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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916821/reduced-basal-forebrain-atrophy-progression-in-a-randomized-donepezil-trial-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Enrica Cavedo, Michel J Grothe, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Marie Chupin, Didier Dormont, Marion Houot, Stephane Lehéricy, Stefan Teipel, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are approved drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy is reported to precede both entorhinal cortex atrophy and memory impairment in AD, challenging the traditional model of the temporal sequence of topographical pathology associated with AD. We studied the effect of one-year Donepezil treatment on the rate of BFCS atrophy in prodromal AD patients using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Donepezil (10 mg/day)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893971/computed-tomographic-assessment-of-equine-maxillary-cheek-teeth-anatomical-relationships-and-paranasal-sinus-volumes
#2
Tiziana Liuti, Richard Reardon, Paddy M Dixon
Disorders affecting the equine maxillary cheek teeth and paranasal sinuses are relatively common, but limited objective information is available on the dimensions and relationships of these structures in horses of different ages. The aims of this study were to assess age-related changes in the positioning and anatomical relationships of the individual maxillary cheek teeth with the infraorbital canal and maxillary septum and the volumes of the individual sinus compartments. CT and gross examination were performed on 60 normal equine cadaver heads that were aged by their dentition...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887226/reconciling-the-different-faces-of-hippocampal-theta-the-role-of-theta-oscillations-in-cognitive-emotional-and-innate-behaviors
#3
REVIEW
Tatiana Korotkova, Alexey Ponomarenko, Caitlin K Monaghan, Steven L Poulter, Francesca Cacucci, Tom Wills, Michael E Hasselmo, Colin Lever
The theta oscillation (5-10Hz) is a prominent behavior-specific brain rhythm. This review summarizes studies showing the multifaceted role of theta rhythm in cognitive functions, including spatial coding, time coding and memory, exploratory locomotion and anxiety-related behaviors. We describe how activity of hippocampal theta rhythm generators - medial septum, nucleus incertus and entorhinal cortex, links theta with specific behaviors. We review evidence for functions of the theta-rhythmic signaling to subcortical targets, including lateral septum...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882491/anatomic-and-high-resolution-computed-tomographic-angiography-study-of-the-lateral-femoral-condyle-flap-implications-for-surgical-dissection
#4
Mohamed Morsy, Yoo Joon Sur, Osman Akdag, Amr Eisa, Tarek A El-Gammal, Nirusha Lachman, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: The lateral femoral condyle (LFC) flap is a vascularized bone flap based on the superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA). Harvest technique for this flap has not yet been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to better delineate the blood supply to the bone and skin of this flap to allow for a safe and effective harvest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three lower extremities were injected with latex or a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. The SLGA was identified and dissected, documenting the course, diameter, anatomical relations, length, and branches...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857999/transnasal-endoscopic-resection-of-a-pleomorphic-adenoma-originate-from-nasal-floor
#5
Yesun Cho, Yul Gyun Kim, Eunhye Shin, Boo-Young Kim
A 81-year-old female presented to our hospital frequent epistaxis. Nasal endoscopy showed a mass obstructing nasal cavity completely and occupying middle meatus. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, an about 4.8 × 4 × 4.2 cm sized heterogeneous T2 high signal intensity and T1 enhancing mass mainly involving right nasal cavity with invasion of right hard palate with bony destruction. Therefore, the authors planned to do endoscopic mass excision, under general anesthesia for diagnosis and treatment...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857984/levator-aponeurosis-and-muller-muscle-plication-reinforced-with-levator-sheath-advancement-for-blepharoptosis-correction
#6
Jin Suk Byun, Kun Hwang, Sang Yun Lee, Hak Tae Kim, Kenneth Kim
The authors innovated the levator aponeurosis and Muller muscle plication reinforced with levator sheath advancement (AMPSA) for blepharoptosis correction. The orbital septum was opened 1 mm above its fusion with the levator aponeurosis. The preaponeurotic fat was retracted and the thickened part of the levator sheath was identified. Two plication sutures were made: medial suture at the medial border of the pupil and lateral between the lateral border of the pupil and the lateral limbus. A needle with 6-0 nylon thread first bit the tarsal plate approximately 1 mm below its upper border, then bit the levator aponeurosis and the Muller muscle together at 3 to 6 mm above the upper border of the tarsal plate...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855890/arginine-vasotocin-preprohormone-is-expressed-in-surprising-regions-of-the-teleost-forebrain
#7
Mariana Rodriguez-Santiago, Jessica Nguyen, Lin S Winton, Chelsea A Weitekamp, Hans A Hofmann
Nonapeptides play a fundamental role in the regulation of social behavior, among numerous other functions. In particular, arginine vasopressin and its non-mammalian homolog, arginine vasotocin (AVT), have been implicated in regulating affiliative, reproductive, and aggressive behavior in many vertebrate species. Where these nonapeptides are synthesized in the brain has been studied extensively in most vertebrate lineages. While several hypothalamic and forebrain populations of vasopressinergic neurons have been described in amniotes, the consensus suggests that the expression of AVT in the brain of teleost fish is limited to the hypothalamus, specifically the preoptic area (POA) and the anterior tuberal nucleus (putative homolog of the mammalian ventromedial hypothalamus)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807788/adolescent-binge-ethanol-exposure-alters-specific-forebrain-cholinergic-cell-populations-and-leads-to-selective-functional-deficits-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#8
Gina M Fernandez, Lisa M Savage
Adolescence has been identified as a vulnerable developmental time period during which exposure to drugs can have long-lasting, detrimental effects. Although adolescent binge-like ethanol (EtOH) exposure leads to a significant reduction in forebrain cholinergic neurons, EtOH's functional effect on acetylcholine (ACh) release during behavior has yet to be examined. Using an adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure model (AIE), rats were exposed to binge-like levels of EtOH from postnatal days (PD) 25 to 55. Three weeks following the final EtOH exposure, cholinergic functioning was assessed during a spontaneous alternation protocol...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803901/the-cubital-tunnel-syndrome-caused-by-the-intraneural-or-extraneural-ganglion-cysts-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Wen Kai Chang, Yong Ping Li, Deng Feng Zhang, Bing Sheng Liang
Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve compression syndrome in peripheral nerve compression disease. Although potential ulnar nerve entrapment can occur at multiple points along its course, such as the arcade of struthers, the medial intermuscular septum, the medial epicondyle, the cubital tunnel, and the deep flexor pronator aponeurosis, the most common site of entrapment is the cubital tunnel. However, cubital tunnel syndrome could also be caused by the occupying masses along the course of ulnar nerve, such as intraneural or extraneural ganglia...
October 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#10
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789855/a-new-method-for-stabilizing-the-columellar-strut-used-in-rhinoplasty-the-trans-septal-columellar-stabilizing-suture
#11
Jae Yong Jeong, Hyeokjae Kwon, Yibo Piao, Sang-Ha Oh
PURPOSE: Minimal deformity or instability after columellar strut graft (CSG) placement can be solved by placing a suture between the columella strut and the caudal septum, such as a medial crura anchor suture or a projection control suture. However, this is very tedious. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A trans-septal columellar stabilizing suture (TCSS) was developed for the management of final tip projection and location and increasing stability after CSG placement. RESULTS: Tip projection and rotation could be carefully controlled by changing the position of the TCSS...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770434/assessment-of-the-septal-area-neuronal-activity-during-penile-erections-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-waking-in-the-rats
#12
Kamalesh K Gulia, Yukihiko Kayama, Yoshimasa Koyama
To understand the central mechanism of penile erections during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and waking, single units were recorded from the septal area in un-anesthetized head-restrained rats simultaneous with erections. Erectile events were assessed by pressure in the bulb of the corpus spongiosum of the penis and bulbospongiosus-muscle activity. Of 143 recorded neurons, 36% showed increased activity (E-type) and 24% decreased activity (I-type) during different phases of erection in REM sleep, while 10% were E-type and 35% were I-type during erections in waking...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754901/scheduled-feeding-restores-memory-and-modulates-c-fos-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-septohippocampal-complex
#13
Norman F Ruby, Nathan Fisher, Danica F Patton, Matthew J Paul, Fabian Fernandez, H Craig Heller
Disruptions in circadian timing impair spatial memory in humans and rodents. Circadian-arrhythmic Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit substantial deficits in spatial working memory as assessed by a spontaneous alternation (SA) task. The present study found that daily scheduled feeding rescued spatial memory deficits in these arrhythmic animals. Improvements in memory persisted for at least 3 weeks after the arrhythmic hamsters were switched back to ad libitum feeding. During ad libitum feeding, locomotor activity resumed its arrhythmic state, but performance on the SA task varied across the day with a peak in daily performance that corresponded to the previous daily window of food anticipation...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746251/a-case-of-lacrimal-sac-septum-presenting-with-dacryocystocele
#14
Debrelle Lou P Siapno, Kyung In Woo, Yoon-Duck Kim
Lacrimal sac septum is a rare structural abnormality of the lacrimal system. A 15-year-old patient presented with epiphora and a mass inferior to the left medial canthal tendon. Dacryocystography and CT-dacryocystography revealed a dilated lacrimal sac with complete obstruction. A horizontal lacrimal sac septum was found in the mid-sac region during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. Histopathologic examination of the septum revealed chronic inflammation with stratified columnar epithelial cell lining consistent with the lacrimal sac...
July 25, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737555/l-shaped-septal-extension-spreader-graft-for-improvement-of-tip-symmetry-in-unilateral-cleft-lip-nose-deformities
#15
Serkan Sertel, Ioana-Irina Venara-Vulpe, François Gorostidi, Anthony de Buys Roessingh, Philippe Pasche
INTRODUCTION: The unilateral cleft lip nose is characterized by numerous complex and interdependent deformities. Secondary rhinoplasty techniques aim to correct cleft lip nose deformities by using multiple maneuvers combining septum and nasal spine medialization and alar cartilage, as well as soft tissue mobilization and repositioning. Moreover, cartilage grafting is frequently used to restore adequate tip projection and nasal symmetry. We present a technique of cartilage grafting commonly used in noncleft rhinoplasties that we modified for cases of moderate cleft lip nose deformities...
July 22, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734870/elucidation-of-the-neural-circuits-activated-by-a-gabab-receptor-positive-modulator-relevance-to-anxiety
#16
Riccardo Pizzo, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan
Although there is much evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in the pathophysiology of anxiety, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are largely unclear. The GABAB receptor allosteric positive modulator, GS39783, exerts anxiolytic effects without interfering with GABAB-mediated modulation of body temperature, cognitive performance and locomotor activity thus offering advantages over GABAB receptor agonists. However, the precise neural circuits underlying the anxiolytic effects of GS39783 are unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify brain structures and associated neuronal circuits that are modulated by GS39783 under either basal or mild stress conditions...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716173/central-compartment-atopic-disease
#17
John M DelGaudio, Patricia A Loftus, Aneeza W Hamizan, Richard J Harvey, Sarah K Wise
BACKGROUND: Isolated polypoid changes of the middle turbinate were recently reported as having a high association with inhalant allergy. A more advanced manifestation of this association may present as polypoid changes of the entire central sinonasal compartment (i.e., the middle and superior turbinates, and the posterosuperior nasal septum), while the lateral sinus mucosa remains relatively normal. OBJECTIVE: To introduce and describe this newly recognized variant of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), termed central compartment atopic disease (CCAD)...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713742/conservative-surgical-approach-to-restore-necrotic-columella-in-patients-undergoing-neonatal-usage-of-nasogastric-tube
#18
Francesco Inchingolo, Fabio Massimo Abenavoli, Francesca De Angelis, Alessandro Orefici, Luigi Santacroce, Gianna Dipalma
CONTEXT: A common complication, related to the use of nasogastric tube during the 1(st) day of life, is the necrosis of the columella. Esthetic damage in the early age typically leads to a healing request with very high result expectations. AIMS: We aimed to develop and use an innovative surgical technique. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We used our technique in four cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Our technique requires two flaps designed with two paramedian release incisions...
January 2017: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702393/the-arcade-of-struthers-an-anatomical-study-and-clinical-implications
#19
Edie Benedito Caetano, João José Sabongi Neto, Luiz Angelo Vieira, Maurício Ferreira Caetano
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and features of the arcade of Struthers, and to assess its clinical implication in ulnar nerve compression. METHOD: Forty arms from 26 cadaver specimens were dissected in the Anatomy Laboratory of this institution. The extension of the arcade, distance from the medial epicondyle, and relation with ulnar nerve were recorded. RESULTS: The arcade of Struthers was identified in 40 dissected arms (100%). In 29 (72...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695319/acute-impact-of-selected-pyridoindole-derivatives-on-fos-expression-in-different-structures-of-the-rat-brain
#20
Romana Koprdova, Jana Osacka, Mojmir Mach, Alexander Kiss
The impacts of three pyridoindole derivatives (PDs), designated as PD144, PD143, and PD104, which have previously been shown to have antidepressant (PD144) and anxiolytic (PD143, PD104) properties, were investigated on the Fos expressions in 11 different rat brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, septum, accumbens nucleus (shell, core), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, central amygdala, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the solitary tract nucleus...
July 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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