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Community acquired pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726663/-peculiarities-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-with-neurological-pathology
#1
O Zubarenko, G Kopiyka, T Kravchenko, L Koval, K Gurienko
Neurological disorders in children highly affect the course of pneumonia, its outcome and the development of possible complications. The aim of the study was to reveal clinical and paraclinical features of community-acquired pneumonia in younger children with neurologic pathology infantile cerebral palsy. Under observation were 37 children with community-acquired pneumonia aged 1 to 3 years that suffered from spastic forms of infantile cerebral palsy. The comparison group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia without any concomitant neurological pathology...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726662/cytokines-as-the-predictors-of-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children-review
#2
I Chkhaidze, N Kapanadze
In spite of many attempts to differentiate bacterial from viral disease and predict severity and outcome, the etiologic diagnosis of paediatric community acquired pneumonia and the estimation of potential outcomes remain unsolved problems in most cases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing CAP in children. Although MP infection was traditionally thought to be a self-limited process, more and more severe cases even fatal cases of MP infections were reported in recent years. So it is essential for pediatricians to recognize severe or refractory or severe MP early, treat it promptly and prevent the progress of the disease...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711429/-appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-hospital-emergency-department
#3
Borja Croche Santander, Elena Campos Alonso, Adela Sánchez Carrión, Laura Marcos Fuentes, Isabel Diaz Flores, Juan Carlos Vargas, Bárbara Fernández Domínguez, Cristóbal Toro Ibañez
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics represent one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents in children. It has been estimated that 30-50% of antibiotic prescriptions for this population are inappropriate. In this scenario, analysis of prescription data provides an invaluable source of information as a basis for implementing strategies for improvement in this field. OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in a paediatric population at an emergency department...
July 12, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697267/back-to-the-basics-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#4
Kathleen Boyd
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common childhood infection and often a reason for inpatient admission, especially when a child is hypoxic or in respiratory distress. Despite advances in technology and diagnostics, it remains difficult to accurately differentiate bacterial CAP from a viral process. Most of the laboratory tests routinely done in inpatient medicine, such as complete blood counts and acute phase reactants, do little to differentiate a viral pneumonia from a bacterial pneumonia. Clinicians must rely heavily on the clinical presentation and decide whether to treat empirically with antibiotics...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690643/mechanism-of-resistance-acquisition-and-treatment-of-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Hyeon-Jong Yang, Dae Jin Song, Jung Yeon Shim
Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common forms of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents. Outbreaks of MPP occur in 3- to 7-year cycles worldwide; recent epidemics in Korea occurred in 2006-2007, 2011, and 2015-2016. Although MPP is known to be a mild, self-limiting disease with a good response to macrolides, it can also progress into a severe and fulminant disease. Notably, since 2000, the prevalence of macrolide-resistant MPP has rapidly increased, especially in Asian countries, recently reaching up to 80%-90%...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686393/-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-update-and-new-challenges
#6
Alexis Dumoulin
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of community acquired pneumonia, especially in children. Discovered by Eaton in the 1940s, it has long been considered as a virus, in part because of its difficult growth in cultures. M. pneumoniae can cause many complications, some of which are severe such as dermatological lesions or affections of the central nervous system. The laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae is difficult, notably because of the fastidious growth conditions, the persistence of IgM antibody after acute infection and the debated existence of asymptomatic carriers...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673837/respiratory-viruses-detected-in-mexican-children-younger-than-5-years-old-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-national-multicenter-study
