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Community acquired pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520948/relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-outcomes-among-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Anna M Bramley, Carrie Reed, Lyn Finelli, Wesley H Self, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Evan J Anderson, Chris Stockmann, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Robert Balk, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Seema Jain
Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes [hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation] in hospitalized CAP patients from the CDC Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520818/evaluation-of-a-real-time-method-of-simultaneous-amplification-and-testing-in-diagnosis-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-children-with-pneumonia
#2
Wei Li, You-Hong Fang, Hong-Qiang Shen, De-Hua Yang, Qiang Shu, Shi-Qiang Shang
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection can cause community acquired pneumonia in children. A real-time method of simultaneous amplification and testing of M. pneumoniae (SAT-MP) was developed to diagnose M. pneumoniae targeting a region of the ribosomal RNA. The SAT-MP assay can accurately identify M. pneumoniae with a detection range from 101 to 107 CFU/ml. In this study, the specimens from 315 children with pneumonia were collected and analyzed by SAT-MP in parallel with real-time PCR method and IgM ELISA assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506958/enhancing-comparative-effectiveness-research-with-automated-pediatric-pneumonia-detection-in-a-multi-institutional-clinical-repository-a-phis-pilot-study
#3
Stephane Meystre, Ramkiran Gouripeddi, Joel Tieder, Jeffrey Simmons, Rajendu Srivastava, Samir Shah
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#4
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods.: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482381/-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ventilation-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-under-five-years-of-age-a-prospective-multi-center-clinical-study
#5
J Liu, Q Wang, S Y Qian, W M Xu, L L Li, L M Ning, X X Ren, F Lyu, Y B Cheng, L J Gao, C F Liu, W Xu, L Pei, G P Lu, W M Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years of age and analyze the safety and efficiency of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) ventilation for CAP in this population. Method: This was a prospective multicenter study. Children who were admitted to these six centers with CAP and met the NCPAP ventilation indications, aged from 29 d to 5 years, were continuously included during November 2013 to October 2015. The baseline data were collected and NCPAP ventilation were then followed up by operation standards, and the vital signs and arterial blood gas change at special time points were observed and recorded...
May 4, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480248/oseltamivir-use-among-children-and-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#6
Ikwo K Oboho, Anna Bramley, Lyn Finelli, Alicia Fry, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Wesley H Self, Derek J Williams, D Mark Courtney, Yuwei Zhu, Evan J Anderson, Carlos G Grijalva, Jonathan A McCullers, Richard G Wunderink, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Seema Jain
BACKGROUND: Data on oseltamivir treatment among hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients are limited. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with CAP at 6 hospitals during the 2010-2012 influenza seasons were included. We assessed factors associated with oseltamivir treatment using logistic regression. RESULTS: Oseltamivir treatment was provided to 89 of 1627 (5%) children (<18 years) and 143 of 1051 (14%) adults. Among those with positive clinician-ordered influenza tests, 39 of 61 (64%) children and 37 of 48 (77%) adults received oseltamivir...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475737/evolution-of-acute-infection-with-atypical-bacteria-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-receiving-amoxicillin
#7
Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho, Gabriel Xavier-Souza, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Aldina Barral, Mirja Puolakkainen, Olli Ruuskanen
Background: Atypical bacteria are treatable causative agents of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there is no conclusive evidence that a child with CAP should receive empirical treatment against such agents. Objectives: We assessed the possibility of association between clinical failure and acute infection by these bacteria among children with CAP treated with amoxicillin. Patients and methods: Patients aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP received amoxicillin during prospective follow-up...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474099/a-three-step-diagnosis-of-pediatric-pneumonia-at-the-emergency-department-using-clinical-predictors-c-reactive-protein-and-pneumococcal-pcr
#8
Gabriel Alcoba, Kristina Keitel, Veronica Maspoli, Laurence Lacroix, Sergio Manzano, Mario Gehri, René Tabin, Alain Gervaix, Annick Galetto-Lacour
Recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) advocate that, in the absence of the clinical and laboratory findings typical of bacterial CAP, antibiotics are not required. However, the true value of the clinical and laboratory predictors of pediatric CAP still needs to be assessed. This prospective cohort study in three emergency departments enrolled 142 children with radiological pneumonia. Pneumonia with lung consolidation was the primary endpoint; complicated pneumonia (bacteremia, empyema, or pleural effusion) was the secondary endpoint...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#9
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414567/disease-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-y-old-in-china-a-population-based-survey
#10
Yan Li, Zhijie An, Dapeng Yin, Yanmin Liu, Zhuoying Huang, Yujie Ma, Hui Li, Qi Li, Huaqing Wang
BACKGROUND: To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS: Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012...
