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Medial Septum

Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jiang Hong, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL),which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chen Liu, Xiao-Min Jiang, Juan Zhang, Bing Li, Jing Li, Du-Jiang Xie, Zuo-Ying Hu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly accompanied with the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) reduces PAH partly through the inhibition of RAAS. Analogically, we hypothesized that pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) could reverse PAH and PAH-induced right ventricular (RV) dysfunction by downregulating the local RAAS activity. METHODS: Twenty-five beagle dogs were randomized into two groups: control group (intra-atrial injection of N-dimethylacetamide, 3 mg/kg, n = 6) and test group (intra-atrial injection of dehydrogenized-monocrotaline, 3 mg/kg, n = 19)...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Kyuhyun Choi, Youngin Lee, Changwoo Lee, Seokheon Hong, Soonje Lee, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Uwe Mayer, Orsola Rosa-Salva, Giorgio Vallortigara
The septal nuclei are an evolutionarily well-conserved part of the limbic system, present in all vertebrate groups. Functionally, septal nuclei are involved in many important aspects of social behavior and lateral septum is considered a node of the social decision making network, together with amygdaloid nuclei. Given the importance of septal nuclei for social behaviors, it is somewhat surprising that it has never been investigated whether they are involved in early social responses of naïve animals. In the present study we wanted to know if simple exposure of visually naïve newly hatched chicks to a visual object (an alive, behaving conspecific), that also contains all features to which chicks are known to express early social predispositions, will selectively activate septal areas...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Catherine T Clinard, Abigail K Barnes, Samuel G Adler, Matthew A Cooper
Winning aggressive disputes is one of several experiences that can alter responses to future stressful events. We have previously tested dominant and subordinate male Syrian hamsters in a conditioned defeat model and found that dominant individuals show less change in behavior following social defeat stress compared to subordinates and controls, indicating a reduced conditioned defeat response. Resistance to the effects of social defeat in dominants is experience-dependent and requires the maintenance of dominance relationships for 14days...
September 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Diana Olivo, Mario Caba, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Juan F Rodríguez-Landa, Aleph A Corona-Morales
When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Shenyue Qin, Mayur Madhavan, Ronald R Waclaw, Masato Nakafuku, Kenneth Campbell
In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line driving Cre and EGFP expression with two putative cis-regulatory elements (CRMs) (i.e. hs687 and hs678) upstream of the homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2), a critical gene for establishing lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) identity. The combination of these two CRMs drives transgene expression within the endogenous Gsx2 expression domains along the anterior-posterior neuraxis. By crossing this transgenic line with the Rosa(tdTomato) (Ai14) reporter mouse line, we observed a unique recombination pattern in the lateral ventral telencephalon, namely the LGE and the dorsal half of the medial GE (MGE), but not in the septum...
September 12, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Eric D Melonakos, John A White, Fernando R Fernandez
Hippocampal network oscillations are important for learning and memory. Theta rhythms are involved in attention, navigation, and memory encoding, whereas sharp wave-ripple complexes are involved in memory consolidation. Cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DB) influence both types of hippocampal oscillations, promoting theta rhythms and suppressing sharp wave-ripples. They also receive frequency-dependent hyperpolarizing feedback from hippocamposeptal connections, potentially affecting their role as neuromodulators in the septohippocampal circuit...
September 2, 2016: Hippocampus
Francisco J D MacArthur, Gerald W McGarry
With the development of endonasal flaps, an understanding of the arterial anatomy of the nasal cavity has become increasingly important for clinicians. Despite this, there is a lack of current, accurate overviews in the literature. We have used both endoscopic and gross dissection of six fresh frozen cadaveric heads, alongside a literature review, to produce a comprehensive description of the anatomy. Four heads had their arterial systems injected with red latex. Three injected and two uninjected heads were dissected endoscopically, to provide a total of seven sides...
August 27, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Michelle L Tomaszycki, Kimberly K Richardson, Kyle J Mann
The nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated in a variety of social behaviors. In zebra finches, oxytocin antagonists decrease pairing in both sexes, and pairing, in turn, increases expression of both mesotocin (the avian homologue of oxytocin) and vasotocin (the avian homologue of vasopressin). Increases in mesotocin and vasotocin mRNA are correlated with the amount of directed singing by males. Thus, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that activation of cells containing nonapeptide receptors in song-related regions (ventral tegmental area, lateral septum, and medial preoptic nucleus) would also be correlated with directed singing in males...
