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Medial Septum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753777/surgically-assisted-rapid-palatal-expansion-in-class-iii-malocclusion-our-experience
#1
A Barrabé, C Meyer, H Bonomi, Weber Elise, N Sigaux, A Louvrier
INTRODUCTION: Maxillary transverse deficiency (MTD) is a common facial disharmony that may need surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). The aim of this study was to present our SARPE technique and to report about our experience. MATERIEL AND METHOD: Medical records of all class III patients who underwent SARPE in our department from 2010 to 2015 and for whom a follow-up of at least 1 year was available, were included in a retrospective study. The technic consisted, after short orthodontic preparation allowing for divergence of the upper central incisors, in a complete Le Fort I osteotomy without down fracture, and medial sagittal submucosal separation of the hard palate under general anesthesia in an inpatient procedure...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736736/the-medial-septum-is-insulin-resistant-in-the-ad-presymptomatic-phase-rescue-by-nerve-growth-factor-driven-irs-1-activation
#2
Valentina Sposato, Nadia Canu, Elena Fico, Salvatore Fusco, Giulia Bolasco, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Matteo Spinelli, Delio Mercanti, Claudio Grassi, Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) are key modulators of learning and memory and are high energy-demanding neurons. Impaired neuronal metabolism and reduced insulin signaling, known as insulin resistance, has been reported in the early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested to be "Type 3 Diabetes." We hypothesized that BFCN may develop insulin resistance and their consequent failure represents one of the earliest event in AD. We found that a condition reminiscent of insulin resistance occurs in the medial septum of 3 months old 3×Tg-AD mice, reported to develop typical AD histopathology and cognitive deficits in adulthood...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706978/exploring-cell-wall-composition-and-modifications-during-the-development-of-the-gynoecium-medial-domain-in-arabidopsis
#3
Humberto Herrera-Ubaldo, Stefan de Folter
In Arabidopsis , the gynoecium, the inner whorl of the flower, is the female reproductive part. Many tissues important for fertilization such as the stigma, style, transmitting tract, placenta, ovules, and septum, comprising the medial domain, arise from the carpel margin meristem. During gynoecium development, septum fusion occurs and tissues form continuously to prepare for a successful pollination and fertilization. During gynoecium development, cell wall modifications take place and one of the most important is the formation of the transmitting tract, having a great impact on reproductive competence because it facilitates pollen tube growth and movement through the ovary...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682985/the-7-structures-distal-to-the-elbow-that-are-critical-to-successful-anterior-transposition-of-the-ulnar-nerve
#4
John M Felder, Susan E Mackinnon, Megan M Patterson
BACKGROUND: Ulnar nerve transposition (UNT) surgery is performed for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. Improperly performed UNT can create iatrogenic pain and neuropathy. The aim of this study is to identify anatomical structures distal to the medial epicondyle that should be recognized by all surgeons performing UNT to prevent postoperative neuropathy. METHODS: Ten cadaveric specimens were dissected with attention to the ulnar nerve. Intramuscular UNT surgery was simulated in each...
April 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682503/imaging-behavior-and-endocrine-analysis-of-jealousy-in-a-monogamous-primate
#5
Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, Donald R Williams, William A Mason, Simon R Cherry, Douglas J Rowland, Thomas Schaefer, Karen L Bales
Understanding the neurobiology of social bonding in non-human primates is a critical step in understanding the evolution of monogamy, as well as understanding the neural substrates for emotion and behavior. Coppery titi monkeys ( Callicebus cupreus ) form strong pair bonds, characterized by selective preference for their pair mate, mate-guarding, physiological and behavioral agitation upon separation, and social buffering. Mate-guarding, or the "maintenance" phase of pair bonding, is relatively under-studied in primates...
October 2017: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656045/distribution-and-morphology-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus-of-an-induced-ovulator-the-llama-lama-glama
#6
Rodrigo A Carrasco, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide involved in the regulation of reproduction in all mammals, but the distribution of GnRH neurons within the brain varies widely among species. The objective of the present study was to characterize the number and distribution of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus and preoptic area of llamas, an induced ovulator. The brains of female llamas (n = 4) were fixed, frozen and sectioned serially every 50 microns in the transverse (coronal) plane. Every 10th section was stained for immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-positive neuron cell bodies and fibers by incubation with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620525/shared-rhythmic-subcortical-gabaergic-input-to-the-entorhinal-cortex-and-presubiculum
#7
Tim James Viney, Minas Salib, Abhilasha Joshi, Gunes Unal, Naomi Berry, Peter Somogyi
Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum...