#7
Rosa María Wong-Chew, Miguel L García-León, Daniel E Noyola, Luis F Pérez-González, Jesús Gaitán-Meza, Alberto Villaseñor-Sierra, Gerardo Martínez-Aguilar, Victor Hugo Rivera-Nuñez, Oscar A Newton-Sánchez, Verónica Firo-Reyes, Carlos N Del Río-Almendarez, Alejandra Pamela González-Rodríguez, Enrique R Ortiz-García, Susana Navarrete-Navarro, Carmen Soria-Rodríguez, Adoniram Carrasco-Castillo, Eneida Sánchez-Medina, Irma López-Martínez, Teresa Hernández-Andrade, Celia M Alpuche-Aranda, José I Santos-Preciado
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, especially in developing countries. Pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age and was the cause of death of 935000 children in 2015. Despite its frequency and severity, information regarding its etiology is limited. The aim of this study was to identify respiratory viruses associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children younger than 5 years old...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671295/characterization-of-the-nasopharyngeal-viral-microbiome-from-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-but-negative-for-luminex-xtag-respiratory-viral-panel-assay-detection
#8
Lili Xu, Yun Zhu, Lili Ren, Baoping Xu, Chunyan Liu, Zhengde Xie, Kunling Shen
In the present study, 50 nasopharyngeal swabs from children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) but negative for 18 common respiratory viruses, as measured by the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Assay, were subjected to multiplex metagenomic analyses using a next-generation sequencing platform. Taxonomic analysis showed that all sequence reads could be assigned to a specific species. An average of 95.13% were assigned to the Bacteria kingdom, whereas only 0.72% were potentially virus derived. This snapshot of the respiratory tract virome revealed most viral reads to be respiratory tract related, classified into four known virus families: Paramyxoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, and Polyomaviridae...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668570/changes-in-pathogens-and-pneumococcal-serotypes-causing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-netherlands
#9
Stefan M T Vestjens, Gertjan H J Wagenvoort, Jan C Grutters, Bob Meek, Arnoud F Aldenkamp, Bart J M Vlaminckx, Willem-Jan W Bos, Ger T Rijkers, Ewoudt M W van de Garde
BACKGROUND: In 2006 a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the immunisation programme for infants in The Netherlands and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. Limited data exist about the impact of PCV on the aetiology of CAP as a whole. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall changes in microbial aetiology, pneumococcal burden (including non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia) and its serotypes in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after the introduction of these PCVs...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668258/infection-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-with-or-without-radiologically-confirmed-pneumonia
#10
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Ana Luísa Vilas-Boas, Maria S H Fontoura, César A Araújo-Neto, Sandra C Andrade, Rosa V Brim, Andreas Meinke, Aldina Barral, Olli Ruuskanen, Helena Käyhty, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity in childhood, but the detection of its causative agent remains a diagnostic challenge. The authors aimed to evaluate the role of the chest radiograph to identify cases of CAP caused by typical bacteria. METHODS: The frequency of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared in non-hospitalized children with clinical diagnosis of CAP aged 2-59 months with or without radiological confirmation (n=249 and 366, respectively)...
June 29, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634021/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-health-outcomes-in-children-with-asthma
#11
Pamela R Wood, Jordan C Kampschmidt, Peter H Dube, Marianna P Cagle, Paola Chaparro, Norma S Ketchum, Thirumalai R Kannan, Harjinder Singh, Jay I Peters, Joel B Baseman, Edward G Brooks
BACKGROUND: Acute infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) have been associated with worsening asthma in children. Mp can be present in the respiratory tract for extended periods; it is unknown whether the long-term persistence of Mp in the respiratory tract affects long-term asthma control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Mp on asthma control. METHODS: We enrolled 31 pediatric subjects 3 to 10 years of age with persistent asthma who completed up to 8 visits over a 24-month period...
