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Community acquired pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218726/biomarkers-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202294/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Hayri Levent Yilmaz, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Sinem Sarı Gökay, Özlem Tolu Kendir, Hande Şenol
OBJECTIVES: To present lung ultrasound findings in children assessed with suspected pneumonia in the emergency department and to show the benefit of lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in comparison with chest X-rays. METHODS: This observational prospective study was performed in the pediatric emergency department of a single center. Point of care lung ultrasound was performed on each child by an independent sonographer blinded to the patient's clinical and chest X-ray findings...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187063/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-malagasy-children
#3
Ravelomanana Lova, Bouazza Naim, Mbola Rakotomahefa, André Zo Andrianirina, Annick Lalaina Robinson, Honoré Raobidjaona, Rabezanahary Andriamihaja, Nadjet Benhaddou, Fréderique Randrianirina, Elisoa Ratsima, Patrick Imbert, Josette Raymond
BACKGROUND: Childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in low-income countries. The etiologic agents are usually Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. M. pneumoniae was recognized as co-factor in asthmatic disease. High asthma prevalence was reported in Madagascar. Our aim was to clarify the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection in this country and its relationship with asthma. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 351 children (aged from 2 to 16 years) from January 2012 to December 2014...
February 9, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182741/etiology-of-severe-pneumonia-in-ecuadorian-children
#4
Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178776/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children
#5
Lindsay E Rogozinski, Brian K Alverson, Eric A Biondi
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections and accounts for up to 40% of cases of pneumonia in children over age 5. This article seeks to provide a general overview of the current recommended management of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in children.
April 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159006/the-potential-influence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-detected-during-hospitalization-among-critically-ill-patients-in-kuwait-2013-2015
#6
Sahar Essa, Haya Al-Tawalah, Sarah AlShamali, Widad Al-Nakib
BACKGROUND: The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum, incidence and clinical features of PIV-associated infections diagnosed during the hospital stay of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of 5 medical centers across Kuwait...
February 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155329/pattern-and-significance-of-asymptomatic-elevation-of-liver-enzymes-in-mycoplasma-pneumonia-in-children
#7
Deepti Jujaray, Liu Zheng Juan, Shraddha Shrestha, Ashiana Ballgobin
Mycoplasma infection is on the rise in recent times. It usually infects any system, including liver. This study aims to show the significance of elevated liver enzymes in mycoplasma pneumonia and to have a look at future prospects. This is a single-center retrospective study involving 105 children serologically positive for mycoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies and 50 with community-acquired pneumonia caused by organisms other than mycoplasma and Epstein-Barr virus from June 2015 to June 2016 and all without prior liver disease...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148730/a-multicenter-collaborative-to-improve-care-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-children
#8
Kavita Parikh, Eric Biondi, Joanne Nazif, Faiza Wasif, Derek J Williams, Elizabeth Nichols, Shawn Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Value in Inpatient Pediatrics Network sponsored the Improving Care in Community Acquired Pneumonia collaborative with the goal of increasing evidence-based management of children hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Project aims included: increasing use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, decreasing use of macrolides, and decreasing concurrent treatment of pneumonia and asthma. METHODS: Data were collected through chart review across emergency department (ED), inpatient, and discharge settings...
February 1, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146079/recurrent-pneumonia-in-children-a-reasoned-diagnostic-approach-and-a-single-centre-experience
#9
REVIEW
Silvia Montella, Adele Corcione, Francesca Santamaria
Recurrent pneumonia (RP), i.e., at least two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three episodes ever with intercritical radiographic clearing of densities, occurs in 7.7%-9% of children with community-acquired pneumonia. In RP, the challenge is to discriminate between children with self-limiting or minor problems, that do not require a diagnostic work-up, and those with an underlying disease. The aim of the current review is to discuss a reasoned diagnostic approach to RP in childhood. Particular emphasis has been placed on which children should undergo a diagnostic work-up and which tests should be performed...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124027/bacterial-lysis-through-interference-with-peptidoglycan-synthesis-increases-biofilm-formation-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#10
Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Alexandra Merlos, Miguel Viñas, Marien I de Jonge, Josefina Liñares, Carmen Ardanuy, Jeroen D Langereis
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in this process are poorly elucidated. In this study, we used a transposon mutant library to identify bacterial genes involved in biofilm formation...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106720/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-concentration-is-not-affected-by-severe-or-non-severe-pneumonia-or-inflammation-in-young-children
#11
Johanne Haugen, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Maria Mathisen, Sudha Basnet, Karl A Brokstad, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Prakash S Shrestha, Tor A Strand
Poor vitamin D status has been associated with increased risk and severity of respiratory tract infections. Whether or not inflammation and infection affects 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is controversial and is important in the interpretation of observational studies using plasma-25(OH)D as a biomarker for status. Our objectives were to measure whether 25(OH)D concentration was altered by an episode of acute lower respiratory tract infection and whether markers of inflammation predicted the 25(OH)D concentration...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100279/severe-community-acquired-adenovirus-pneumonia-treated-with-oral-ribavirin-a-case-report
#12
Byung Woo Yoon, Yong Geon Song, Seung Hyeun Lee
BACKGROUND: Adenovirus is a common pathogen of acute upper respiratory infection in children and is generally self-limiting. Severe adenovirus infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts especially bone marrow transplantation recipients due to hematologic malignancy. Severe adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts has rarely been reported and optimal treatment has not been established. We report a case of community-acquired severe adenovirus pneumonia which was successfully treated with early administration of oral ribavirin...
