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Medial Septum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921449/reduction-mammaplasty-with-the-modified-round-block-technique-in-chinese-patients-and-its-anatomy-study
#1
Wei Ding, Yinjia Ding, Hua Jiang
BACKGROUND: Although reduction mammaplasty is one of the most common procedures in plastic surgery, it is associated with some serious complications, especially in cases of severe hypertrophy or advanced ptosis, including necrosis of the nipple and areola, absence of normal sensation of the nipple-areolar complex, and loss of lactational function for future nursing. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is vital for successful reduction mammaplasty. This article describes the blood supply and innervation of the breasts, and introduces a modified round block technique for reduction mammaplasty based on this anatomy...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920666/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-the-evolution-of-the-amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular-connectivity-in-vertebrates
#2
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although, the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#3
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893726/glutamatergic-synaptic-integration-of-locomotion-speed-via-septoentorhinal-projections
#4
Daniel Justus, Dennis Dalügge, Stefanie Bothe, Falko Fuhrmann, Christian Hannes, Hiroshi Kaneko, Detlef Friedrichs, Liudmila Sosulina, Inna Schwarz, David Anthony Elliott, Susanne Schoch, Frank Bradke, Martin Karl Schwarz, Stefan Remy
The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) send glutamatergic axons to medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). We found that this pathway provides speed-correlated input to several MEC cell-types in layer 2/3. The speed signal is integrated most effectively by pyramidal cells but also excites stellate cells and interneurons. Thus, the MSDB conveys speed information that can be used by MEC neurons for spatial representation of self-location.
November 28, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893636/facial-contouring-by-targeted-restoration-of-facial-fat-compartment-volume-the-mid-face
#5
Wenjin Wang, Yun Xie, Ru-Lin Huang, Jia Zhou, Herrler Tanja, Peijuan Zhao, Chen Cheng, Sizheng Zhou, Lee L Q Pu, Qingfeng Li
BACKGROUND: Recent anatomical findings have suggested that facial fat distribution is complex and changes with age. Here, we developed a grafting technique based on the physiological distribution and volume changes of facial fat compartments to achieve a youthful and natural-looking face. METHODS: Forty cadaveric hemifaces were used for the dissection of fat compartments and neurovascular structures in the mid-face area. Seventy-eight patients were treated for cheek atrophy using our targeted restoration of mid-face fat compartment volume...
November 21, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859793/selective-contribution-of-the-telencephalic-arcopallium-to-the-social-facilitation-of-foraging-efforts-in-the-domestic-chick
#6
Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Leo Uno, Toshiya Matsushima
To investigate the neural basis of socio-economic behaviors in birds, we examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of arcopallium (Arco, the major descending pallial area of the avian telencephalon) and the surrounding nuclei in domestic chicks. We tested foraging effort (running distance) in an I-shaped maze with two food patches that delivered food in a biased manner according to a variable interval schedule. Normally, chicks run back and forth between the patches, and the patch use time matches the respective food delivery rate...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855055/-left-ventricular-synchrony-with-septum-stimulation-vs-septal-ventricular-outflow-tract-in-complete-atrioventricular-block
#7
Gustavo Rodríguez-Serrano, Susano Lara-Vaca, Texar Pereyra-Nobara, Enrique Bernal-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Placing the right ventricular pacing electrode in different places than the apex is less deleterious to the ejection fraction and left ventricular synchrony. Currently it is not defined which non apical site is better alternative. The aim of this paper was to determine if there is a difference in systolic function and left ventricular synchrony with stimulation of medial septum or outflow tract of the right ventricle in patients with atrioventricular block and pacemaker device...
2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845230/serotonergic-modulation-of-septo-hippocampal-and-septo-mammillary-theta-activity-during-spatial-learning-in-the-rat
#8
Blanca Erika Gutiérrez-Guzmán, J Jesús Hernández-Pérez, María Esther Olvera-Cortés
Theta activity has been related to the processing of spatial information and the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory. The medial septum (MS) plays an important role in the control and coordination of theta activity, as well as in the modulation of learning. It has been established that increased serotonergic activity may desynchronize theta activity, while reduced serotonergic activity produces continuous and persistent theta activity in the hippocampus. We investigate whether serotonin acting on the medial septum could modify spatial learning and the functional relationship between septo-hippocampal and septo-mammillary theta activity...
