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Medial Septum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407252/combined-endonasal-and-eyelid-approach-for-management-of-extensive-frontal-sinus-inverting-papilloma
#1
Monirah Albathi, Murugappan Ramanathan, Andrew P Lane, Kofi D O Boahene
OBJECTIVES: Sinonasal inverting papilloma (IP) is a benign but locally aggressive mucosal neoplasm with a high recurrence rate. Extension into the frontal sinus presents surgical challenges for endonasal resection. This study presents an orbitofrontal approach for managing extensive IP. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: Four patients seen between 2012 and 2016 with biopsy-proven IP with lateral frontal sinus extension underwent a combined endonasal and transpalpebral approach for tumor resection...
April 13, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388792/midvault-reconstruction-in-primary-rhinoplasty
#2
Shannon Rudy, Sami P Moubayed, Sam P Most
The nasal midvault is an important consideration in rhinoplasty. This region is defined by the attachment of the upper lateral cartilages (ULCs) to the nasal bones superiorly and the cartilaginous septum medially. Inadequate management of the nasal midvault can have negative functional and aesthetic ramifications. Indications for midvault reconstruction in primary rhinoplasty include a narrow midvault, dorsal hump resection, a deviated midvault, and an asymmetric midvault, with an additional relative indication of zone 1 lateral wall insufficiency (LWI), defined as dynamic collapse of a weakened lateral nasal wall at the level of the ULC...
April 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388635/the-bhlh-transcription-factor-spatula-enables-cytokinin-signaling-and-both-activate-auxin-biosynthesis-and-transport-genes-at-the-medial-domain-of-the-gynoecium
#3
J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Víctor M Zúñiga-Mayo, Joanna Serwatowska, Ricardo A Chavez Montes, Paulina Lozano-Sotomayor, Humberto Herrera-Ubaldo, Karla L Gonzalez-Aguilera, Patricia Ballester, Juan José Ripoll, Ignacio Ezquer, Dario Paolo, Alexander Heyl, Lucia Colombo, Martin F Yanofsky, Cristina Ferrandiz, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
Fruits and seeds are the major food source on earth. Both derive from the gynoecium and, therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms that guide the development of this organ of angiosperm species. In Arabidopsis, the gynoecium is composed of two congenitally fused carpels, where two domains: medial and lateral, can be distinguished. The medial domain includes the carpel margin meristem (CMM) that is key for the production of the internal tissues involved in fertilization, such as septum, ovules, and transmitting tract...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378375/dopaminergic-activation-anticipates-daily-nursing-in-the-rabbit
#4
J Aguirre, E Meza, M Caba
Maternal care is a motivated behavior and in the rabbit it is restricted to the spontaneous return of the mother to nurse her pups for just a few minutes once a day. Previously we have reported neural activation of brain areas and neuroendocrine cells after nursing. However, this daily spontaneous return suggests that the mother is in a high motivational state to nurse her pups. Here we hypothesized that during anticipation of nursing there is an activation of dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic system and in their target areas...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376027/components-of-the-hanging-columella-strategies-for-refinement
#5
Rod J Rohrich, Paul N Afrooz
The columella is a significant factor in the aesthetic balance of the nose and particularly the lower one-third of the nose. Its position is dependent upon the anatomic constituents of the columella, as well neighboring anatomic structures. Six components of the hanging columella have been identified: the caudal septum, medial crura, columellar skin, membranous septum, anterior nasal spine, and the depressor nasi septi muscle. Columellar refinement begins with a careful analysis and diagnosis of the contributing components, followed by surgical techniques to address these components individually...