April 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403117/association-of-the-ace-gstm1-il-6-nos3-and-cyp1a1-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-chinese-children
#11
Jie Zhao, Wen Zhang, Li Shen, Xiaomeng Yang, Yi Liu, Zhongtao Gai
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the clinical presentation of mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) varies widely. Genetic variability affecting the host response may also influence the susceptibility to MPP. Several studies have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of some genes and the risks of CAP; however, the results were inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association of 5 functional genes and the risks of MPP, including ACE (rs4340), GSTM1 (Ins/del), IL-6 (rs1800795), NOS3 (rs1799983), and CYP1A1 (rs2606345) in a total of 715 subjects (415 cases, 300 controls) by using tetra-primer allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403048/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#12
Lova Ravelomanana, Naim Bouazza, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as a cofactor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (from 2 to 16 years of age) from January 2012 to December 2014...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#13
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376442/prevalence-of-atypical-pathogens-in-patients-with-cough-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Christian Marchello, Ariella Perry Dale, Thuy Nhu Thai, Duk Soo Han, Mark H Ebell
PURPOSE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute cough, bronchitis, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are often caused by infections with viruses or Streptococcus pneumoniae. The prevalence of atypical pathogens Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis among patients with these illnesses in the ambulatory setting has not been previously summarized. We set out to derive prevalence information from the existing literature...
November 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368491/viral-pathogen-detection-by-metagenomics-and-pan-viral-group-pcr-in-children-with-pneumonia-lacking-identifiable-etiology
#15
Robert Schlaberg, Krista Queen, Keith Simmon, Keith Tardif, Chris Stockmann, Steven Flygare, Brett Kennedy, Karl Voelkerding, Anna Bramley, Jing Zhang, Karen Eilbeck, Mark Yandell, Seema Jain, Andrew T Pavia, Suxiang Tong, Krow Ampofo
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Pathogen identification fails in ~20% of children but is critical for optimal treatment and prevention of hospital-acquired infections. We used two broad-spectrum detection strategies to identify pathogens in test-negative children with CAP and asymptomatic controls. Methods: Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from 70 children <5 years with CAP of unknown etiology and 90 asymptomatic controls were tested by next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) and pan viral group (PVG) PCR for 19 viral families...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367920/age-related-vitamin-d-deficiency-is-associated-with-the-immune-response-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Yun Huang, Li Fu, Ying Yang
To investigate vitamin D status in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and explore the association between vitamin D deficiency and the immune response in CAP children, 77 children with CAP were retrospectively analyzed. The baseline characteristics of patients were obtained from medical records. Based on the blood samples collected during diagnosis of CAP, the routine blood examination results and proportions of lymphocyte subsets were assessed. There were 71.4% (55/77) of patients with vitamin D deficiency among CAP children...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363363/dexamethasone-for-parapneumonic-pleural-effusion-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#17
Alfredo Tagarro, Enrique Otheo, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, María-Luisa Navarro, Rosa Velasco, Marta Ruiz, María Penín, David Moreno, Pablo Rojo, Rosario Madero
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether dexamethasone (DXM) decreases the time to recovery in patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 children, ranging in age from 1 month to 14 years, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pleural effusion. Patients received either intravenous DXM (0.25 mg/kg/dose) or placebo every 6 hours over a period of 48 hours, along with antibiotics...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351556/diagnostic-value-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage%C3%A2-in-children-with-nonresponding-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Chih-Min Tsai, Kin-Sun Wong, Wei-Ju Lee, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Pi-Lien Hung, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children. In CAP, causative agents are seldom identified using noninvasive diagnostic procedures. For those children not responding to empiric antibiotic therapy, it is vital to identify the causative pathogens for further management. METHODS: We aimed to determine the usefulness of identifying the causative agents by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in hospitalized children with nonresponding CAP...
February 17, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346504/diagnostic-accuracy-of-two-multiplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#19
Jermaine Khumalo, Mark Nicol, Diana Hardie, Rudzani Muloiwa, Phindile Mteshana, Colleen Bamford
INTRODUCTION: Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis is important, but difficult in resource-limited settings due to prior administration of antibiotics and lack of viral diagnostics. We aimed to develop and validate 2 real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) assays for the detection of common causes of community-acquired bacterial and viral meningitis in South African children. METHODS: We developed 2 multiplex RT- PCRs for detection of S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339727/rapid-decrease-in-rates-of-hospitalization-resulting-from-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-aged-60-months-after-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-in-argentina
#20
Eduardo L López, Eduardo Glatstein, Gustavo C Ezcurra, Marisa Iacono, Eduardo Teplitz, Analía V Garnero, Daniela L Lazzarini, Miryan Vázquez, María M Contrini
Background.: In January 2012, Argentina included universal pneumococcal vaccination in the routine childhood vaccination program using a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). A 2 + 1 schedule (2 doses in the first year of life and a booster dose at 12 months of age) in children aged <2 years and 2-dose catch-up immunization in children aged 13 to 24 months was administered during the first year of vaccine introduction. The purpose of this study was to assess the burdens of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and/or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children younger than 5 years during the first 2 years of the program compared to those in the prevaccination period in our setting...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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