philip A Fine
OBJECTIVES: Metaphorical expressions of persistent pain play an influential role in the modulation of pain. This may be particularly distressing for those with physical disabilities such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Neuropathic pain (NP) after SCI is often described using metaphorical expressions such as burning and electricity. This study explored the use of metaphors by those with NP after SCI. DESIGN: A qualitative, semi-structured interview design was employed...
November 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
Chin-Lung Chien
In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Wee Ping Wong, Craig Hassed, Richard Chambers, Jan Coles
INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) not only negatively impacts upon a person's life, but it is also seen as an intermediate stage on the progression to Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and therefore warrants early intervention. However, there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment approved for MCI. There is a paucity of evidence that non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training could result in improvements in the daily activities functioning of persons with MCI...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Annerieke C van Groenestijn, Esther T Kruitwagen-van Reenen, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Leonard H van den Berg, Carin D Schröder
OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and appraise evidence on associations between psychological factors (moods, beliefs, personality) and Health-related QoL (HRQoL) and/or global QoL in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in several online databases (PsycINFO, EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL) up to October 2015. Articles were included if they reported associations between psychological factors (moods, beliefs and personality) and HRQoL and/or global QoL in an ALS population...
2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Sharon Mary Johnson, Anthony Vernon Naidoo
Teaching is one of the most stressful occupations, with high stress and burnout levels of teachers necessitating intervention. This is especially relevant for South African teachers tasked with additional responsibilities of dealing with HIV/AIDS issues, as well as attending to normal curricula duties. A burnout prevention intervention, based on Paulo Freire's adult educational approach, using transpersonal psychology techniques, was introduced to HIV/AIDS coordinator teachers (n = 27) at high-risk schools in the Western Cape, South Africa, who attended six three-hour weekly workshops...
June 23, 2016: AIDS Care
Massimiliano Aragona
This article discusses Geiger's review of empathy, expressed in a lecture at the IV German Congress of Experimental Psychology in 1910. It deals with the key psychological question of how it is possible to know the minds of others. This question is complex and needs clarification, so Geiger divided it into 3 basic questions: The first is phenomenological (what is the conscious experience of empathy?); the second relates to the psychological function performed by the empathic act; and the third question asks whether and how empathy is acquired during personal development...
June 23, 2016: History of Psychology
Jessica Y Breland, Rosemary Donalson, Julie Dinh, Andrea Nevedal, Shira Maguen
OBJECTIVE: Disordered eating, which includes subclinical and clinical maladaptive eating behaviors, is common among women, including those served by the Veterans Health Administration (VA). We used qualitative methods to determine whether and how women veterans want to receive treatment for disordered eating. METHOD: Women veterans participated in one of seven focus groups/interviews and completed in-person demographic and psychological questionnaires. We used thematic analysis of focus groups/interviews to understand preferences for disordered eating treatment...
July 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
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