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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330377/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-sensory-neurons-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Abdullah Jawad Alshawaf, Serena Viventi, Wanzhi Qiu, Giovanna D'Abaco, Bryony Nayagam, Michael Erlichster, Gursharan Chana, Ian Everall, Jason Ivanusic, Efstratios Skafidas, Mirella Dottori
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) consist of a multitude of sensory neuronal subtypes that function to relay sensory stimuli, including temperature, pressure, pain and position to the central nervous system. Our knowledge of DRG sensory neurons have been predominantly driven by animal studies and considerably less is known about the human DRG. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are valuable resource to help close this gap. Our previous studies reported an efficient system for deriving neural crest and DRG sensory neurons from hESC...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327488/isolation-of-human-photoreceptor-precursors-via-a-cell-surface-marker-panel-from-stem-cell-derived-retinal-organoids-and-fetal-retinae
#2
Jörn Lakowski, Emily Welby, Dimitri Budinger, Fabiana Di Marco, Valentina Di Foggia, James W B Bainbridge, Kyle Wallace, David M Gamm, Robin R Ali, Jane C Sowden
Loss of photoreceptor cells due to retinal degeneration is one of the main causes of blindness in the developed world. Although there is currently no effective treatment, cell replacement therapy using stem-cell-derived photoreceptor cells may be a feasible future treatment option. In order to ensure safety and efficacy of this approach, robust cell isolation and purification protocols must be developed. To this end, we previously developed a biomarker panel for the isolation of mouse photoreceptor precursors from the developing mouse retina and mouse embryonic stem cell cultures...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327467/erbb3-binding-protein-ebp1-is-a-novel-dppa4-cofactor-in-human-pluripotent-cells
#3
Priyanka Somanath, Kelly M Bush, Paul S Knoepfler
Developmental Pluripotency-Associated-4 (DPPA4) is one of the few core pluripotency genes lacking clearly defined molecular and cellular functions. Here we used a proteomics screening approach of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) nuclear extract to determine DPPA4 molecular functions through identification of novel cofactors. Unexpectedly, the signaling molecule ERBB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) was the strongest candidate binding partner for DPPA4 in hESC. EBP1 is a growth factor signaling mediator present in two isoforms, p48 and p42...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327452/regenerative-effects-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326135/isolation-of-human-testicular-cells-and-co-culture-with-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Meenakshi Gaur, Cyril Ramathal, Renee A Reijo Pera, Paul J Turek, Constance M John
Our overall goal is to create a three-dimensional human cell-based testicular model for toxicological and spermatogenesis studies. Methods to purify the major somatic testicular cells, namely Leydig cells (LCs), peritubular myoid cells (PCs) and Sertoli cells (SCs), from rats, mice and guinea pigs have been reported. In humans, the isolation of populations enriched for primary LCs, PCs or SCs also have described. One objective of this study was to determine if populations of cells enriched for all three of these cell types can be isolated from testes of single human donors, and we were successful in doing so from testes of three donors...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326073/retinoic-acid-promotes-stem-cell-differentiation-and-embryonic-development-by-transcriptionally-activating-cftr
#6
Xiaofeng Li, Kin Lam Fok, Jinghui Guo, Yan Wang, Zhenqing Liu, Ziyi Chen, Chengdong Wang, Ye Chun Ruan, Sidney Siubun Yu, Hui Zhao, Ji Wu, Xiaohua Jiang, Hsiao Chang Chan
Retinoic acid (RA) plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes; however, the signaling mechanisms mediating the effect of RA are not fully understood. Here, we show that RA transcriptionally upregulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) by promoting the direct binding of its receptor RARα to Cftr promoter in mouse spermatogonia and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The RA/CFTR pathway is involved in the differentiation of spermatogonia and organogenesis during the embryo development of Xenopus laevis...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324254/prdm14-is-expressed-in-germ-cell-tumors-with-constitutive-overexpression-altering-human-germline-differentiation-and-proliferation
#7
Joanna J Gell, Jasmine Zhao, Di Chen, Timothy J Hunt, Amander T Clark
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors occurring in gonadal and extragonadal locations. GCTs are hypothesized to arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs), which fail to differentiate. One recently identified susceptibility loci for human GCT is PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins 14 (PRDM14). PRDM14 is expressed in early primate PGCs and is repressed as PGCs differentiate. To examine PRDM14 in human GCTs we profiled human GCT cell lines and patient samples and discovered that PRDM14 is expressed in embryonal carcinoma cell lines, embryonal carcinomas, seminomas, intracranial germinomas and yolk sac tumors, but is not expressed in teratomas...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323720/tfcp2l1-safeguards-the-maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#8
