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Community acquired pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814443/antibiotic-use-by-pediatric-residents-identifying-opportunities-and-strategies-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#1
Prateek J Shukla, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Geovanny F Perez
OBJECTIVES: To determine the antibiotic prescribing practices of pediatric residents and assess how they acquire knowledge leading to prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional electronic survey of all pediatric residents at the Children's National Medical Center and Nicklaus Children's Hospital, assessing antibiotic prescribing patterns for common pediatric infections, use of antibiograms, and factors influencing antibiotic choice. RESULTS: Eighty-five surveys (45%) were returned complete and included in the analysis...
August 16, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#2
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813753/pre-guideline-trends-associated-with-chest-radiograph-usage-for-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-emergency-department-settings
#3
Eric W Jones, Benjamin Meyer, Aaron M Berg, Benson S Hsu
BACKGROUND: Health care spending in the U.S. totaled $3 trillion in 2014 and continues to increase rapidly. Minimizing waste through clinical guidelines is a promising strategy to reduce spending without compromising patient care. In 2011, clinical guidelines recommended against the use of chest X-ray (CXR) for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in pediatric ambulatory settings. However, use of CXR has not changed post-guideline. Thus, understanding the drivers of CXR utilization prior to guideline implementation could improve guideline adherence...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803551/hospitalisation-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-before-and-during-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#4
G Anderson, G Deceuninck, Z Zhou, F D Boucher, Y Bonnier Viger, R Gilca, P DE Wals
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce this burden. This study's goal was to analyse trends in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) hospitalisations before and during a routine vaccination programme targeting all newborns with PCV was started in the province of Quebec, Canada in December 2004. The study population included hospital admissions with a main diagnosis of LRTI among 6-59 month-old Quebec residents from April 2000 to December 2014...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780309/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-pantoea-agglomerans-infection-in-children
#5
Ayşe Büyükcam, Özlem Tuncer, Deniz Gür, Banu Sancak, Mehmet Ceyhan, Ali Bülent Cengiz, Ateş Kara
Pantoea agglomerans is an environmental Gram-negative bacterium that rarely is responsible for the infections in humans but it is often a causative factor of a number of occupational diseases. This study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics and pathogenicity of P. agglomerans in children. We retrospectively reviewed microbiological test results for all children (1 month old to 18 years old) who were admitted to our pediatric hospital between January 2000 to June 2015 and had positive clinical specimen cultures for P...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771405/pediatric-readmissions-after-hospitalizations-for-lower-respiratory-infections
#6
Mari M Nakamura, Alan M Zaslavsky, Sara L Toomey, Carter R Petty, Maria C Bryant, Alexandra T Geanacopoulos, Ashish K Jha, Mark A Schuster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) are among the most common reasons for pediatric hospitalization and among the diagnoses with the highest number of readmissions. Characterizing LRI readmissions would help guide efforts to prevent them. We assessed variation in pediatric LRI readmission rates, risk factors for readmission, and readmission diagnoses. METHODS: We analyzed 2008-2009 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data for patients <18 years of age in 26 states...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767921/hospitalization-costs-of-severe-bacterial-pneumonia-in-children-comparative-analysis-considering-different-costing-methods
#7
Sheila Elke Araujo Nunes, Ruth Minamisava, Maria Aparecida da Silva Vieira, Alexander Itria, Vicente Porfirio Pessoa, Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de Andrade, Cristiana Maria Toscano
Objective: To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Methods: Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates...
April 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761583/challenges-of-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Charlene M C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743259/a-comparison-study-between-gexp-based-multiplex-pcr-and-serology-assay-for-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-detection-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Le Wang, Zhishan Feng, Mengchuan Zhao, Shuo Yang, Xiaotong Yan, Weiwei Guo, Zhongren Shi, Guixia Li
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) in children has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining convalescent serum and time constraints. In this study, the two diagnostic assays that targeted respectively on Mp-antibody and Mp-DNA were retrospectively investigated. METHODS: A total of 3146 children were clinically diagnosed to have CAP and were confirmed by chest X-ray during March 2015 to February 2016 in Children's hospital of Hebei Province (China)...
July 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#10
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726663/-peculiarities-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-with-neurological-pathology
#11
O Zubarenko, G Kopiyka, T Kravchenko, L Koval, K Gurienko
Neurological disorders in children highly affect the course of pneumonia, its outcome and the development of possible complications. The aim of the study was to reveal clinical and paraclinical features of community-acquired pneumonia in younger children with neurologic pathology infantile cerebral palsy. Under observation were 37 children with community-acquired pneumonia aged 1 to 3 years that suffered from spastic forms of infantile cerebral palsy. The comparison group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia without any concomitant neurological pathology...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726662/cytokines-as-the-predictors-of-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children-review
#12
I Chkhaidze, N Kapanadze
In spite of many attempts to differentiate bacterial from viral disease and predict severity and outcome, the etiologic diagnosis of paediatric community acquired pneumonia and the estimation of potential outcomes remain unsolved problems in most cases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing CAP in children. Although MP infection was traditionally thought to be a self-limited process, more and more severe cases even fatal cases of MP infections were reported in recent years. So it is essential for pediatricians to recognize severe or refractory or severe MP early, treat it promptly and prevent the progress of the disease...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711429/-appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-hospital-emergency-department
#13
Borja Croche Santander, Elena Campos Alonso, Adela Sánchez Carrión, Laura Marcos Fuentes, Isabel Diaz Flores, Juan Carlos Vargas, Bárbara Fernández Domínguez, Cristóbal Toro Ibañez
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics represent one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents in children. It has been estimated that 30-50% of antibiotic prescriptions for this population are inappropriate. In this scenario, analysis of prescription data provides an invaluable source of information as a basis for implementing strategies for improvement in this field. OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in a paediatric population at an emergency department...