April 1, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375615/specific-connectivity-and-unique-molecular-identity-of-met-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-expressing-serotonergic-neurons-in-the-caudal-dorsal-raphe-nuclei
#6
Ryan J Kast, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Piper Williams, Patricia Gaspar, Pat Levitt
Molecular characterization of neurons across brain regions has revealed new taxonomies for understanding functional diversity even among classically defined neuronal populations. Neuronal diversity has become evident within the brain serotonin (5-HT) system, which is far more complex than previously appreciated. However, until now it has been difficult to define subpopulations of 5-HT neurons based on molecular phenotypes. We demonstrate that the MET receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) is specifically expressed in a subset of 5-HT neurons within the caudal part of the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRC) that is encompassed by the classic B6 serotonin cell group...
April 4, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373627/effects-of-transplanted-human-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-on-pulmonary-hypertension-in-immunodeficient-mice-and-their-distribution
#7
Mikio Sugano, Homare Yoshida, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Hiroki Arase, Hajime Kinoshita, Takashi Kitaichi, Noriko Sugasawa, Soichiro Nakayama, Kazuhisa Maeda, Minoru Irahara, Tetsuya Kitagawa
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cell (hUCB-MNC) transplantation on pulmonary hypertension (PH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT) in immunodeficient mice and their distribution. METHODS: MCT was administered to BALB/c Slc-nu/nu mice, and PH was induced in mice 4 weeks later. Fresh hUCB-MNCs harvested from a human donor after her delivery were injected intravenously into those PH mice. The medial thickness of pulmonary arterioles, ratio of right ventricular to septum plus left ventricular weight (RV/S+LV), and ratio of acceleration time to ejection time of pulmonary blood flow waveform (AT/ET) were determined 4 weeks after hUCB-MNC transplantation...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368242/somatostatin-positive-interneurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-mice-provide-local-and-long-range-septal-synaptic-inhibition
#8
Mei Yuan, Thomas Meyer, Christoph Benkowitz, Shakuntala Savanthrapadian, Laura Ansel-Bollepalli, Angelica Foggetti, Peer Wulff, Pepe Alcami, Claudio Elgueta, Marlene Bartos
Somatostatin-expressing-interneurons (SOMIs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) control formation of granule cell (GC) assemblies during memory acquisition. Hilar-perforant-path-associated interneurons (HIPP cells) have been considered to be synonymous for DG-SOMIs. Deviating from this assumption, we show two functionally contrasting DG-SOMI-types. The classical feedback-inhibitory HIPPs distribute axon fibers in the molecular layer. They are engaged by converging GC-inputs and provide dendritic inhibition to the DG circuitry...
April 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353299/an-unusual-case-of-accessory-head-of-coracobrachialis-muscle-involving-lateral-cord-of-brachial-plexus-and-its-clinical-significance
#9
Silvio Antonio Garbelotti, Sérgio Ricardo Marques, Paulo Ricardo Rocha, Valdemir Rodrigues Pereira, Luis Otavio Carvalho de Moraes
Knowledge of anatomical variations in the peripheral nervous system is key in the interpretation of unusual clinical signs or during physical or diagnostic imaging. This case study is a description of an anatomical variation between the coracobrachialis muscle and brachial plexus. In a routine dissection in the human anatomy laboratory, we were faced with an anatomical variation in the coracobrachialis muscle, observed in the upper right limb of a male cadaver. The coracobrachialis muscle had a common origin at the apex of the coracoid process and then divided into two heads...
March 29, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352598/a-new-septum-in-the-female-breast
#10
Mostafa Abdel Rahman Awad, Mahmoud Magdi Sherif, Eaman Yahya Sadek, Hesham Aly Helal, Wafaa Raafat Abdel Hamid
BACKGROUND: Understanding the female breast fascial system is of paramount importance in breast surgery. Little was written about breast ligaments. Most articles refer to Cooper's work without further anatomical studies. Lately, a horizontal septum has been described conveying nerves and vessels to the nipple areola complex. METHODS: During the surgical dissection of the lower part of the breast, in supero-medial technique for breast reduction operations, a fascial septum between the lower two quadrants was detected...
