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Medial Septum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346767/functional-principles-of-posterior-septal-inputs-to-the-medial-habenula
#1
Yo Otsu, Salvatore Lecca, Katarzyna Pietrajtis, Charly Vincent Rousseau, Païkan Marcaggi, Guillaume Pierre Dugué, Caroline Mailhes-Hamon, Manuel Mameli, Marco Alberto Diana
The medial habenula (MHb) is an epithalamic hub contributing to expression and extinction of aversive states by bridging forebrain areas and midbrain monoaminergic centers. Although contradictory information exists regarding their synaptic properties, the physiology of the excitatory inputs to the MHb from the posterior septum remains elusive. Here, combining optogenetics-based mapping with ex vivo and in vivo physiology, we examine the synaptic properties of posterior septal afferents to the MHb and how they influence behavior...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331615/increased-brain-glucocorticoid-actions-following-social-defeat-in-rats-facilitates-the-long-term-establishment-of-social-subordination
#2
Meltem Weger, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Social rank is frequently established through aggressive encounters between new conspecifics. Despite increasing evidence suggesting that social rank is critical for the well-being of both humans and animals, knowledge about the factors influencing social rank remain scarce. Stress was previously shown to affect the establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies in rats. Likewise, increasing systemic corticosterone levels post-encounter in the emerging subordinate rat facilitates the long-term establishment of social subordination...
January 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316846/acute-stress-evokes-sexually-dimorphic-stressor-specific-patterns-of-neural-activation-across-multiple-limbic-brain-regions-in-adult-rats
#3
Ankit Sood, Karina Chaudhari, Vidita A Vaidya
Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker...
January 10, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290554/a-non-canonical-reticular-limbic-central-auditory-pathway-via-medial-septum-contributes-to-fear-conditioning
#4
Guang-Wei Zhang, Wen-Jian Sun, Brian Zingg, Li Shen, Jufang He, Ying Xiong, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang
In the mammalian brain, auditory information is known to be processed along a central ascending pathway leading to auditory cortex (AC). Whether there exist any major pathways beyond this canonical auditory neuraxis remains unclear. In awake mice, we found that auditory responses in entorhinal cortex (EC) cannot be explained by a previously proposed relay from AC based on response properties. By combining anatomical tracing and optogenetic/pharmacological manipulations, we discovered that EC received auditory input primarily from the medial septum (MS), rather than AC...
December 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280870/components-of-the-hanging-columella-strategies-for-refinement
#5
Rod J Rohrich, Paul N Afrooz
The columella is a significant factor in the aesthetic balance of the nose, particularly the lower one-third of the nose. Its position is dependent on the anatomical constituents of the columella, and neighboring anatomical structures. Six components of the hanging columella have been identified: the caudal septum, medial crura, columellar skin, membranous septum, anterior nasal spine, and depressor septi nasi muscle. Columellar refinement begins with a careful analysis and diagnosis of the contributing components, followed by surgical techniques to address these components individually...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277500/distribution-of-the-internal-nasal-branch-of-the-infraorbital-nerve-to-the-nasal-septum-application-to-rhinoplasty
#6
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
BACKGROUND: The course of the nerves along the nasal septum has not been clearly studied, and surgical procedures such as rhinoplasty require a more detailed topography of the nerve supply inside the septum. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the distribution of the internal nasal branch of the infraorbital nerve inside the nasal septum and to define the relationship between it and the nasal cartilages. METHODS: Fourteen sides from eight fresh frozen and embalmed Caucasian cadaveric heads were dissected...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250747/septo-hippocampal-interaction
#7
REVIEW
Christina Müller, Stefan Remy
The septo-hippocampal pathway adjusts CA1 network excitability to different behavioral states and is crucially involved in theta rhythmogenesis. In the medial septum, cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons form a highly interconnected local network. Neurons of these three classes project to glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and different subsets of GABAergic neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. From there, GABAergic neurons project back to the medial septum and form a feedback loop between the two remote brain areas...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213015/midline-sensory-nerve-supply-to-the-anoscrotal-junction-a-study-using-human-male-fetuses
#8
Shinichi Abe, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Masahito Yamamoto, Minako Sato, Nobuaki Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki Hinata, Hiroshi Abe, Murakami Gen
The origin of the posterior scrotal nerve is considered to be the bilateral pudendal nerves but the course to the midline is still obscure. Using 5 late-stage human male fetuses, we identified the single nerve through the intramuscular midline septum of the bulbospongiosus and the bilateral nerves along the left and right sides of the septum. Thus, the posterior scrotal nerve showed a variation: a single midline trunk or bilateral nerves. Branches of the bilateral pudendal nerves ran medially between the muscle and Cowper's gland and, at the midline area, they joined or associated closely...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208411/distribution-of-nadph-diaphorase-reactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#9
Claudia Pinelli, Arun G Jadhao, Anna Scandurra, Biagio D'Aniello
We examined the distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive elements in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common toad, Bufo bufo. The investigation involved adult male and female toads collected during the breeding season. Labeled neurons of different morphological appearances (weakly or darkly stained, unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar) and fibers were observed across all subdivisions of the amphibian brain. Overall, a similar distribution of NADPH-d-labeled neurons was observed in the brain of male and female toads...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204954/chronic-fluoxetine-induces-activity-changes-in-recovery-from-poststroke-anxiety-depression-and-cognitive-impairment
#10
Faranak Vahid-Ansari, Paul R Albert
Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common outcome of stroke that limits recovery and is only partially responsive to chronic antidepressant treatment. In order to elucidate changes in the cortical-limbic circuitry associated with PSD and its treatment, we examined a novel mouse model of persistent PSD. Focal endothelin-1-induced ischemia of the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male C57BL6 mice resulted in a chronic anxiety and depression phenotype. Here, we show severe cognitive impairment in spatial learning and memory in the stroke mice...
December 4, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167986/amidase-activity-is-essential-for-medial-localization-of-amic-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#11
Amrita Dubey, Richa Priyadarshini
Bacterial cell division is a complex process brought about by the coordinated action of multiple proteins. Separation of daughter cells during the final stages of division involves cleavage of new cell wall laid down at the division septum. In E. coli, this process is governed by the action of N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases AmiA/B/C, which are regulated by their LytM activators EnvC and NlpD. While much is known about the regulation of septum cleavage in E. coli, the mechanism of daughter cell separation is not clear in Caulobacter crescentus, a dimorphic crescent-shaped bacterium...
November 22, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167325/the-modulation-of-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-by-the-vestibular-system
#12
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3-12 Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, either using natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126760/nuances-in-component-nasal-hump-reduction
#13
Haneen Sadick, Julian M Rowe-Jones, Holger G Gassner
IMPORTANCE: Nasal hump reduction is a frequent manoeuvre in rhinoplasty. Over the last years, composite hump reduction has been advocated in favour of component hump reduction. The latter allows a more controlled and stepwise approach in reducing the nasal dorsum by deprojecting the cartilaginous dorsum separately from the bony dorsum. This approach also preserves the upper lateral cartilages (ULCs) and their mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the intricacies of the anatomic transition zone between the ULCs, the rhinion and the nasal bones as they pertain to component hump reduction...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124376/an-alternative-rhinoplasty-technique-rotational-spreader-flap-rabbit-flap
#14
Ali Ahmet Sirin, Ibrahim Erdim, Omer Erdur, Alperen Sirin
BACKGROUND: In modern rhinoplasty, septal cartilage is the most commonly used graft material. It is a big challenge if septal cartilage is insufficient. We present an alternative technique named the "rabbit flap," created from the cephalic portion of the lower lateral cartilage to show its effectiveness on nasolabial angle, nasal axis deviation, and nasal dorsal line. METHODS: An alternative flap, called a "rabbit flap," is constituted from the cephalic portion of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC)...
November 9, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122676/a-six-gene-expression-toolbox-for-the-glands-epithelium-and-chondrocytes-in-the-mouse-nasal-cavity
#15
Yong Wan, Matthew B Rogers, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
The nose is the central feature of the amniote face. In adults, the nose is a structurally and functionally complex organ that consists of bone, cartilage, glands and ducts. In an ongoing expression screen in our lab, we found several novel markers for specific tissues in the nasal region. Here, using in situ hybridization expression experiments, we report that Alx1, Ap-2β, Crispld1, Eya4, Moxd1, and Penk have tissue specific expression during murine nasal development. At E11.5, we observed that Alx1, Ap-2β, Crispld1, and Eya4 are expressed in the medial and lateral nasal prominences...
November 6, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109512/modulating-medial-septal-cholinergic-activity-reduces-medial-entorhinal-theta-frequency-without-affecting-speed-or-grid-coding
#16
Francis Carpenter, Neil Burgess, Caswell Barry
Medial septal inputs to the hippocampal system are crucial for aspects of temporal and spatial processing, such as theta oscillations and grid cell firing. However, the precise contributions of the medial septum's cholinergic neurones to these functions remain unknown. Here, we recorded neuronal firing and local field potentials from the medial entorhinal cortex of freely foraging mice, while modulating the excitability of medial septal cholinergic neurones. Alteration of cholinergic activity produced a reduction in the frequency of theta oscillations, without affecting the slope of the non-linear theta frequency vs running speed relationship observed...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#17
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100013/long-range-gabaergic-inputs-regulate-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-control-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#18
Hechen Bao, Brent Asrican, Weidong Li, Bin Gu, Zhexing Wen, Szu-Aun Lim, Issac Haniff, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Benjamin Philpot, Juan Song
The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060312/predicting-the-stimulation-effectiveness-using-pre-stimulation-neural-states-via-optogenetic-activation-of-the-medial-septum-glutamatergic-neurons-modulating-the-hippocampal-neural-activity
#19
Sang-Eon Park, Nealen G Laxpati, Mark J Connolly, Babak Mahmoudi, Robert E Gross
In this study, we explored the role of pre-stimulation neural states on the effectiveness of optogenetic stimulation. Optogenetic stimulation was applied to the medial septum glutamatergic neurons to modulate the hippocampal neural activity in a rat tetanus toxin seizure model. The hippocampal local field potential was recorded using a multi electrode array in an awake and behaving rat. Optical stimulation with a 465nm light source was applied at 35Hz in a 20 seconds off / 20 seconds on pattern with simultaneous recording from the hippocampus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058584/radiographic-characteristics-in-congenital-scoliosis-associated-with-split-cord-malformation-a-retrospective-study-of-266-surgical-cases
#20
Fan Feng, Haining Tan, Xingye Li, Chong Chen, Zheng Li, Jianguo Zhang, Jianxiong Shen
BACKGROUND: Vertebrae, ribs, and spinal cord are anatomically adjacent structures, and their close relationships are clinically important for planning better corrective surgical approach. The objective is to identify the radiographic characteristics in surgical patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) and coexisting split cord malformation (SCM). METHODS: A total of 266 patients with CS and SCM underwent surgical treatment at our hospital between May 2000 and December 2015 was retrospectively identified...
October 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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