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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122031/contempt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-where-the-modularity-of-the-mind-meets-the-modularity-of-the-brain
#1
Danilo Bzdok, Leonhard Schilbach
"Contempt" is proposed to be a unique aspect of human nature, yet a non-natural kind. Its psychological construct is framed as a sentiment emerging from a stratification of diverse basic emotions and dispositional attitudes. Accordingly, "contempt" might transcend traditional conceptual levels in social psychology, including experience and recognition of emotion, dyadic and group dynamics, context-conditioned attitudes, time-enduring personality structure, and morality. This strikes us as a modern psychological account of a high-level, social-affective cognitive facet that joins forces with recent developments in the social neuroscience by drawing psychological conclusions from brain biology...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120280/self-compassion-mediates-the-relationship-between-mindfulness-and-borderline-personality-disorder-symptoms
#2
Hannah J Scheibner, Anna Daniels, Simon Guendelman, Franca Utz, Felix Bermpohl
Individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience difficulties with mindfulness. How mindfulness influences BPD symptoms, however, is still unknown. We hypothesized that the relationship between mindfulness and BPD symptoms would be mediated by self-compassion. In study 1, we recruited 29 individuals with BPD and 30 group-matched healthy controls. In study 2, we complemented our results with findings from a larger, nonclinical sample of 89 participants that were recruited during an open-house event at the local university...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095658/can-science-explain-the-human-mind-intuitive-judgments-about-the-limits-of-science
#3
Sara Gottlieb, Tania Lombrozo
Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077480/social-emotional-aspects-of-quality-of-life-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Heidemarie Lex, Sara Weisenbach, Jacob Sloane, Sana Syed, Eva Rasky, Wolfgang Freidl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory auto-immune disease of the central nervous system. It leads to many impairments including physical, cognitive, psychological, and social challenges. Our study examined gender and cultural associations with quality of life (QoL), personal characteristics, and benefits from having MS among those with MS. The study was conducted in Austria and the United States. The sample included 128 participants, 64 in each country, of whom 78 were women and 50 were men aged between 20 and 57 years...
October 27, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046649/psychological-flexibility-as-a-buffer-against-caregiver-distress-in-families-with-psychosis
#5
Jens E Jansen, Ulrik H Haahr, Hanne-Grethe Lyse, Marlene B Pedersen, Anne M Trauelsen, Erik Simonsen
Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026290/mindfulness-training-for-psychological-stress-in-family-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
REVIEW
Zheng Liu, Qian-Lin Chen, Yu-Ying Sun
Caring for a relative with dementia is extremely challenging; conventional interventions may not be highly effective or easily available on some occasions. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of mindfulness training in improving stress-related outcomes in family caregivers of people with dementia using a meta-analytic review. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCT) through April 2017 from five electronic databases, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Seven RCTs were included in our review...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972852/how-the-study-of-cognitive-growth-can-benefit-from-a-cultural-lens
#7
Robert Serpell
Applications of psychology to education and assessment often take for granted Western cultural assumptions about the nature of intelligence, ignore cultural features of human cognition other than language, and liken the influence of socialization on development to biological nutrition. Such oversimplifications can lead to stigmatizing culturally different persons as atypical or deficient and to perpetuating oppressive cultural hegemony. A cultural lens can benefit psychological science by facilitating communication with diverse audiences, channeling new knowledge into social progress, and generating theoretical insights about human behavior and experience, such as linguistic flexibility as a dimension of cognition, social responsibility as a dimension of intelligence, and intimate culture as a filter between larger social representations and the frame of reference for an individual mind...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962853/a-minimal-dose-approach-to-resistance-training-for-the-older-adult-the-prophylactic-for-aging
#8
James P Fisher, James Steele, Paulo Gentil, Jürgen Giessing, Wayne L Westcott
A plethora of research has supported the numerous health benefits of resistance training as we age, including positive relationships between muscular strength, muscle mass and reduced all-cause mortality. As such, resistance training has been referred to as medicine. However, participation and adherence remains low, with time constraints and perceived difficulty often cited as barriers to resistance training. With this in mind, we aimed to summarise the benefits which might be obtained as a product of a minimal dose approach...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953796/the-magic-of-caressing-the-mind-by-touching-the-body-take-care-of-depression-face-up-to-cancer-a-new-frontier-of-psycho-oncology
#9
Maria Grazia Spurio
BACKGROUND: The new frontier of research in all areas that deal with health and wellness (medicine, psychotherapy, personal care in general) sees the increase of projects in which the individual is center-placed, as a whole, in a holistic view. The mind and the body are inseparable, as in a circularity and recursivity unique for each individual (Spurio, M.G., 2015). The results of the most innovative research would seem to suggest, therefore, that a state of psychological distress or depression, is often related to physiological problems, from physical discomfort in general up to illnesses such as cancer...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#10
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923751/effects-of-mindfulness-training-on-emotional-and-physiologic-recovery-from-induced-negative-affect
#11
Alexandra D Crosswell, Patricia I Moreno, Elizabeth B Raposa, Sarosh J Motivala, Annette L Stanton, Patricia A Ganz, Julienne E Bower
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness training has been shown to improve psychological well-being and physical health. One proposed pathway for the positive effects of mindfulness training is through the development of new emotion regulation strategies, such as the ability to experience emotions by observing and accepting them without judgment. Theoretically, this should facilitate recovery from negative emotional states; however, this has rarely been examined empirically. The goal of the current study was to determine whether mindfulness training is associated with more efficient emotional and cardiovascular recovery from induced negative affect...
