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human embryonic stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141233/mirnome-profiling-of-purified-endoderm-and-mesoderm-differentiated-from-hescs-reveals-functions-of-mir-483-3p-and-mir-1263-for-cell-fate-decisions
#1
Daichi Ishikawa, Ulf Diekmann, Jan Fiedler, Annette Just, Thomas Thum, Sigurd Lenzen, Ortwin Naujok
Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine since they can differentiate into all somatic cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be important for the regulation of these cell-fate decisions. Profiling of miRNAs revealed 19 differentially expressed miRNAs in the endoderm and 29 in the mesoderm when analyzing FACS-purified cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. The mesodermal-enriched miR-483-3p was identified as an important regulator for the generation of mesodermal PDGFRA(+) paraxial cells...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141229/widespread-translational-remodeling-during-human-neuronal-differentiation
#2
John D Blair, Dirk Hockemeyer, Jennifer A Doudna, Helen S Bateup, Stephen N Floor
Faithful cellular differentiation requires temporally precise activation of gene expression programs, which are coordinated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Neurons express the most complex set of mRNAs of any human tissue, but translational changes during neuronal differentiation remain incompletely understood. Here, we induced forebrain neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and measured genome-wide RNA and translation levels with transcript-isoform resolution. We found that thousands of genes change translation status during differentiation without a corresponding change in RNA level...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141221/chemotherapy-induced-depletion-of-oct4-positive-cancer-stem-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-malignant-testicular-cancer
#3
Timothy M Pierpont, Amy M Lyndaker, Claire M Anderson, Qiming Jin, Elizabeth S Moore, Jamie L Roden, Alicia Braxton, Lina Bagepalli, Nandita Kataria, Hilary Zhaoxu Hu, Jason Garness, Matthew S Cook, Blanche Capel, Donald H Schlafer, Teresa Southard, Robert S Weiss
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are among the most responsive solid cancers to conventional chemotherapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a mouse TGCT model featuring germ cell-specific Kras activation and Pten inactivation. The resulting mice developed malignant, metastatic TGCTs composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma, the latter of which exhibited stem cell characteristics, including expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4. Consistent with epidemiological data linking human testicular cancer risk to in utero exposures, embryonic germ cells were susceptible to malignant transformation, whereas adult germ cells underwent apoptosis in response to the same oncogenic events...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139614/human-dental-stem-cell-derived-transgene-free-ipscs-generate-functional-neurons-via-embryoid-body-mediated-and-direct-induction-methods
#4
Ikbale El Ayachi, Jun Zhang, Xiao-Ying Zou, Zongdong Yu, Wei Wei, Kristen M S O'Connell, George T-J Huang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) give rise to neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), serving as a good source for neural regeneration. Here, we established transgene-free (TF) iPSCs from dental stem cells (DSCs) and determined their capacity to differentiate into functional neurons in vitro. Generated TF iPSCs from stem cells of apical papilla (SCAP) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) underwent two methods -- embryoid body (EB)-mediated and direct induction, to guide TF-DSC iPSCs along with H9 or H9 Syn-GFP (human embryonic stem cells) into functional neurons in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139170/single-cell-resolution-of-human-hemato-endothelial-cells-defines-transcriptional-signatures-of-hemogenic-endothelium
#5
Mathew G Angelos, Juan E Abrahante, Robert H Blum, Dan S Kaufman
Endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) is an important stage in definitive hematopoietic development. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying human EHT remains poorly characterized. We performed single cell RNA-seq using 55 hemogenic endothelial cells (HE: CD31(+) CD144(+) CD41(-) CD43(-) CD45(-) CD73(-) RUNX1c(+) ), 47 vascular endothelial cells without hematopoietic potential (non-HE: CD31(+) CD144(+) CD41(-) CD43(-) CD45(-) CD73(-) RUNX1c(-) ), and 35 hematopoietic progenitor cells (HP: CD34(+) CD43(+) RUNX1c(+) ) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138803/toll-like-receptors-tlr1-2-tlr6-and-muc5b-as-binding-interaction-partners-with-cytostatic-proline-rich-polypeptide-1-in-human-chondrosarcoma
#6
Karina Galoian, Silva Abrahamyan, Gor Chailyan, Amir Qureshi, Parthik Patel, Gil Metser, Alexandra Moran, Inesa Sahakyan, Narine Tumasyan, Albert Lee, Tigran Davtyan, Samvel Chailyan, Armen Galoyan