November 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830875/oblique-cord-chorda-obliqua-of-the-forearm-and-muscle-associated-fibrous-tissues-at-and-around-the-elbow-joint-a-study-of-human-fetal-specimens
#9
Zhe Wu Jin, Yu Jin, Masahito Yamamoto, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Ting Feng Yan
In adults, the oblique cord or chorda obliqua separates the origins of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles from the supinator muscle and elbow joint. This study examined the topographic anatomy of the oblique cord and related muscles in fetuses. Semiserial sections of five mid-term fetuses of gestational age (GA) 14-16 weeks and 12 late-stage fetuses of GA 28-30 weeks were histologically examined and three forearms at GA 30 weeks were macroscopically evaluated. Late-stage fetuses showed a fascial structure between the supinator and FDP muscles...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737815/effect-of-tongxinluo-on-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-rats-exposed-to-a-low-pressure-hypoxic-environment
#10
Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jiang Hong, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL),which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724864/pulmonary-artery-denervation-improves-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced-right-ventricular-dysfunction-by-modulating-the-local-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system
#11
Chen Liu, Xiao-Min Jiang, Juan Zhang, Bing Li, Jing Li, Du-Jiang Xie, Zuo-Ying Hu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly accompanied with the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) reduces PAH partly through the inhibition of RAAS. Analogically, we hypothesized that pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) could reverse PAH and PAH-induced right ventricular (RV) dysfunction by downregulating the local RAAS activity. METHODS: Twenty-five beagle dogs were randomized into two groups: control group (intra-atrial injection of N-dimethylacetamide, 3 mg/kg, n = 6) and test group (intra-atrial injection of dehydrogenized-monocrotaline, 3 mg/kg, n = 19)...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703268/optogenetic-activation-of-septal-gabaergic-afferents-entrains-neuronal-firing-in-the-medial-habenula
#12
Kyuhyun Choi, Youngin Lee, Changwoo Lee, Seokheon Hong, Soonje Lee, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633562/first-exposure-to-an-alive-conspecific-activates-septal-and-amygdaloid-nuclei-in-visually-na%C3%A3-ve-domestic-chicks-gallus-gallus
#13
Uwe Mayer, Orsola Rosa-Salva, Giorgio Vallortigara
The septal nuclei are an evolutionarily well-conserved part of the limbic system, present in all vertebrate groups. Functionally, septal nuclei are involved in many important aspects of social behavior and lateral septum is considered a node of the social decision making network, together with amygdaloid nuclei. Given the importance of septal nuclei for social behaviors, it is somewhat surprising that it has never been investigated whether they are involved in early social responses of naïve animals. In the present study we wanted to know if simple exposure of visually naïve newly hatched chicks to a visual object (an alive, behaving conspecific), that also contains all features to which chicks are known to express early social predispositions, will selectively activate septal areas...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619945/winning-agonistic-encounters-increases-testosterone-and-androgen-receptor-expression-in-syrian-hamsters
#14
Catherine T Clinard, Abigail K Barnes, Samuel G Adler, Matthew A Cooper
Winning aggressive disputes is one of several experiences that can alter responses to future stressful events. We have previously tested dominant and subordinate male Syrian hamsters in a conditioned defeat model and found that dominant individuals show less change in behavior following social defeat stress compared to subordinates and controls, indicating a reduced conditioned defeat response. Resistance to the effects of social defeat in dominants is experience-dependent and requires the maintenance of dominance relationships for 14days...
September 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618763/metabolic-activation-of-amygdala-lateral-septum-and-accumbens-circuits-during-food-anticipatory-behavior
#15
Diana Olivo, Mario Caba, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Juan F Rodríguez-Landa, Aleph A Corona-Morales
When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618396/characterization-of-a-new-gsx2-cre-line-in-the-developing-mouse-telencephalon
#16
Shenyue Qin, Mayur Madhavan, Ronald R Waclaw, Masato Nakafuku, Kenneth Campbell
In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line driving Cre and EGFP expression with two putative cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) (i.e., hs687 and hs678) upstream of the homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2), a critical gene for establishing lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) identity. The combination of these two CRMs drives transgene expression within the endogenous Gsx2 expression domains along the anterior-posterior neuraxis. By crossing this transgenic line with the Rosa(tdTomato) (Ai14) reporter mouse line, we observed a unique recombination pattern in the lateral ventral telencephalon, namely the LGE and the dorsal half of the medial GE (MGE), but not in the septum...
October 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588894/gain-modulation-of-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-medial-septum-diagonal-band-of-broca-through-hyperpolarization
#17
Eric D Melonakos, John A White, Fernando R Fernandez
Hippocampal network oscillations are important for learning and memory. Theta rhythms are involved in attention, navigation, and memory encoding, whereas sharp wave-ripple complexes are involved in memory consolidation. Cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DB) influence both types of hippocampal oscillations, promoting theta rhythms and suppressing sharp wave-ripples. They also receive frequency-dependent hyperpolarizing feedback from hippocamposeptal connections, potentially affecting their role as neuromodulators in the septohippocampal circuit...
December 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568352/the-arterial-supply-of-the-nasal-cavity
#18
Francisco J D MacArthur, Gerald W McGarry
With the development of endonasal flaps, an understanding of the arterial anatomy of the nasal cavity has become increasingly important for clinicians. Despite this, there is a lack of current, accurate overviews in the literature. We have used both endoscopic and gross dissection of six fresh frozen cadaveric heads, alongside a literature review, to produce a comprehensive description of the anatomy. Four heads had their arterial systems injected with red latex. Three injected and two uninjected heads were dissected endoscopically, to provide a total of seven sides...
August 27, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504854/sex-and-pairing-status-explain-variations-in-the-activation-of-nonapeptide-receptors-in-song-and-motivation-regions
#19
Michelle L Tomaszycki, Kimberly K Richardson, Kyle J Mann
The nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated in a variety of social behaviors. In zebra finches, oxytocin antagonists decrease pairing in both sexes, and pairing, in turn, increases expression of both mesotocin (the avian homologue of oxytocin) and vasotocin (the avian homologue of vasopressin). Increases in mesotocin and vasotocin mRNA are correlated with the amount of directed singing by males. Thus, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that activation of cells containing nonapeptide receptors in song-related regions (ventral tegmental area, lateral septum, and medial preoptic nucleus) would also be correlated with directed singing in males...
October 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498147/telencephalic-neural-activation-following-passive-avoidance-learning-in-a-terrestrial-toad
#20
Martín M Puddington, M Florencia Daneri, Mauricio R Papini, Rubén N Muzio
The present study explores passive avoidance learning and its neural basis in toads (Rhinella arenarum). In Experiment 1, two groups of toads learned to move from a lighted compartment into a dark compartment. After responding, animals in the experimental condition were exposed to an 800-mM strongly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to weight loss. Control animals received exposure to a 300-mM slightly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to neither weight gain nor loss. After 10 daily acquisition trials, animals in the experimental group showed significantly longer latency to enter the dark compartment...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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