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Medial Septum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#1
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#2
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338740/the-role-of-vip-in-social-behavior-neural-hotspots-for-the-modulation-of-affiliation-aggression-and-parental-care
#3
Marcy A Kingsbury, Leah C Wilson
Although the modulation of social behaviors by most major neurochemical systems has been explored, there are still standouts, including the study of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP is a modulator of circadian, reproductive, and seasonal rhythms and is well known for its role in reproductive behavior, as it is the main vertebrate prolactin-releasing hormone. Originally isolated as a gut peptide, VIP and its cognate receptors are present in virtually every brain area that is important for social behavior, including all nodes of the core "social behavior network" (SBN)...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323814/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-maxillary-sinus-septa-for-implant-placement
#4
Eliza Dragan, Guillaume A Odri, Gabriel Melian, Danisia Haba, Raphael Olszewski
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate, in 3 dimensions, the maxillary sinus septa as an alternative site for dental implant placement to avoid sinus lift procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 100 dentate and 100 edentate patients with the presence of a maxillary sinus septum by reviewing a larger cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) database from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc in Bruxelles, Belgium...
March 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322084/fine-structure-and-synaptology-of-the-nitrergic-neurons-in-medial-septum-of-the-rat-brain
#5
Katalin Halasy, Balázs Szőke, Gergely Janzsó
The nitrergic neuron population and certain aspects of their connectivity (peptidergic inputs, co-localization with GABA, synaptic target distribution) were studied in the medial septum of the rat brain. The histochemical localization of NADPH diaphorase and immunohistochemical identification of nNOS at light and electron microscopic level was applied. Double-labeling experiments with galanin and leucine enkephalin, moreover the postembedding GABA immunogold staining was also carried out. NADPH diaphorase- and nNOS-immunopositive neurons could be identified inside the borders of medial septum...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318922/surgical-rehabilitation-for-anophthalmic-sockets-devoid-of-orbital-implant
#6
Doo-Ri Eo, Yoon-Duck Kim, Kyung In Woo
PURPOSE: To determine the necessity of rehabilitative surgical procedures for no implant anophthalmic sockets, and predictive factors of corrective operations after secondary orbital implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen unilateral anophthalmic patients without orbital implant were included. The distance of eyebrow, upper eyelid margin, and lower eyelid margin from the horizontal medial canthal line (BM, UM, and LM, respectively) was measured using photographs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294135/bidirectional-control-of-anxiety-related-behaviours-in-mice-role-of-inputs-arising-from-the-ventral-hippocampus-to-the-lateral-septum-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#7
Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Robin Nguyen, Jee Yoon Bang, Afif Aqrabawi, Matthew M Tran, D Kanghoon Seo, Blake A Richards, Jun Chul Kim
Anxiety is an adaptive response to potentially threatening situations. Exaggerated and uncontrolled anxiety responses become maladaptive and lead to anxiety disorders. Anxiety is shaped by a network of forebrain structures, including the hippocampus, septum, and prefrontal cortex. In particular, neural inputs arising from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) to the lateral septum (LS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to serve as principal components of the anxiety circuit. However, the role of vHPC-to-LS and vHPC-to-mPFC signals in anxiety is unclear, as no study has directly compared their behavioural contribution at circuit level...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281854/capsaicin-pretreatment-reversed-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-alleviating-inflammation-via-p38mapk-pathway
#8
Ying Xu, Qin Gu, Chen Qu
Purpose/aim: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling as well as inflammation. As a kind of tachykinin secreted by nerves and inflammatory cells, substance P (SP) has been proved to be involved in the progression of PAH. Capsaicin can deplete substance P and provide benefits in PAH. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this article, we aim to illustrate the possible mechanism involved in the process of capsaicin alleviating PAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single injection of monocrotaline (MCT) to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was conducted to induce PAH...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279752/novel-spiroimidazopyridine-derivative-sak3-improves-methimazole-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#9
Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga
Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 potentially improves cognitive impairment seen following MMI-induced hypothyroidism...
March 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264667/identifying-the-appropriate-time-for-deep-brain-stimulation-to-achieve-spatial-memory-improvement-on-the-morris-water-maze
#10
Da Un Jeong, Jihyeon Lee, Won Seok Chang, Jin Woo Chang
BACKGROUND: The possibility of using deep brain stimulation (DBS) for memory enhancement has recently been reported, but the precise underlying mechanisms of its effects remain unknown. Our previous study suggested that spatial memory improvement by medial septum (MS)-DBS may be associated with cholinergic regulation and neurogenesis. However, the affected stage of memory could not be distinguished because the stimulation was delivered during the execution of all memory processes. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the stage of memory affected by MS-DBS...
March 7, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241047/hippocampal-ca3-activation-alleviates-fmri-bold-responses-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-electrical-vta-stimulation
#11
Thomas Scherf, Frank Angenstein
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain- wide networks that are activated by electrical stimulation of either the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or hippocampal CA3 region. Stimulation of either one of these regions caused significant BOLD responses in common structures, such as the septum and left and right hippocampus, but also in unique structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex region/anterior cingulum region (mPFC/ACC) and striatum, which were only activated during VTA stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237546/seasonal-variation-in-telencephalon-cell-proliferation-in-adult-female-tsinling-dwarf-skinks-scincella-tsinlingensis
#12
Chun Yang, Limin Wang, Xiangyang Xing, Yanyan Gao, Li Guo
In adult mammals, neurogenesis is limited to specific niches in the brain, but considerable adult neurogenesis occurs in many brain regions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Non-mammalian vertebrates provide invaluablecomparativematerial for understanding the core mechanisms ofadultneural stem cell maintenance and fate, but phylogenetic differences in adult neurogenesis remain poorly understood. Here we examine cell proliferation seasonality in the telencephalon of adult female tsinling dwarf skinks (Scincella tsinlingensis) by injecting wild animals caught in summer, autumn and spring, and animals caught in autumn and raised under winter conditions, with 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)...