Hongwei Sun, Yu You, Mengmeng Guo, Xiaohu Wang, Yan Zhang, Shoudong Ye
Tfcp2l1 is a transcription factor critical for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of Tfcp2l1 in controlling hESC activity and showed that Tfcp2l1 is functionally important in the maintenance of hESC identity. Tfcp2l1 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Forced expression of Tfcp2l1 promoted hESC self-renewal. Functional analysis of the mutant forms of Tfcp2l1 revealed that both the CP2- and SAM-like domains are indispensable for Tfcp2l1 to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321139/bmp-smad-pathway-promotes-neurogenesis-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-and-in-human-induced-pluripotent-and-neural-stem-cells
#9
V M Jovanovic, A Salti, H Tilleman, K Zega, M M Jukic, H Zou, R H Friedel, N Prakash, S Blaess, F Edenhofer, C Brodski
The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#10
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318501/function-of-fezf1-during-early-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Xin Liu, Pei Su, Lisha Lu, Zicen Feng, Hongtao Wang, Jiaxi Zhou
The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development...
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317497/identification-of-direct-negative-crosstalk-between-the-slit2-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-gremlin-signaling-pathways
#12
Kathleen E Tumelty, Nathan Higginson-Scott, Xueping Fan, Piyush Bajaj, Kelly M Knowlton, Michael Shamashkin, Anthony J Coyle, Weining Lu, Stephen P Berasi
Slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2) is a large, secreted protein which binds roundabout (ROBO) receptors on multiple cell types including neurons and kidney podocytes. SLIT2-ROBO2 mediated signaling regulates neuronal migration and ureteric bud (UB) outgrowth during kidney development as well as glomerular filtration in adult kidneys. Additionally, SLIT2 binds Gremlin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and BMP-Gremlin signaling also regulates UB formation. However, direct crosstalk between the ROBO2-SLIT2 and BMP-Gremlin signaling pathways has not been established...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316243/development-of-an-alginate-array-platform-to-decouple-the-effect-of-multiparametric-perturbations-on-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-during-pancreatic-differentiation
#13
Thomas C Richardson, Shibin Mathew, Joseph E Candiello, Saik K Goh, Prashant N Kumta, Ipsita Banerjee
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived functional cells hold great promise for regenerative cell therapy. Currently approved strategies for clinical translation requires the isolation of the hESCs-derived cells in materials allowing transfer of reagents but preventing integration with the host. However, hESC fate is known to be sensitive to its local microenvironment, both chemical and physical. Given the complexity of hESC response to environmental parameters, it will be important to evaluate the cell response to multiple combinatorial perturbations...
January 5, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315213/identification-of-transposable-elements-contributing-to-tissue-specific-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas
#14
Takafumi Chishima, Junichi Iwakiri, Michiaki Hamada
It has been recently suggested that transposable elements (TEs) are re-used as functional elements of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). This is supported by some examples such as the human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH) elements contained within lncRNAs and expressed specifically in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as required to maintain hESC identity. There are at least two unanswered questions about all lncRNAs. How many TEs are re-used within lncRNAs? Are there any other TEs that affect tissue specificity of lncRNA expression? To answer these questions, we comprehensively identify TEs that are significantly related to tissue-specific expression levels of lncRNAs...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311159/pd2-paf1-at-the-crossroads-of-the-cancer-network
#15
REVIEW
Saswati Karmakar, Parama Dey, Arokia P Vaz, Sukesh R Bhaumik, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra
Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2)/RNA polymerase II-associated factor 1 (PAF1) is the core subunit of the human PAF1 complex (PAF1C) that regulates the promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II as well as transcription elongation and mRNA processing and coordinates events in mRNA stability and quality control. As an integral part of its transcription-regulatory function, PD2/PAF1 plays a role in posttranslational histone covalent modifications as well as regulates expression of critical genes of the cell-cycle machinery...