April 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597200/acute-treatment-with-t-type-calcium-channel-enhancer-sak3-reduces-cognitive-impairments-caused-by-methimazole-induced-hypothyroidism-via-activation-of-cholinergic-signaling
#8
Noreen Husain, Yasushi Yabuki, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji Fukunaga
Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is associated with psychological disturbances such as dementia, depression, and psychomotor disorders. We recently found that chronic treatment with the T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 prevents the cholinergic neurodegeneration induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of methimazole (MMI; 75 mg/kg), thereby improving cognition. Here, we evaluated the acute effect of SAK3 on cognitive impairments and its mechanism of action following the induction of hypothyroidism...
March 29, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531007/uterus-septus-subtotalis-bicollis-a-rare-mullerian-duct-abnormality
#9
Paloma Del C Monroig-Bosque, Ekene I Okoye
Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. Septate uterus is the most common, resulting from incomplete resorption of the medial septum after fusion of the Mullerian ducts. Two main types of septate uterus exist, including septa that extend completely or partially from the uterine fundus to the cervical os. The combination of a uterine septum with a double cervix has been previously described; however, in most cases the septum was complete...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526735/modeling-down-syndrome-with-patient-ipscs-reveals-cellular-and-migration-deficits-of-gabaergic-neurons
#10
Hai-Qin Huo, Zhuang-Yin Qu, Fang Yuan, Lixiang Ma, Lin Yao, Min Xu, Yao Hu, Jing Ji, Anita Bhattacharyya, Su-Chun Zhang, Yan Liu
The brain of Down syndrome (DS) patients exhibits fewer interneurons in the cerebral cortex, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. By morphometric analysis of cortical interneurons generated from DS and euploid induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we found that DS GABA neurons are smaller and with fewer neuronal processes. The proportion of calretinin over calbindin GABA neurons is reduced, and the neuronal migration capacity is decreased. Such phenotypes were replicated following transplantation of the DS GABAergic progenitors into the mouse medial septum...
April 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521750/localization-of-the-maxillary-ostium-in-relation-to-the-reduction-of-depressed-nasomaxillary-fractures
#11
Kun Hwang, XiaJing Wu, Hun Kim, Young Hye Kang
The aim of this study was to elucidate the precise location of the maxillary ostium using computed tomography for the reduction of depressed nasomaxillary fractures.Computed tomography images (61 males, 42 females; age range, 3-97 years) were analyzed. Coronal sections were cut every 3 mm.The primary maxillary ostium (PMO) was located 24.7% ± 3.9% of bizygomatic distance (BZD) lateral to septum. The horizontal distance of the PMO significantly increased with age (P = 0.032). The PMO was located 53...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496614/segregation-of-the-human-basal-forebrain-using-resting-state-functional-mri
#12
Ross D Markello, R Nathan Spreng, Wen-Ming Luh, Adam K Anderson, Eve De Rosa
The basal forebrain (BF) is poised to play an important neuromodulatory role in brain regions important to cognition due to its broad projections and complex neurochemistry. While significant in vivo work has been done to elaborate BF function in nonhuman rodents and primates, comparatively limited work has examined the in vivo function of the human BF. In the current study we used multi-echo resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) from 100 young adults (18-34 years) to assess the potential segregation of human BF nuclei as well as their associated projections...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488134/visualization-of-altered-hippocampal-connectivity-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Seong Gak Jeon, Yong Jun Kim, Kyoung Ah Kim, Inhee Mook-Jung, Minho Moon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Despite the pathological importance of the hippocampal degeneration in AD, little topographical evidence exists of impaired hippocampal connectivity in patients with AD. To investigate the anatomical connections of the hippocampus, we injected the neurotracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3'3,3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) into the hippocampi of 5XFAD mice, which were used as an animal model of AD...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487212/target-selectivity-of-septal-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-medial-and-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#14
Srinidhi Desikan, David E Koser, Angela Neitz, Hannah Monyer
The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays a pivotal role in processing and conveying spatial information to the hippocampus. It has long been known that EC neurons are modulated by cholinergic input from the medial septum. However, little is known as to how synaptic release of acetylcholine affects the different cell types in EC. Here we combined optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings to study the effect of cholinergic axon stimulation on distinct neurons in EC. We found dense cholinergic innervations that terminate in layer I and II (LI and LII)...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450645/brain-c-fos-expression-patterns-induced-by-emotional-stressors-differing-in-nature-and-intensity
#15
Jesús Úbeda-Contreras, Ignacio Marín-Blasco, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
Regardless of its particular nature, emotional stressors appear to elicit a widespread and roughly similar brain activation pattern as evaluated by c-fos expression. However, their behavioral and physiological consequences may strongly differ. Here we addressed in adult male rats the contribution of the intensity and the particular nature of stressors by comparing, in a set of brain areas, the number of c-fos expressing neurons in response to open-field, cat odor or immobilization on boards (IMO). These are qualitatively different stressors that are known to differ in terms of intensity, as evaluated by biological markers...