Metastatic chondrosarcoma is a bone malignancy not responsive to conventional therapies; new approaches and therapies are urgently needed. We have previously reported that mTORC1 inhibitor, antitumorigenic cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 (PRP-1), galarmin caused a significant upregulation of tumor suppressors including TET1/2 and SOCS3 (known to be involved in inflammatory processes), downregulation of oncoproteins and embryonic stem cell marker miR-302C and its targets Nanog, c-Myc and Bmi-1 in human chondrosarcoma...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137220/stromal-cyclin-d1-promotes-heterotypic-immune-signaling-and-breast-cancer-growth
#7
Timothy G Pestell, Xuanmao Jiao, Mukesh Kumar, Amy R Peck, Marco Prisco, Shengqiong Deng, Zhiping Li, Adam Ertel, Mathew C Casimiro, Xiaoming Ju, Agnese Di Rocco, Gabriele Di Sante, Sanjay Katiyar, Alison Shupp, Michael P Lisanti, Pooja Jain, Kongming Wu, Hallgeir Rui, Douglas C Hooper, Zuoren Yu, Aaron R Goldman, David W Speicher, Lisa Laury-Kleintop, Richard G Pestell
The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that drives cell autonomous cell cycle progression and proliferation. Herein we show cyclin D1 abundance is increased >30-fold in the stromal fibroblasts of patients with invasive breast cancer, associated with poor outcome. Cyclin D1 transformed hTERT human fibroblast to a cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype. Stromal fibroblast expression of cyclin D1 (cyclin D1(Stroma)) in vivo, enhanced breast epithelial cancer tumor growth, restrained apoptosis, and increased autophagy...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135282/genome-wide-dna-methylation-drives-human-embryonic-stem-cell-erythropoiesis-by-remodeling-gene-expression-dynamics
#8
Zhijing Liu, Qiang Feng, Pengpeng Sun, Yan Lu, Minlan Yang, Xiaowei Zhang, Xiangshu Jin, Yulin Li, Shi-Jiang Lu, Chengshi Quan
AIM: To investigate the role of DNA methylation during erythrocyte production by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). METHODS: We employed an erythroid differentiation model from hESCs, and then tracked the genome-wide DNA methylation maps and gene expression patterns through an Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip and an Ilumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression Beadchip, respectively. RESULTS: A negative correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression was substantially enriched during the later differentiation stage and was present in both the promoter and the gene body...
November 14, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133340/effects-of-hawthorn-crataegus-pentagyna-leaf-extract-on-electrophysiologic-properties-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-cardiac-arrhythmia-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Sara Pahlavan, Marziyeh Shalchi Tousi, Mahdi Ayyari, Abolfazl Alirezalu, Hassan Ansari, Tomo Saric, Hossein Baharvand
Cardiac arrhythmias are major life-threatening conditions. The landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells has provided a promising in vitro system for modeling hereditary cardiac arrhythmias as well as drug development and toxicity testing. Nowadays, nutraceuticals are frequently used as supplements for cardiovascular therapy. Here we studied the cardiac effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract using cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from healthy human embryonic stem cells, long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132234/upcycling-umbilical-cords-bridging-regenerative-medicine-with-neonatology
#10
Alvaro Moreira, Yasmeen Alayli, Saloni Balgi, Caitlyn Winter, Samuel Kahlenberg, Shamimunisa Mustafa, Peter Hornsby
Preterm birth is a major health concern that affects 10% of all worldwide deliveries. Many preterm infants are discharged from the hospital with morbidities that lead to an increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment, recurrent hospitalizations, and life-long conditions. Unfortunately, the treatment of these conditions is palliative rather than curative, which calls for novel and innovative strategies. Progress in regenerative medicine has offered therapeutic options for many of these conditions. Specifically, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord blood (UCB) cells have shown promise in treating adult onset diseases...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132205/secretome-of-aggregated-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-modulates-the-release-of-inflammatory-factors-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#11
Nastaran Mohammadi Ghahhari, Faezeh Maghsood, Saeed Jahandideh, Majid Lotfinia, Shirin Lak, Behrooz Johari, Asaad Azarnezhad, Mehdi Kadivar
Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have emerged as a potential therapy for various inflammatory diseases. Because of some limitations, several recent studies have suggested the use of embryonic stem cell-derived MSCs (ESC-MSCs) as an alternative for BM-MSCs. Some of the therapeutic effects of the ESC-MSCs are related to the secretion of a broad array of cytokines and growth factors, known as secretome. Harnessing this secretome for therapeutic applications requires the optimization of production of secretary molecules...