July 12, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697267/back-to-the-basics-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#14
Kathleen Boyd
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common childhood infection and often a reason for inpatient admission, especially when a child is hypoxic or in respiratory distress. Despite advances in technology and diagnostics, it remains difficult to accurately differentiate bacterial CAP from a viral process. Most of the laboratory tests routinely done in inpatient medicine, such as complete blood counts and acute phase reactants, do little to differentiate a viral pneumonia from a bacterial pneumonia. Clinicians must rely heavily on the clinical presentation and decide whether to treat empirically with antibiotics...
July 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690643/mechanism-of-resistance-acquisition-and-treatment-of-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Hyeon-Jong Yang, Dae Jin Song, Jung Yeon Shim
Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common forms of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents. Outbreaks of MPP occur in 3- to 7-year cycles worldwide; recent epidemics in Korea occurred in 2006-2007, 2011, and 2015-2016. Although MPP is known to be a mild, self-limiting disease with a good response to macrolides, it can also progress into a severe and fulminant disease. Notably, since 2000, the prevalence of macrolide-resistant MPP has rapidly increased, especially in Asian countries, recently reaching up to 80%-90%...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686393/-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-update-and-new-challenges
#16
Alexis Dumoulin
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of community acquired pneumonia, especially in children. Discovered by Eaton in the 1940s, it has long been considered as a virus, in part because of its difficult growth in cultures. M. pneumoniae can cause many complications, some of which are severe such as dermatological lesions or affections of the central nervous system. The laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae is difficult, notably because of the fastidious growth conditions, the persistence of IgM antibody after acute infection and the debated existence of asymptomatic carriers...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673837/respiratory-viruses-detected-in-mexican-children-younger-than-5-years-old-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-national-multicenter-study
#17
Rosa María Wong-Chew, Miguel L García-León, Daniel E Noyola, Luis F Perez Gonzalez, Jesús Gaitan Meza, Alberto Vilaseñor-Sierra, Gerardo Martinez-Aguilar, Victor Hugo Rivera-Nuñez, Oscar A Newton-Sánchez, Verónica Firo-Reyes, Carlos N Del Río-Almendarez, Alejandra Pamela González-Rodríguez, Enrique R Ortiz-García, Susana Navarrete-Navarro, Carmen Soria-Rodríguez, Adoniram Carrasco-Castillo, Eneida Sánchez-Medina, Irma López-Martínez, Teresa Hernández-Andrade, Celia M Alpuche-Aranda, José I Santos-Preciado
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, especially in developing countries. Pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age and was the cause of death of 935000 children in 2015. Despite its frequency and severity, information regarding its etiology is limited. The aim of this study was to identify respiratory viruses associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children younger than 5 years old...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671295/characterization-of-the-nasopharyngeal-viral-microbiome-from-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-but-negative-for-luminex-xtag-respiratory-viral-panel-assay-detection
#18
Lili Xu, Yun Zhu, Lili Ren, Baoping Xu, Chunyan Liu, Zhengde Xie, Kunling Shen
In the present study, 50 nasopharyngeal swabs from children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) but negative for 18 common respiratory viruses, as measured by the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel Assay, were subjected to multiplex metagenomic analyses using a next-generation sequencing platform. Taxonomic analysis showed that all sequence reads could be assigned to a specific species. An average of 95.13% were assigned to the Bacteria kingdom, whereas only 0.72% were potentially virus derived. This snapshot of the respiratory tract virome revealed most viral reads to be respiratory tract related, classified into four known virus families: Paramyxoviridae, Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, and Polyomaviridae...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668570/changes-in-pathogens-and-pneumococcal-serotypes-causing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-netherlands
#19
Stefan M T Vestjens, Gertjan H J Wagenvoort, Jan C Grutters, Bob Meek, Arnoud F Aldenkamp, Bart J M Vlaminckx, Willem-Jan W Bos, Ger T Rijkers, Ewoudt M W van de Garde
BACKGROUND: In 2006 a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the immunisation programme for infants in The Netherlands and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. Limited data exist about the impact of PCV on the aetiology of CAP as a whole. The aim of the present study is to describe the overall changes in microbial aetiology, pneumococcal burden (including non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia) and its serotypes in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after the introduction of these PCVs...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668258/infection-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-with-or-without-radiologically-confirmed-pneumonia
#20
Dafne C Andrade, Igor C Borges, Ana Luísa Vilas-Boas, Maria S H Fontoura, César A Araújo-Neto, Sandra C Andrade, Rosa V Brim, Andreas Meinke, Aldina Barral, Olli Ruuskanen, Helena Käyhty, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity in childhood, but the detection of its causative agent remains a diagnostic challenge. The authors aimed to evaluate the role of the chest radiograph to identify cases of community-aquired pneumonia caused by typical bacteria. METHODS: The frequency of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was compared in non-hospitalized children with clinical diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia aged 2-59 months with or without radiological confirmation (n=249 and 366, respectively)...
June 29, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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