January 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088130/vaccine-candidates-against-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Ava Behrouzi, Farzam Vaziri, Fatemeh Rahimi-Jamnani, Parviz Afrough, Mohammad Rahbar, Fereshteh Satarian, Seyed Davar Siadat
Nonencapsulated, nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains an important cause of acute otitis and respiratory diseases in children and adults. NTHi bacteria are one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections, including acute otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and community-acquired pneumonia among children, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can also cause chronic diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the lower respiratory tract of adults...
2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070670/the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-children-with-comorbidity
#14
Ellinor Sterky, Rutger Bennet, Ann Lindstrand, Margareta Eriksson, Anna Nilsson
: The burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in high-income countries is still significant. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has reduced the overall need for hospitalization for CAP. However, it is not clear whether children with underlying disease also have benefitted from the PCV immunization programme. Children 0 to <5 years of age hospitalized with CAP and discharged with an ICD-10 code of J13-J18.9 between November 1, 2005, and April 30, 2007 (pre-vaccination period), and November 1, 2010, and April 30, 2012 (post-vaccination period), were eligible for this study...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057814/increased-serum-interleukin-10-but-not-interleukin-4-level-in-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#15
Biljana Medjo, Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic, Dimitrije Nikolic, Snezana Radic, Ivana Lazarevic, Ivana Cirkovic, Slobodanka Djukic
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children, and it has been associated with wheezing. The aim of this study was to examine the serum level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and to analyse them in relation to the presence of wheezing. METHODS: The study included 166 children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. MP infection was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serum MP-IgM and MP-IgG test and throat swab MP DNA with real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045846/lung-ultrasound-as-first-line-examination-for-the-diagnosis-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#16
Contantinia Boursiani, Maria Tsolia, Chrysoula Koumanidou, Aikaterini Malagari, Marina Vakaki, Georgios Karapostolakis, Argyro Mazioti, Efthymia Alexopoulou
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is based on clinical criteria. Even though chest x-ray (CXR) is only recommended in severe cases, it is often requested from physicians in mild cases, thus increasing radiation exposure. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is not included in the diagnostic workup. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of LUS against CXR. METHODS: Children who presented to the emergency department with clinical signs suggesting CAP and had already been evaluated with a CXR were included in the study...
January 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#17
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029140/prevention-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-available-pneumococcal-vaccines
#18
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on society. A substantial number of pediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, but fortunately there are effective vaccines available that have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social, and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on the prevention of CAP in children and adults. Available data indicate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in children, reducing all-cause CAP cases and bacteremic and nonbacteremic CAP cases...
December 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018301/screening-and-identification-of-apoc1-as-a-novel-potential-biomarker-for-differentiate-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children
#19
Jieqiong Li, Lin Sun, Fang Xu, Hui Qi, Chen Shen, Weiwei Jiao, Jing Xiao, Qinjing Li, Baoping Xu, Adong Shen
Background: Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, the currently used diagnostic methods are not optimal. Proteomics is increasingly being used to study the biomarkers of infectious diseases. Methods: Label-free quantitative proteomics and liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the fold change of protein expression in plasma of children with MP pneumonia (MPP), infectious disease control (IDC), and healthy control (HC) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011920/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-during-childhood-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-relationship-between-specific-serotypes-and-co-infecting-viruses
#20
David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Yaniv Fainguelernt, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Yonat Shemer Avni, Jacob Bar-Ziv, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses and S. pneumoniae are known to be co-pathogens in childhood pneumonia. However, it is unclear whether all pneumococcal serotypes are equally prone to such interaction. We attempted to determine association between carried pneumococcal serotypes and respiratory viruses during childhood community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP). METHODS: The study was conducted during RSV seasons, before pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Children <5 years diagnosed with CAAP, with positive pneumococcal nasopharyngeal cultures from whom viral diagnostic tests were obtained were enrolled...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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