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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449208/complex-modulation-by-stress-of-the-effect-of-seizures-on-long-term-potentiation-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#1
Nicola Maggio, Efrat Shavit Stein, Menahem Segal
Stress has a profound effect on ability to express neuronal plasticity, learning and memory. Likewise, epileptic seizures lead to massive changes in brain connectivity, and in ability to undergo long term changes in reactivity to afferent stimulation. In the present study we analyzed possible long lasting interactions between a stressful experience and reactivity to pilocarpine, on the ability to produce long term potentiation (LTP) in a mouse hippocampus. Pilocarpine lowers paired pulse potentiation (PPP) as well as LTP in CA1 region of the mouse hippocampal slice...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448965/neuroprotective-treatments-after-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-evaluated-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#2
Hester Rijkje Berger, Eva Brekke, Marius Widerøe, Tora Sund Morken
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major health problem. Adjuvant treatments that improve the neuroprotective effect of the current treatment, therapeutic hypothermia, are urgently needed. The growing knowledge about the complex pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) has led to the discovery of several important targets for neuroprotection. Early interventions should focus on the preservation of energy metabolism, the reduction of glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and the prevention of apoptosis...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434163/biomarkers-of-epileptogenesis-the-focus-on-glia-and-cognitive-dysfunctions
#3
Annamaria Vezzani, Rosaria Pascente, Teresa Ravizza
The need to find measures that reliably predict the onset of epilepsy after injurious events or how the patient will respond to anti-seizure drugs led to intensive pre-clinical and clinical research to discover non-invasive biomarkers that could increase the sensitivity of existing clinical indicators. The use of experimental models of epileptogenesis and of drug-resistance is instrumental to select the most promising approaches to explore such biomarkers in the pre-clinical setting for further clinical validation...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433623/combined-fmri-mrs-acquires-simultaneous-glutamate-and-bold-fmri-signals-in-the-human-brain
#4
I Betina Ip, Adam Berrington, Aaron T Hess, Andrew J Parker, Uzay E Emir, Holly Bridge
Combined fMRI-MRS is a novel method to non-invasively investigate functional activation in the human brain using simultaneous acquisition of hemodynamic and neurochemical measures. The aim of the current study was to quantify neural activity using combined fMRI-MRS at 7 T. BOLD-fMRI and semi-LASER localization MRS data were acquired from the visual cortex of 13 participants during short blocks (64s) of flickering checkerboards. We demonstrate a correlation between glutamate and BOLD-fMRI time courses (R = 0...
April 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#5
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429459/nitric-oxide-donors-nitrates-l-arginine-or-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitors-for-acute-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Philip Mw Bath, Kailash Krishnan, Jason P Appleton
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has multiple effects that may be beneficial in acute stroke, including lowering blood pressure, and promoting reperfusion and cytoprotection. Some forms of nitric oxide synthase inhibition (NOS-I) may also be beneficial. However, high concentrations of NO are likely to be toxic to brain tissue. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998, and last updated in 2002. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of NO donors, L-arginine, and NOS-I in people with acute stroke...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#7
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417610/functional-outcome-of-critical-illness-polyneuropathy-in-patients-affected-by-severe-brain-injury
#8
Domenico Intiso, Filomena DI Rienzo, Andrea Fontana, Maurizio Tolfa, Michelangelo Bartolo, Massimiliano Copetti
BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently occur in intensive care unit (ICU) critically ill subjects; about 55-70% of subjects achieve full recovery. CIPNM can occur in ICU subjects with severe acquired brain injury (sABI), but no data have been reported regarding their outcome. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional recovery in subjects suffering from both CIPNM and sABI and whether they had poorer outcome than those with sABI only...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409563/glutamate-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Joseph O'Neill, John Piacentini, Susanna Chang, Ronald Ly, Tsz M Lai, Casey C Armstrong, Lindsey Bergman, Michelle Rozenman, Tara Peris, Allison Vreeland, Ross Mudgway, Jennifer G Levitt, Noriko Salamon, Stefan Posse, Gerhard S Hellemann, Jeffry R Alger, James T McCracken, Erika L Nurmi
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but non-response is common. Brain glutamate (Glu) signaling may contribute to OCD pathophysiology and moderate CBT outcomes. We assessed whether Glu measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was associated with OCD and/or CBT response. Youths aged 8-17 with DSM-IV OCD and typically-developing controls underwent 3T proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) MRS scans of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC)-regions possibly affected by OCD-at baseline...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408159/brain-mrs-glutamine-as-a-biomarker-to-guide-therapy-of-hyperammonemic-coma
#10
Anne H O'Donnell-Luria, Alexander P Lin, