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Medial Septum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192874/lateral-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-transposition-renaissance-of-an-old-concept-in-the-light-of-new-anatomy
#1
Amgad Hanna
INTRODUCTION: Meralgia paresthetica causes pain in the anterolateral thigh. Most surgical procedures involve nerve transection or decompression. We conducted a cadaveric study to determine the feasibility of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) transposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In three cadavers, the LFCN was exposed in the thigh and retroperitoneum. The two layers of the LFCN canal superficial and deep to the nerve were opened. The nerve was then mobilized medially away from the ASIS, by cutting the septum medial to sartorius...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192082/endocannabinoid-dependent-protection-against-kainic-acid-induced-long-term-alteration-of-brain-oscillations-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Liubov Shubina, Rubin Aliev, Valentina Kitchigina
Changes in rhythmic activity can serve as early biomarkers of pathological alterations, but it remains unclear how different types of rhythmic activity are altered during neurodegenerative processes. Glutamatergic neurotoxicity, evoked by kainic acid (KA), causes hyperexcitation and acute seizures that result in delayed brain damage. We employed wide frequency range (0.1-300 Hz) local field potential recordings in guinea pigs to study the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and amygdala in healthy animals for three months after KA introduction...
February 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161726/medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-medial-septum-contribute-to-self-motion-based-linear-distance-estimation
#3
Pierre-Yves Jacob, Marta Gordillo-Salas, Justine Facchini, Bruno Poucet, Etienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
Path integration is a navigation strategy that requires animals to integrate self-movements during exploration to determine their position in space. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in this process. Grid cells, head-direction cells, border cells as well as speed cells within the MEC collectively provide a dynamic representation of the animal position in space based on the integration of self-movements. All these cells are strongly modulated by theta oscillations, thus suggesting that theta rhythmicity in the MEC may be essential for integrating and coordinating self-movement information during navigation...
February 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152425/stimulation-of-the-medial-septum-improves-performance-in-spatial-learning-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#4
Darrin J Lee, Ali Izadi, Mikhail Melnik, Stacey Seidl, Angela Echeverri, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
Temporal lobe epilepsy often leads to hippocampal sclerosis and persistent cognitive deficits, including difficulty with learning and memory. Hippocampal theta oscillations are critical in optimizing hippocampal function and facilitating plasticity. We hypothesized that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus would disrupt oscillations and behavioral performance and that electrical neuromodulation to entrain theta would improve cognition specifically in injured rats. Rats received a pilocarpine (n=30) or saline injection (n=27) and unilateral bi-polar electrodes were implanted into the medial septum and hippocampus the following day...
January 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146472/gamma-oscillations-organize-top-down-signalling-to-hypothalamus-and-enable-food-seeking
#5
Marta Carus-Cadavieco, Maria Gorbati, Li Ye, Franziska Bender, Suzanne van der Veldt, Christin Kosse, Christoph Börgers, Soo Yeun Lee, Charu Ramakrishnan, Yubin Hu, Natalia Denisova, Franziska Ramm, Emmanouela Volitaki, Denis Burdakov, Karl Deisseroth, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova
Both humans and animals seek primary rewards in the environment, even when such rewards do not correspond to current physiological needs. An example of this is a dissociation between food-seeking behaviour and metabolic needs, a notoriously difficult-to-treat symptom of eating disorders. Feeding relies on distinct cell groups in the hypothalamus, the activity of which also changes in anticipation of feeding onset. The hypothalamus receives strong descending inputs from the lateral septum, which is connected, in turn, with cortical networks, but cognitive regulation of feeding-related behaviours is not yet understood...