March 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347885/selective-activation-of-a-few-limbic-structures-during-paradoxical-rem-sleep-by-the-claustrum-and-the-supramammillary-nucleus-evidence-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Francesca Billwiller, Patrice Fort
We review here classical and recent knowledge on the state of the cortex during paradoxical (REM) sleep (PS). Recent data indicate that only a few limbic cortical structures including the anterior cingulate, retrosplenial and medial entorhinal cortices and the dentate gyrus are strongly activated during PS. In contrast, most of the other cortices including the somatosensory ones are rather deactivated during PS. Further, recent results suggest that tonic activation of limbic cortical neurons during PS is due to projections from glutamate neurons of the claustrum and GABA/glutamate neurons of the supramammillary nucleus while their pacing with theta is induced by projections from GABAergic neurons of the medial septum...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#12
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#13
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#14
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323814/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-maxillary-sinus-septa-for-implant-placement
#15
Eliza Dragan, Guillaume A Odri, Gabriel Melian, Danisia Haba, Raphael Olszewski
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate, in 3 dimensions, the maxillary sinus septa as an alternative site for dental implant placement to avoid sinus lift procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 100 dentate and 100 edentate patients with the presence of a maxillary sinus septum by reviewing a larger cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) database from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc in Bruxelles, Belgium...
March 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322084/fine-structure-and-synaptology-of-the-nitrergic-neurons-in-medial-septum-of-the-rat-brain
#16
Katalin Halasy, Balázs Szőke, Gergely Janzsó
The nitrergic neuron population and certain aspects of their connectivity (peptidergic inputs, co-localization with GABA, synaptic target distribution) were studied in the medial septum of the rat brain. The histochemical localization of NADPH diaphorase and immunohistochemical identification of nNOS at light and electron microscopic level was applied. Double-labeling experiments with galanin and leucine enkephalin, moreover the postembedding GABA immunogold staining was also carried out. NADPH diaphorase- and nNOS-immunopositive neurons could be identified inside the borders of medial septum...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318922/surgical-rehabilitation-for-anophthalmic-sockets-devoid-of-orbital-implant
#17
Doo-Ri Eo, Yoon-Duck Kim, Kyung In Woo
PURPOSE: To determine the necessity of rehabilitative surgical procedures for no implant anophthalmic sockets, and predictive factors of corrective operations after secondary orbital implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen unilateral anophthalmic patients without orbital implant were included. The distance of eyebrow, upper eyelid margin, and lower eyelid margin from the horizontal medial canthal line (BM, UM, and LM, respectively) was measured using photographs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294135/bidirectional-control-of-anxiety-related-behaviours-in-mice-role-of-inputs-arising-from-the-ventral-hippocampus-to-the-lateral-septum-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Robin Nguyen, Jee Yoon Bang, Afif Aqrabawi, Matthew M Tran, D Kanghoon Seo, Blake A Richards, Jun Chul Kim
Anxiety is an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. Exaggerated and uncontrolled anxiety responses become maladaptive and lead to anxiety disorders. Anxiety is shaped by a network of forebrain structures, including the hippocampus, septum, and prefrontal cortex. In particular, neural inputs arising from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) to the lateral septum (LS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to serve as principal components of the anxiety circuit. However, the role of vHPC-to-LS and vHPC-to-mPFC signals in anxiety is unclear, as no study has directly compared their behavioural contribution at circuit level...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281854/capsaicin-pretreatment-reversed-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-alleviating-inflammation-via-p38mapk-pathway
#19
Ying Xu, Qin Gu, Chen Qu
Purpose/Aim: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as inflammation. As a kind of tachykinin secreted by nerves and inflammatory cells, substance P (SP) has been proved to be involved in the progression of PAH. Capsaicin can deplete substance P and provide benefits in PAH. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this article, we aim to illustrate the possible mechanism involved in the process of capsaicin alleviating PAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single injection of monocrotaline (MCT) to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was conducted to induce PAH...
February 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279752/novel-spiroimidazopyridine-derivative-sak3-improves-methimazole-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#20
Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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