October 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Martín M Puddington, M Florencia Daneri, Mauricio R Papini, Rubén N Muzio
The present study explores passive avoidance learning and its neural basis in toads (Rhinella arenarum). In Experiment 1, two groups of toads learned to move from a lighted compartment into a dark compartment. After responding, animals in the experimental condition were exposed to an 800-mM strongly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to weight loss. Control animals received exposure to a 300-mM slightly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to neither weight gain nor loss. After 10 daily acquisition trials, animals in the experimental group showed significantly longer latency to enter the dark compartment...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Robin Hayman, Neil Burgess
Hinman et al. demonstrate the presence of two speed signals in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex that are differentially affected by muscimol inactivation of medial septum. The results reveal important constraints on several computational models of grid cell firing.
August 3, 2016: Neuron
Joanne C Damborsky, Kathleen G Smith, Patricia Jensen, Jerrel L Yakel
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of hippocampal and cortical activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a significant loss and dysfunction of cholinergic neurons within the BF, and also a hypertrophy of fibers containing the neuropeptide galanin. Understanding how galanin interacts with BF circuitry is critical in determining what role galanin overexpression plays in the progression of AD. Here, we examined the location and function of galanin in the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DBB) region of the BF...
August 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Milos Kovacevic, Frank Riedel, Abdülkadir Göksel, Jochen Wurm
Prevention of unfavorable sequelae following humpectomy in reduction rhinoplasty by restoration of the middle nasal vault complex today has become imperative in the majority of patients with perhaps the exception of small humps. In general, the techniques used for preservation and reconstruction of these important anatomical structures can be divided into two main categories: spreader graft and spreader flap techniques. Oversimplified spreader graft techniques require donor cartilage, whereas spreader flap techniques use the excess height of the medial portion of the upper lateral cartilages in patients with a cartilaginous hump...
August 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
A R Chappell, S M Freeman, Y K Lin, J L LaPrairie, K Inoue, L J Young, L D Hayes
Social monogamy is a mating strategy rarely employed by mammalian species. Laboratory studies in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) demonstrate that oxytocin and vasopressin act within the mesolimbic dopamine pathway to facilitate pair-bond formation. Species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) distribution in this pathway are associated with species differences in mating strategy. Here we characterize the neuroanatomical distribution of OTR and V1aR binding sites in naturally occurring populations of Taiwan voles (M...
June 2016: Journal of Zoology: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
Polymnia Georgiou, Panos Zanos, Susanna Hourani, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey
The key problem in treating cocaine addiction is the maintenance of a drug-free state as negative emotional symptoms during abstinence often trigger relapse. The mechanisms underpinning the emotional dysregulation during abstinence are currently not well-understood. There is evidence suggesting a role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in the modulation of drug addiction processes. However, its involvement during long-term abstinence from cocaine use remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to behaviourally characterize a mouse model of long-term cocaine withdrawal and assess the effect of chronic cocaine administration and long-term cocaine abstinence on the central oxytocinergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Thomaz Lüscher Dias, Hudson Fernandes Golino, Vinícius Elias Moura de Oliveira, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes, Grace Schenatto Pereira
The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Seok Ting Ang, Mohammed Zacky Ariffin, Sanjay Khanna
The forebrain medial septum, which is an integral part of the septo-hippocampal network, is implicated in sensorimotor integration, fear and anxiety, and spatial learning and memory. A body of evidence also suggests that the septal region affects experimental pain. Indeed, some explorations in humans have raised the possibility that the region may modulate clinical pain as well. This review explores the evidence that implicates the medial septum in nociception and suggests that non-overlapping circuits in the region facilitate acute nociceptive behaviors and defensive behaviors that reflect affect and cognitive appraisal, especially in relation to persistent nociception...
July 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
James R Hinman, Mark P Brandon, Jason R Climer, G William Chapman, Michael E Hasselmo
Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) can be modeled using oscillatory interference or attractor dynamic mechanisms that perform path integration, a computation requiring information about running direction and speed. The two classes of computational models often use either an oscillatory frequency or a firing rate that increases as a function of running speed. Yet it is currently not known whether these are two manifestations of the same speed signal or dissociable signals with potentially different anatomical substrates...
August 3, 2016: Neuron
Himanshu Meghwani, Pankaj Prabhakar, Soheb A Mohammed, Sandeep Seth, Milind P Hote, Sanjay K Banerjee, Sudheer Arava, Ruma Ray, Subir Kumar Maulik
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) is widely used in Ayurveda in various cardiovascular diseases. Many animal and clinical studies have validated its anti-ischemic, antihypertensive, antihypertrophic and antioxidant effects. Pulmonary hypertension (pH) is a fatal disease which causes right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure. Pulmonary vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy and increased oxidative stress are major pathological features of pH...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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