February 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116949/the-effect-of-in-situ-decompression-on-ulnar-nerve-stability-a-cadaveric-study
#6
B Butler, J Peelman, L-Q Zhang, M Kwasny, D Nagle
Ten fresh frozen right cadaver arms were placed in a motorized jig and an in-situ ulnar nerve decompression was performed in 5 mm increments distally to the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) aponeurosis then proximally to the intermuscular septum. The elbows were ranged 0-135° after each incremental decompression and the ulnar nerve to medial epicodyle distance was measured to assess for nerve translation/subluxation compared with baseline (prerelease) values. None of the specimens had ulnar nerve subluxation (defined as anterior translation past the medial epicondyle) even after full decompression...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093211/pharmacological-properties-of-sak3-a-novel-t-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channel-enhancer
#7
Yasushi Yabuki, Kazuya Matsuo, Hisanao Izumi, Hidaka Haga, Takashi Yoshida, Minoru Wakamori, Akikazu Kakei, Kenji Sakimura, Takaichi Fukuda, Kohji Fukunaga
T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the cognitive enhancer ST101, which stimulates T-VGCCs in rat cortical slices, was a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. Here, we introduce a more potent T-VGCC enhancer, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), and characterize its pharmacological properties in brain...
January 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065315/nuclear-displacement-and-fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching-frap-assays-to-study-division-site-placement-and-cytokinesis-in-fission-yeast
#8
P Ullal, P Bhatia, S G Martin
Cytokinesis is an essential cellular event that completes the cell division cycle. It begins with the assembly of an actomyosin contractile ring that undergoes constriction concomitant with the septum formation to divide the cell in two. Placement of the septum at the right position is important to ensure fidelity of the division process. In fission yeast, the medially placed nucleus is a major spatial cue to position the site of division. In this chapter, we describe a simple synthetic biology-based approach to displace the nucleus and study the consequence on division site positioning...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050354/a-case-report-on-unilateral-accessory-humeral-head-of-pronator-teres
#9
Suman Verma, Sulochana Sakthivel
The presence of an accessory muscle in the forearm is likely to compress on the neurovascular structures and has clinical implications. We encountered an accessory humeral head of pronator teres during routine dissection of left upper limb in a male cadaver. The accessory head had fleshy origin from medial supracondylar line, medial intermuscular septum and brachialis fascia. It coursed downwards in the cubital region covering brachial artery and median nerve. Further, it narrowed becoming mostly tendinous and joined with the humeral head of pronator teres...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034802/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-dorsal-raphe-inhibits-avoidance-and-escape-reactions-and-activates-forebrain-regions-related-to-the-modulation-of-anxiety-panic
#10
Tatiana Wscieklica, Mariana S C F Silva, Jéssica A Lemes, Liana Melo-Thomas, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
One of the main neurochemical systems associated with anxiety/panic is the serotonergic system originating from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Previous evidence suggests that the DR is composed of distinct subpopulations of neurons, both morphologically and functionally distinct. It seems that mainly the dorsal region of the DR (DRD) regulates anxiety-related reactions, while lateral wings DR (lwDR) serotonin (5-HT) neurons inhibit panic-related responses. In this study we used the technique of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to investigate the role played by the DRD and lwDR in defense...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032174/septum-inferior-medial-sim-based-pedicle-a-safe-pedicle-with-well-preserved-nipple-sensation-for-reduction-in-gigantomastia
#11
Ercan Karacaoglu, Richard J Zienowicz
BACKGROUND: Reduction in breasts with well-preserved nipple sensation and a viable nipple-areola complex (NAC) is one of the basic core concepts of reduction mammoplasty. Many techniques have been described with enthusiasm advocating full achievement of the aforementioned goals. The goal of this study is to introduce a novel technique that provides an intact neurovascular source to the nipple-areola complex for reduction in gigantic breasts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients operated on from December 2010 through April 2015 were included in the study...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032166/periorbital-and-intraorbital-studies-of-the-terminal-branches-of-the-ophthalmic-artery-for-periorbital-and-glabellar-filler-placements
#12
Tanvaa Tansatit, Prawit Apinuntrum, Thavorn Phetudom
BACKGROUND: Filler injections for sunken upper eyelid correction and glabellar augmentation at the orbitoglabellar region need to be performed correctly. Precise knowledge of the emerging sites of all terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery is essential for these procedures to be conducted safely. METHODS: The terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery were studied in both periorbital and intraorbital dissections. The aim of this study was to verify the critical positions of the emerging sites at the orbital septum that may act as potential retrograde channels for filler emboli...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000493/accessory-coracobrachialis-muscle-with-two-bellies-and-abnormal-insertion-case-report
#13
George Paraskevas, Konstantinos Koutsouflianiotis, Kalliopi Iliou, Theodosis Bitsis, Panagiotis Kitsoulis
OBJECTIVE: In the current study a brief review is presented of the coracobrachialis muscle's morphological variability, action, embryological development and clinical significance. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a left-sided coracobrachialis muscle consisting of two bellies. The deep belly inserts into the usual site in the middle area of the anteromedial aspect of the left humerus, whereas the superficial belly inserts through a muscular slip into the brachial fascia and the medial intermuscular septum, forming a musculo-aponeurotic tunnel in the middle region of the left arm, for the passage of the median nerve, brachial artery and veins, medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve and ulnar nerve...