February 15, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448033/environmental-enrichment-decreases-avoidance-responses-in-the-elevated-t-maze-and-delta-fosb-immunoreactivity-in-anxiety-related-brain-regions
#16
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Sueur-Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
May 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442559/neural-mechanisms-of-navigation-involving-interactions-of-cortical-and-subcortical-structures
#17
James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Andrew Alexander, Michael E Hasselmo
Animals must perform spatial navigation for a range of different behaviors, including selection of trajectories toward goal locations and foraging for food sources. To serve this function, a number of different brain regions play a role in coding different dimensions of sensory input important for spatial behavior, including the entorhinal cortex, the retrosplenial cortex, the hippocampus and the medial septum. This article will review data concerning the coding of the spatial aspects of animal behavior, including location of the animal within an environment, the speed of movement, the trajectory of movement, the direction of the head in the environment, and the position of barriers and objects both relative to the animal's head direction (egocentric) and relative to the layout of the environment (allocentric)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439241/near-infrared-deep-brain-stimulation-via-upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-optogenetics
#18
Shuo Chen, Adam Z Weitemier, Xiao Zeng, Linmeng He, Xiyu Wang, Yanqiu Tao, Arthur J Y Huang, Yuki Hashimotodani, Masanobu Kano, Hirohide Iwasaki, Laxmi Kumar Parajuli, Shigeo Okabe, Daniel B Loong Teh, Angelo H All, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Kenji F Tanaka, Xiaogang Liu, Thomas J McHugh
Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits and holds promise for the treatment of neurological disorders. It is limited, however, because visible light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light and emit wavelength-specific visible light. Here, we demonstrate that molecularly tailored UCNPs can serve as optogenetic actuators of transcranial NIR light to stimulate deep brain neurons. Transcranial NIR UCNP-mediated optogenetics evoked dopamine release from genetically tagged neurons in the ventral tegmental area, induced brain oscillations through activation of inhibitory neurons in the medial septum, silenced seizure by inhibition of hippocampal excitatory cells, and triggered memory recall...
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410218/cholinergic-neurons-in-medial-septum-maintain-anxiety-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#19
Ying-Ying Jiang, Yu Zhang, Shuang Cui, Feng-Yu Liu, Ming Yi, You Wan
Cholinergic neurons in the medial septum (MS) participate in various cognitive and emotional behaviors, including innate anxiety. Chronic pain involves perceptual, cognitive and emotional components. Whether MS cholinergic system modulates pain-induced anxiety and the underlying neural circuits are involved remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that chemogenetic (DREADD) inhibition of MS cholinergic neurons relieved pain-induced anxiety-like behaviors in open field and elevated plus maze tests. Inhibiting the MS-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), but not the MS-ventral hippocampal CA1 pathway, achieved anxiolysis...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409252/arthroscopic-approach-to-the-spring-calcaneonavicular-ligament
#20
T H Lui, C Y D Mak
BACKGROUND: This research studied the safety and efficacy of a new portal to the spring ligament. This portal is located just plantar to the insertion of the posterior tibial tendon and above the fibrous septum between the posterior tibial and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. METHODS: Twelve fresh frozen foot and ankle specimens were used. The distance between the accessory medial portal and the medial plantar nerve was measured. The relation between the medial plantar nerve and the spring ligament was studied...
March 8, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
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