June 17, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#12
C Schuster Bruce, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583371/bacterial-infections-after-pediatric-heart-transplantation-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#13
Christina A Rostad, Karla Wehrheim, James K Kirklin, David Naftel, Elizabeth Pruitt, Timothy M Hoffman, Thomas L'Ecuyer, Katie Berkowitz, William T Mahle, Janet N Scheel
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant recipients. However, data describing the epidemiology and outcomes of these infections in children are limited. METHODS: We analyzed the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database of patients transplanted between 1993 and 2014 to determine the etiologies, risk factors and outcomes of children with bacterial infections post-heart transplantation. RESULTS: Of 4,458 primary transplants in the database, there were 4,815 infections that required hospitalization or intravenous therapy, 2,047 (42...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575364/the-incremental-value-of-repeated-induced-sputum-and-gastric-aspirate-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-acute-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
David P Moore, Melissa M Higdon, Laura L Hammitt, Christine Prosperi, Andrea N DeLuca, Pedro Da Silva, Vicky L Baillie, Peter V Adrian, Azwifarwi Mudau, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Shabir A Madhi
Background.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) contributes to the pathogenesis of childhood acute community-acquired pneumonia in settings with a high tuberculosis burden. The incremental value of a repeated induced sputum (IS) sample, compared with a single IS or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, is not well known. Methods.: Two IS samples were obtained for Mtb culture from children enrolled as cases in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study in South Africa...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575362/the-diagnostic-utility-of-induced-sputum-microscopy-and-culture-in-childhood-pneumonia
#15
David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Muntasir Alam, Juliet O Awori, Andrea N DeLuca, Melissa M Higdon, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Eunice M Machuka, Sirirat Makprasert, Jessica McLellan, David P Moore, John Mwaba, Salim Mwarumba, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Ornuma Sangwichian, Seydou Sissoko, Milagritos D Tapia, Scott L Zeger, Stephen R C Howie
Background.: Sputum microscopy and culture are commonly used for diagnosing the cause of pneumonia in adults but are rarely performed in children due to difficulties in obtaining specimens. Induced sputum is occasionally used to investigate lower respiratory infections in children but has not been widely used in pneumonia etiology studies. Methods.: We evaluated the diagnostic utility of induced sputum microscopy and culture in patients enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study, a large study of community-acquired pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575360/microscopic-analysis-and-quality-assessment-of-induced-sputum-from-children-with-pneumonia-in-the-perch-study
#16
David R Murdoch, Susan C Morpeth, Laura L Hammitt, Amanda J Driscoll, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Maria Deloria Knoll, Daniel R Feikin, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, J Anthony G Scott, Donald M Thea, Dilruba Ahmed, Juliet O Awori, Andrea N DeLuca, Bernard E Ebruke, Melissa M Higdon, Possawat Jorakate, Ruth A Karron, Sidi Kazungu, Geoffrey Kwenda, Lokman Hossain, Sirirat Makprasert, David P Moore, Azwifarwi Mudau, John Mwaba, Sandra Panchalingam, Daniel E Park, Christine Prosperi, Rasheed Salaudeen, Aliou Toure, Scott L Zeger, Stephen R C Howie
Background.: It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562556/low-utility-of-blood-culture-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-observational-study-on-2705-patients-admitted-to-the-emergency-department
#17
Jae Hyun Kwon, Jung Heon Kim, Jeong-Yong Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
To investigate the utility of blood cultures performed on previously healthy children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at a tertiary care hospital emergency department (ED).We reviewed 3235 patients with CAP aged 6 months to 18 years who underwent blood cultures at the ED from 2009 through 2016. CAP was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes for pneumonia and the requirement of antibiotic treatment plus any of the following: radiologically confirmed, hospitalized, or moderate to severe disease...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558982/decrease-in-the-incidence-and-in-hospital-mortality-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-in-spain-2001-2014
#18
Isabel Jimenez Trujillo, Ana Lopez de Andres, Valentin Hernandez-Barrera, Maria A Martinez-Huedo, Javier de Miguel-Diez, Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the incidence and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalizations among Spanish children from 2001 to 2014 and to assess the effect of the pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) coverage in this period. METHODS: This study was conducted using the Spanish National Hospital Database from 2001 to 2014 including subjects <18years. We selected discharges with a primary diagnosis of CAP. Study variable included age, sex, comorbid conditions, procedures, isolated pathogens and hospital outcome variables...
May 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529026/the-use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-bacterial-identification-in-patients-with-smear-positive-bacterial-meningitis
#19
Boaz Bishop, Yuval Geffen, Adi Plaut, Ola Kassis, Roni Bitterman, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in rapid identification of bacteria from smear-positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a cohort of patients with meningitis. METHODS: Single-center observational study, including adults and children with community-acquired or postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis. Meningitis was defined using established criteria. CSF samples that had a positive CSF Gram stain were directly examined by MALDI-TOF-MS...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520948/relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-outcomes-among-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Anna M Bramley, Carrie Reed, Lyn Finelli, Wesley H Self, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Evan J Anderson, Chris Stockmann, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Robert Balk, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Seema Jain
Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes [hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation] in hospitalized CAP patients from the CDC Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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