November 2016: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#14
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997037/descending-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain-to-the-orexin-neurons-in-mice
#15
Lindsay J Agostinelli, Loris L Ferrari, Carrie E Mahoney, Takatoshi Mochizuki, Bradford B Lowell, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
The orexin (hypocretin) neurons play an essential role in promoting arousal, and loss of the orexin neurons results in narcolepsy, a condition characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy. The orexin neurons excite wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), and a reciprocal projection from the BF back to the orexin neurons may help promote arousal and motivation. The BF contains at least three different cell types (cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurons) across its different regions (medial septum, diagonal band, magnocellular preoptic area, and substantia innominata)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989057/ventricular-septal-defect-from-aortic-regurgitation-jet-lesion-in-aortic-valve-infective-endocarditis
#16
Sergiu Darabant, Shelby B Oberton, Luis P Roldan, Carlos A Roldan
Aortic valve infective endocarditis (IE) can be complicated with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) jet-related lesions such as vegetations, pseudoaneurysms, aneurysms or perforations on the anterior mitral leaflet. Herein is reported the case of a 69-year-old male with culture-negative aortic valve endocarditis complicated with aortic valve perforations resulting in severe and eccentric AR and an AR jet-related ventricular septal defect (VSD). Neither transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) nor two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE) were unable to clearly discriminate an aorto-right ventricular fistula from a VSD...
March 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940615/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#17
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939976/inhibiting-medial-septal-cholinergic-neurons-with-dreadd-alleviated-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#18
Yu Zhang, Ying-Ying Jiang, Shan Shao, Chan Zhang, Feng-Yu Liu, You Wan, Ming Yi
Cholinergic neurons in the medial septum (MS) participate in a variety of cognitive and emotional behaviors. Some studies but not others show that lesions or inhibition of the MS reduce anxiety-like behaviors and locomotive exploration in rats. However, these conclusions come from manipulations that are either irreversible or non-specific to cholinergic neurons, casting doubt on their validity. With DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs), we temporarily and reversibly inhibited cholinergic neurons in the MS...
December 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930425/the-gracillimus-orbitis-muscle
#19
David R Jordan, Bazil Stoica
The gracillimus orbitis muscle is an anomalous, accessory, or supernumerary extraocular muscle that, although is rarely seen clinically in the human orbit, has been identified in 5% to 14% of dissected cadaver orbits. It arises from the medial surface of the levator near its origin and runs forward between the levator and superior oblique muscles resembling one of the other extraocular muscles. More anteriorly, it becomes thinner, less well defined, and mostly fibrous. Its major insertion is into the fascia surrounding the trochlea, while other fibers may travel to the supratrochlear artery, intermuscular septum, the levator or medial rectus muscle, and the fascia surrounding the superior ophthalmic vein...
December 7, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923975/efficacy-of-nonselective-optogenetic-control-of-the-medial-septum-over-hippocampal-oscillations-the-influence-of-speed-and-implications-for-cognitive-enhancement
#20
Benjamin J Blumberg, Sean P Flynn, Sylvain J Barriere, Philippe R Mouchati, Rod C Scott, Gregory L Holmes, Jeremy M Barry
Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
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