November 14, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#12
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129916/a-post-transcriptional-program-coordinated-by-csde1-prevents-intrinsic-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Hyun Ju Lee, Deniz Bartsch, Cally Xiao, Santiago Guerrero, Gaurav Ahuja, Christina Schindler, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Fátima Gebauer, Hisham Bazzi, Christoph Dieterich, Leo Kurian, David Vilchez
While the transcriptional network of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about how post-transcriptional modulations determine hESC function. RNA-binding proteins play central roles in RNA regulation, including translation and turnover. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein CSDE1 (cold shock domain containing E1) is highly expressed in hESCs to maintain their undifferentiated state and prevent default neural fate. Notably, loss of CSDE1 accelerates neural differentiation and potentiates neurogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129686/naive-like-esrrb-ipscs-with-the-capacity-for-rapid-neural-differentiation
#14
Fumihiko Kisa, Seiji Shiozawa, Keisuke Oda, Sho Yoshimatsu, Mari Nakamura, Ikuko Koya, Kenji Kawai, Sadafumi Suzuki, Hideyuki Okano
Several groups have reported the existence of a form of pluripotency that resembles that of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), i.e., a naive state, in human pluripotent stem cells; however, the characteristics vary between reports. The nuclear receptor ESRRB is expressed in mESCs and plays a significant role in their self-renewal, but its expression has not been observed in most naive-like human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, we modified several methods for converting hiPSCs into a naive state through the transgenic expression of several reprogramming factors...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129523/higher-order-kidney-organogenesis-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Atsuhiro Taguchi, Ryuichi Nishinakamura
Organogenesis generates higher-order structures containing functional subunits, connective components, and progenitor niches. Despite recent advances in organoid-based modeling of tissue development, recapitulating these complex configurations from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has remained challenging. In this study, we report assembly of kidney organoids that recapitulate embryonic branching morphogenesis. By studying the distinct origins and developmental processes of the ureteric bud, which contains epithelial kidney progenitors that undergo branching morphogenesis and thereby plays a central role in orchestrating organ geometry, and neighboring mesenchymal nephron progenitors, we established a protocol for differential induction of each lineage from mouse and human PSCs...
November 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128844/a-biodegradable-scaffold-enhances-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-a-thick-sheet-of-retinal-cells
#16
Deepti Singh, Shao-Bin Wang, Tina Xia, Laurel Tainsh, Maryam Ghiassi-Nejad, Tao Xu, Shaomin Peng, Ron A Adelman, Lawrence J Rizzolo
Retinal degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Stem cells can be differentiated into retinal organoids to study mechanisms of retinal degeneration, develop therapeutic agents, and potentially serve as replacement tissues. The spherical nature of these retinoids limits their utility, because the investigator lacks ready access to both sides of the neo-tissue. For tissue-replacement, spherical retinoids are unable to interact simultaneously with the host retinal pigment epithelium and remaining neurosensory retina...
October 31, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127860/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-efficiently-colonize-in-bfgf-tethered-natural-matrix-to-construct-contracting-humanized-rat-hearts
#17
Sarah Rajabi, Sara Pahlavan, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Hassan Ansari, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Fahimeh Varzideh, Sawa Kostin, Nasser Aghdami, Thomas Braun, Hossein Baharvand
Bioengineering of whole hearts using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) and natural matrices is a promising approach to overcome organ donor shortage threatening millions of patients awaiting for heart transplantation. Here, we developed a novel strategy for generation of heart constructs by repopulating engineered decellularized rat hearts using hESCs-derived CPCs. Careful expansion of CPCs in a scalable stirred-suspension bioreactor combined with step-wise seeding (60 million cells in 3 steps of 20 million per 1...
November 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121770/assessment-of-quantification-precision-of-histone-post-translational-modifications-by-using-an-ion-trap-and-down-to-50-000-cells-as-starting-material
#18
Qi Guo, Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia, Xiaolu Zhao
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are fundamental players of chromatin regulation, as they contribute to editing histone chemical properties and recruiting proteins for gene transcription and DNA repair. Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics is currently the most widely adopted strategy for high throughput quantification of hundreds of histone PTMs. Samples such as primary tissues, complex model systems and biofluids are hard to retrieve in large quantities. Because of this, it is critical to know whether the amount of sample available would lead to an exhaustive analysis if subjected to MS...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118436/combining-membrane-proteomics-and-computational-three-way-pathway-analysis-revealed-signalling-pathways-preferentially-regulated-in-human-ipscs-and-human-escs
#19
Wei-Sheng Tien, Pei-Mien Chen, Ching-Yu Chuang, Shook-Mun Lui, Hung-Chih Kuo, Yu-Ju Chen, Kun-Pin Wu
Owing to the clinical potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in regenerative medicine, a thorough examination of the similarities and differences between hiPSCs and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has become indispensable. Moreover, as the important roles of membrane proteins in biological signalling, functional analyses of membrane proteome are therefore promising. In this study, a pathway analysis by the bioinformatics tool GSEA was first performed to identify significant pathways associated with the three comparative membrane proteomics experiments: hiPSCs versus precursor human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), hESCs versus precursor HFF, and hiPSCs versus hESCs...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115387/generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-burn-patient-derived-skin-fibroblasts-using-a-non-integrative-method
#20
Shangfeng Fu, Jianwu Ding, Dewu Liu, Heping Huang, Min Li, Yang Liu, Longxiang Tu, Deming Liu
Patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been recognized as a possible source of cells for skin tissue engineering. They have the potential to greatly benefit patients with large areas of burned skin or skin defects. However, the integration virus-based reprogramming method is associated with a high risk of genetic mutation and mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder-cells may be a pollutant. In the present study, human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) were successfully harvested from patients with burns and patient-specific iPSCs were generated using a non-integration method with a feeder-free approach...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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