February 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192874/lateral-femoral-cutaneous-nerve-transposition-renaissance-of-an-old-concept-in-the-light-of-new-anatomy
#13
Amgad S Hanna
Meralgia paresthetica causes pain in the anterolateral thigh. Most surgical procedures involve nerve transection or decompression. We conducted a cadaveric study to determine the feasibility of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) transposition. In three cadavers, the LFCN was exposed in the thigh and retroperitoneum. The two layers of the LFCN canal superficial and deep to the nerve were opened. The nerve was then mobilized medially away from the ASIS, by cutting the septum medial to sartorius. It was possible to mobilize the nerve for 2 cm medial to the ASIS...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192082/endocannabinoid-dependent-protection-against-kainic-acid-induced-long-term-alteration-of-brain-oscillations-in-guinea-pigs
#14
Liubov Shubina, Rubin Aliev, Valentina Kitchigina
Changes in rhythmic activity can serve as early biomarkers of pathological alterations, but it remains unclear how different types of rhythmic activity are altered during neurodegenerative processes. Glutamatergic neurotoxicity, evoked by kainic acid (KA), causes hyperexcitation and acute seizures that result in delayed brain damage. We employed wide frequency range (0.1-300Hz) local field potential recordings in guinea pigs to study the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and amygdala in healthy animals for three months after KA introduction...
April 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161726/medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-medial-septum-contribute-to-self-motion-based-linear-distance-estimation
#15
Pierre-Yves Jacob, Marta Gordillo-Salas, Justine Facchini, Bruno Poucet, Etienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
Path integration is a navigation strategy that requires animals to integrate self-movements during exploration to determine their position in space. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in this process. Grid cells, head-direction cells, border cells as well as speed cells within the MEC collectively provide a dynamic representation of the animal position in space based on the integration of self-movements. All these cells are strongly modulated by theta oscillations, thus suggesting that theta rhythmicity in the MEC may be essential for integrating and coordinating self-movement information during navigation...
February 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152425/stimulation-of-the-medial-septum-improves-performance-in-spatial-learning-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#16
Darrin J Lee, Ali Izadi, Mikhail Melnik, Stacey Seidl, Angela Echeverri, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
Temporal lobe epilepsy often leads to hippocampal sclerosis and persistent cognitive deficits, including difficulty with learning and memory. Hippocampal theta oscillations are critical in optimizing hippocampal function and facilitating plasticity. We hypothesized that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus would disrupt oscillations and behavioral performance and that electrical neuromodulation to entrain theta would improve cognition specifically in injured rats. Rats received a pilocarpine (n=30) or saline injection (n=27) and unilateral bi-polar electrodes were implanted into the medial septum and hippocampus the following day...
February 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146472/gamma-oscillations-organize-top-down-signalling-to-hypothalamus-and-enable-food-seeking
#17
Marta Carus-Cadavieco, Maria Gorbati, Li Ye, Franziska Bender, Suzanne van der Veldt, Christin Kosse, Christoph Börgers, Soo Yeun Lee, Charu Ramakrishnan, Yubin Hu, Natalia Denisova, Franziska Ramm, Emmanouela Volitaki, Denis Burdakov, Karl Deisseroth, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova
Both humans and animals seek primary rewards in the environment, even when such rewards do not correspond to current physiological needs. An example of this is a dissociation between food-seeking behaviour and metabolic needs, a notoriously difficult-to-treat symptom of eating disorders. Feeding relies on distinct cell groups in the hypothalamus, the activity of which also changes in anticipation of feeding onset. The hypothalamus receives strong descending inputs from the lateral septum, which is connected, in turn, with cortical networks, but cognitive regulation of feeding-related behaviours is not yet understood...
February 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116949/the-effect-of-in-situ-decompression-on-ulnar-nerve-stability-a-cadaveric-study
#18
B Butler, J Peelman, L-Q Zhang, M Kwasny, D Nagle
Ten fresh frozen right cadaver arms were placed in a motorized jig and an in-situ ulnar nerve decompression was performed in 5 mm increments distally to the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) aponeurosis then proximally to the intermuscular septum. The elbows were ranged 0-135° after each incremental decompression and the ulnar nerve to medial epicodyle distance was measured to assess for nerve translation/subluxation compared with baseline (prerelease) values. None of the specimens had ulnar nerve subluxation (defined as anterior translation past the medial epicondyle) even after full decompression...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093211/pharmacological-properties-of-sak3-a-novel-t-type-voltage-gated-ca-2-channel-enhancer
#19
Yasushi Yabuki, Kazuya Matsuo, Hisanao Izumi, Hidaka Haga, Takashi Yoshida, Minoru Wakamori, Akikazu Kakei, Kenji Sakimura, Takaichi Fukuda, Kohji Fukunaga
T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the cognitive enhancer ST101, which stimulates T-VGCCs in rat cortical slices, was a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. Here, we introduce a more potent T-VGCC enhancer, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), and characterize its pharmacological properties in brain...
January 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065315/nuclear-displacement-and-fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching-frap-assays-to-study-division-site-placement-and-cytokinesis-in-fission-yeast
#20
P Ullal, P Bhatia, S G Martin
Cytokinesis is an essential cellular event that completes the cell division cycle. It begins with the assembly of an actomyosin contractile ring that undergoes constriction concomitant with the septum formation to divide the cell in two. Placement of the septum at the right position is important to ensure fidelity of the division process. In fission yeast, the medially placed nucleus is a major spatial cue to position the site of division. In this chapter, we describe a simple synthetic biology-based approach to displace the nucleus and study the consequence on division site positioning...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
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