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Elizabeth M White, Jessica G Smith, Rebecca L Trotta, Matthew D McHugh
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether care in a hospital with more nurses holding at least a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree is associated with lower mortality for individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) undergoing surgery ADRD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from 2006-07 Medicare claims were linked with the Multi-State Nursing Care and Patient Safety Survey of nurses in 4 states. SETTING: Adult, nonfederal, acute care hospitals in California, Florida, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania (N=531)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Daniel Schwarzkopf, Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, Hendrik Rüddel, Konrad Reinhart, Daniel O Thomas-Rüddel
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major cause of preventable deaths in hospitals. Feasible and valid methods for comparing quality of sepsis care between hospitals are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a risk-adjustment model suitable for comparing sepsis-related mortality between German hospitals. METHODS: We developed a risk-model using national German claims data. Since these data are available with a time-lag of 1.5 years only, the stability of the model across time was investigated...
2018: PloS One
Rosa Whalen, Joanne Harrold, Simon Child, Jason Halford, Emma Boyland
Monitoring the creative content within food marketing to children is strongly advocated by public health authorities, but few studies address the prevalence of health-related messaging in television adverts. Food and beverage adverts ( n = 18,888 in 2008, n = 6664 in 2010) from UK television channels popular with children were coded and analyzed. Physical-activity depiction displayed an 18.8 percentage point increase from 2008 (4.4%) to 2010 (23.2%). Of the food adverts containing physical-activity depiction in 2010, 81...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Grace Chai, Jing Xu, James Osterhout, Mark A Liberatore, Kathleen L Miller, Carolyn Wolff, Marisa Cruz, Peter Lurie, Gerald Dal Pan
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic, driven in part by increased prescribing, is a public health emergency. This study examines dispensed prescription patterns and approvals of new opioid analgesic products to investigate whether the introduction of these new drugs increases prescribing. METHODS: Prescribing patterns based on dispensed prescription claims from the U.S. retail setting were assessed with new brand and generic opioid analgesic products approved in the United States from 1997 through 2015...
March 20, 2018: Anesthesiology
Jessica A Walsh, Oluwakayode Adejoro, Benjamin Chastek, Jacqueline B Palmer, Peter Hur
BACKGROUND: In patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), limited data exist regarding patterns of biologic therapy use. OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment patterns and therapy modifications in U.S. patients with PsA receiving a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) or an anti-interleukin (IL)-12/23 inhibitor. METHODS: Adults with PsA who newly initiated a biologic therapy (index biologic) between January 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015, were included from the Optum Research Database...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Francesco Brigo, Simona Lattanzi, Eugen Trinka, Raffaele Nardone, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Martino Ruggieri, Ignazio Vecchio, Mariano Martini
In this article, we discuss on the role of the British physician and midwifery practitioner John Clarke (1760-1815) in the characterisation of the various types of seizures and epilepsy and related phenomena ('convulsions') occurring in children. In his unfinished work Commentaries on Some of the Most Important Diseases of Children (1815), Clarke discussed the pathophysiology of convulsions and was the first to describe, 12 years before the French neurologist Louis Francois Bravais (1801-1843) and more than 30 years before the Irish-born physician Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), the postictal paresis...
March 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Lina H Al-Sakran, Ruth Ann Marrie, David F Blackburn, Katherine B Knox, Charity D Evans
OBJECTIVE: To validate a case definition of multiple sclerosis (MS) using health administrative data and to provide the first province-wide estimates of MS incidence and prevalence for Saskatchewan, Canada. METHODS: We used population-based health administrative data between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2015 to identify individuals with MS using two potential case definitions: (1) ≥3 hospital, physician, or prescription claims (Marrie definition); (2) ≥1 hospitalization or ≥5 physician claims within 2 years (Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System [CCDSS] definition)...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Dhanya Lakshmi Narayanan, Shubha R Phadke
Stem cell transplantation and cord blood banking have received much popularity among general public and medical professionals in the recent past. But information about the scientific aspects, its utility and limitations is incomplete amongst laypersons as well as many medical practitioners. Stem cells differ from all other types of cells in the human body because of their ability to multiply in order to self perpetuate and differentiate into specialized cells. Stems cells could be totipotent, multipotent, pluripotent, oligopotent or unipotent depending on the type of cells that can arise or differentiate from them...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Masayuki Ishii, Atsushi Shimizu, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Yujirou Kokado, Hideaki Nishigori, Yasuko Noda
PURPOSE: The term "lateral rectal ligament" in surgery for rectal cancer has caused confusion regarding its true existence and contents. In previous studies, investigators claimed the existence of the ligament and described its topographical features as neurovascular structures and their surrounding connective tissues located at the anterolateral aspect of the distal rectum or the posterolateral aspect of the middle rectum. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the structure of the so-called "lateral rectal ligament" in cadaver dissections...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shih-Wei Lai, Cheng-Li Lin, Kuan-Fu Liao
OBJECTIVE: Little evidence is available on the relationship between oral corticosteroids use and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate whether oral corticosteroids use correlates with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in high risk populations in Taiwan. METHODS: Using representative claims database established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program with a population coverage rate of 99.6%, we identified 102,182 subjects aged 20-84 years with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma in 2000-2011 as the cases and 102,182 randomly selected subjects aged 20-84 years without hepatocellular carcinoma as the matched controls...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Snehal N Mestry, Nitin B Gawali, Sarayu A Pai, Malvika S Gursahani, Jayesh B Dhodi, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin is widely used as an antibiotic for the treatment of gram negative infections. Evidences indicates that oxidative stress is involved in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. In Ayurvedic medicine, Punica granatum Linn. is considered as 'a pharmacy unto itself". It has been claimed in traditional literature, to treat various kidney ailments due to its antioxidant potential. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible mechanism of action of methanolic extract of P...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Mehmet Emre Yurttutan, Ahmet Keskin
BACKGROUND: Successful dental implant treatment is directly related to osseointegration. In achieving osseointegration, the surface property of the implant is of great importance. Sandblasting is the most commonly used basic method for modifying the surface. Many companies use different sand particles for surface roughening and claim their sand is the best. This leads clinicians to mix their minds in product selection. In this study, we tried to find the appropriate sand material by working objectively without praising any brand...