December 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919868/the-affective-core-of-the-self-a-neuro-archetypical-perspective-on-the-foundations-of-human-and-animal-subjectivity
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Alcaro, Stefano Carta, Jaak Panksepp
Psychologists usually considered the "Self" as an object of experience appearing when the individual perceives its existence within the conscious field. In accordance with such a view, the self-representing capacity of the human mind has been related to corticolimbic learning processes taking place within individual development. On the other hand, Carl Gustav Jung considered the Self as the core of our personality, in its conscious and unconscious aspects, as well as in its actual and potential forms. According to Jung, the Self originates from an inborn dynamic structure integrating the essential drives of our "brain-mind," and leading both to instinctual behavioral actions and to archetypal psychological experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903789/the-mind-of-suicide-terrorists
#13
Donatella Marazziti, Antonello Veltri, Armando Piccinni
After reviewing the available literature about the main hypotheses on suicide terrorism and the psychological characteristics of terrorists that have been proposed throughout the years, the present authors have put forward some personal considerations on what the distinctive traits of today's suicide bombers might be. In spite of the heterogeneity and paucity of "real" data, it is evident that there is no peculiar familial, educational, or socioeconomic factors that may account for religious radicalization leading to suicide terrorism...
September 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899121/unconscious-fantasy-and-the-priming-phenomenon
#14
Anne Erreich
This paper is the third in a series of investigations into (1) the nature and development of unconscious fantasy, (2) its place in a contemporary model of mind that, parenthetically, suggests a possible solution to the problem of theoretical pluralism, and (3) its mode of operation in the mind. The aim of these investigations is to update the notion of unconscious fantasy, an indispensable construct in psychoanalytic theories that assume out-of-awareness mentation, and to situate that construct within contemporary views of mental functioning in disciplines such as philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and developmental psychology...
April 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856916/the-making-of-mind
#15
Russell Meares
Objectives The ordinary, ongoing sense of personal existing, variously called higher order consciousness, mind, or self, is disintegrated, constricted and distorted in those who have suffered repetitive psychological traumata. Their speech has the form of a 'chronicle', literal and asymbolic. This paper offers a condensed rationale for a relational approach to this, so far, neglected problem. CONCLUSIONS: A restorative and generative kind of relatedness is 'natural', the propensity for it being given to us by our biological heritage...
August 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853146/computer-based-versus-in-person-interventions-for-preventing-and-reducing-stress-in-workers
#16
REVIEW
Anootnara Talkul Kuster, Therese K Dalsbø, Bao Yen Luong Thanh, Arnav Agarwal, Quentin V Durand-Moreau, Ingvild Kirkehei
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to stress has been linked to several negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. Among employees, stress and its associated effects can also result in productivity losses and higher healthcare costs. In-person (face-to-face) and computer-based (web- and mobile-based) stress management interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress in employees compared to no intervention. However, it is unclear if one form of intervention delivery is more effective than the other...
August 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819790/contemplative-meditation-and-neuroscience-prospects-for-mental-health
#17
Denis Larrivee, Luis Echarte
Numerous studies show that personal spirituality developed through prayer positively influences mental health. Phenomenological and neuroscientific studies of mindfulness, an Eastern meditative prayer form, reveal significant health benefits now yielding important insights useful for guiding treatment of psychological disorders. By contrast, and despite its practice for millennia, Christian meditation is largely unrepresented in studies of clinical efficacy. Resemblances between mindfulness and disciplinary acts in Christian meditation taken from the ancient Greek practice of askesis suggest that Christian meditation will prove similarly beneficial; furthermore, psychological and neuroscientific studies suggest that its retention of a dialogical and transcendent praxis will additionally benefit social and existential psychotherapy...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813347/mindfulness-based-and-acceptance-based-interventions-in-sport-and-performance-contexts
#18
REVIEW
Frank L Gardner, Zella E Moore
Since mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practice models were first conceptualized and applied in sport in an attempt to enhance performance and overall well-being of athletes and performers, these state-of-the-art theoretical and practice models have substantially broadened our knowledge base and have been successfully incorporated into sport and performance practice domains worldwide. Evolving from a sound empirical foundation, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based models in sport psychology have accumulated a strong basic and applied empirical foundation...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813317/mindfulness-in-ptsd-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Ariel J Lang
In recent years, the field has witnessed considerable enthusiasm for the ancient practice of mindfulness. The skills derived from this experience, including focused attention, nonjudgmental acceptance of internal experiences and reduced autonomic reactivity, may be helpful in counteracting pathological responses to trauma. Several types of interventions that incorporate principles of mindfulness have been examined for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This nascent literature is inconsistent and methodologically limited but does suggest that mindfulness is a potentially important tool for creating psychological change...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#20
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
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