January 8, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310060/generation-of-a-gde-heterozygous-mutation-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-wae001-a-14-by-crispr-cas9-editing
#16
Guosheng Xu, Dongsheng Guo, Feima Wu, Nasir Abbas, Keyu Lai, Fang Yuan, Kai You, Yanli Liu, Yuanqi Zhuang, Yuhang Wu, Yingying Xu, Yan Chen, Fan Yang, Tingcai Pan, Yin-Xiong Li
Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) plays a critical role in glycogenolysis. Mutations in the GDE gene are associated with a metabolic disease known as glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII). We generated a mutant GDE human embryonic stem cell line, WAe001-A-14, using the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. This cell line contains a 24-nucleotide deletion within exon-13 of GDE, resulting in 8 amino acids (TRLGISSL) missing of the GDE protein from amino acid position 567 to 575. The WAe001-A-14 cell line maintains typical stem cell morphology, pluripotency and in vitro differentiation potential, and a normal karyotype...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309833/development-and-behavior-alterations-in-zebrafish-embryonically-exposed-to-valproic-acid-vpa-animal-model-of-autism
#17
Jiangfei Chen, Linjie Tian, Lei Lei, Fei Hou, Courtney Roper, Xiaoqing Ge, Yuxin Zhao, Robert L Tanguay, Changjiang Huang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has complex neurodevelopmental impairments and origins that are linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Hence, there is an urgency to establish animal models with ASD-like characteristics to understand the underlying mechanisms of ASD. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to cause ASD-like symptoms in humans, rats, and recently zebrafish. The present study investigated the use of VPA exposure to create an ASD model in zebrafish that was verified through observation of ASD-like phenotypes in brain development and behavioral changes in embryonic and larval zebrafish...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308206/sall4-as-a-transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulator-in-normal-and-leukemic-hematopoiesis
#18
REVIEW
Jianchang Yang
In recent years, there has been substantial progress in our knowledge of the molecular pathways by which stem cell factor SALL4 regulates the embryonic stem cell (ESC) properties, developmental events, and human cancers. This review summarizes recent advances in the biology of SALL4 with a focus on its regulatory functions in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. In the normal hematopoietic system, expression of SALL4 is mainly enriched in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs), but is rapidly silenced following lineage differentiation...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305588/short-term-retinoic-acid-treatment-sustains-pluripotency-and-suppresses-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Maria Teresa De Angelis, Elvira Immacolata Parrotta, Gianluca Santamaria, Giovanni Cuda
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from blastocyst and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcriptional factors, have both the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all cell types. Here we explored the two antagonistic effects of retinoic acid (RA) on hiPSCs. Although RA has been widely described as a pharmacological agent with a critical role in initiating differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrate that short-term RA exposure not only antagonizes cell differentiation and sustains pluripotency of hiPSCs, but it also boosts and improves their properties and characteristics...
January 5, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304224/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-oocyte-like-cells-from-oogonial-stem-cells-single-cell-isolation-and-molecular-characterization
#20
Erica Silvestris, Paola Cafforio, Stella D'Oronzo, Claudia Felici, Franco Silvestris, Giuseppe Loverro
STUDY QUESTION: Are the large cells derived from cultured DEAD box polypeptide 4 (DDX4)-positive oogonial stem cells (OSCs), isolated from the ovarian cortex of non-menopausal and menopausal women, oocyte-like cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Under appropriate culture conditions, DDX4-positive OSCs from non-menopausal and menopausal women differentiate into large haploid oocyte-like cells expressing the major oocyte markers growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) and then enter meiosis...
January 3, 2018: Human Reproduction
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