March 20, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Julie A Lynch, Brygida Berse, Merry Rabb, Paul Mosquin, Rob Chew, Suzanne L West, Nicole Coomer, Daniel Becker, John Kautter
BACKGROUND: Tumor testing for mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is indicated for all newly diagnosed, metastatic lung cancer patients, who may be candidates for first-line treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Few studies have analyzed population-level testing. METHODS: We identified clinical, demographic, and regional predictors of EGFR & KRAS testing among Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of lung cancer in 2011-2013 claims...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
Leslie C Robinson, Richard C E Anderson, Douglas L Brockmeyer, Michelle R Torok, Todd C Hankinson
BACKGROUND: Fusion rates following rigid internal instrumentation for occipitocervical and atlantoaxial instability approach 100% in many reports. Based on this success and the morbidity that can be associated with obtaining autograft for fusion, surgeons increasingly select alternative graft materials. OBJECTIVE: To examine fusion failure using various graft materials in a retrospective observational study. METHODS: Insurance claims databases (Truven Health MarketScan® [Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Michigan] and IMS Health Lifelink/PHARMetrics [IMS Health, Danbury, Connecticut]) were used to identify patients with CPT codes 22590 and 22595...
March 15, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Kyung Suk Lee, Ye-Rin Lee, So-Youn Park, In-Hwan Oh
Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide, and vaccination prevents rotaviral gastroenteritis. Since the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Korea in 2007, the prevalence of rotaviral gastroenteritis has decreased. However, little is known on the economic burden of rotavirus infection and its variations in Korea. Here, we estimated the economic costs of rotavirus infection from 2009 to 2012 using nationwide data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) claims. Socioeconomic costs were subdivided into direct and indirect and measured with a prevalence-based approach...
2018: PloS One
Zeeshan Ali, P Charukeshi Chandrasekera, John J Pippin
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached pandemic proportions worldwide, and considerable research efforts have been dedicated to investigating disease pathology and therapeutic options. The two hallmark features of T2DM, insulin resistance and pancreatic dysfunction, have been studied extensively by using various animal models. Despite the knowledge acquired from such models, particularly mechanistic discoveries that sometimes mimic human T2DM mechanisms or pathways, many details of human T2DM pathogenesis remain unknown, therapeutic options remain limited, and a cure has eluded research...
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Jacqueline Satchell, Janelle Borham
The timing of filing a new patent application always requires a judgment call to be made between securing the earliest filing date and waiting to collect enough data to ensure the claims are fully supported and enabled across their scope. In addition, it is important to ensure that the application is drafted in such a way that it is suitable for filing in various jurisdictions. The case law we have considered for the sufficiency/enablement of second medical use claims in Europe, the USA and Australia makes it clear that experimental results should be included in the application at filing, and that the results must demonstrate that the claimed pharmaceutical product could be reasonably expected to treat the claimed indication...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
Sakura Okamoto, Hideo Saka, Masahide Oki, Namie Somiya, Sachiyo Yokoyama, Yoshihiro Mizutani, Akiko Kada, Akira Tomita
Airway stenting is a procedure in which a stent is inserted into a stenotic site in the airway. However, the optimal ventilation for airway stenting remains controversial. We have planned a randomized, unblinded controlled study to compare intraoperative respiratory status by dividing patients, who underwent airway stenting, into spontaneous respiration (SP) and controlled ventilation with muscle relaxants (MR) groups. This study started in April 2016. The subjects, patients aged ≥20 years with airway stenosis caused by malignant neoplasms for which airway stenting was scheduled, are randomly allocated to SP and MR groups...
March 16, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
John Spiliotis, Nikolaos Kopanakis, Anastasia Prodromidou, Alexis Terras, Anastasia Polichronaki, Christina Koutikova, Anna Gogou, Christina Sidera, Elias Efstathiou
PURPOSE: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) has been proposed as the treatment of choice in patients suffering from intestinal failure (IF) and has been claimed to improve survival and quality of life either in patients with benign disorders or even in those with malignancies. The purpose of the present analysis was to report characteristics and outcomes of adult patients with IF receiving HPN in Greece. METHODS: Patients that received HPN between 2011 and 2017 were included in this retrospective analysis...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
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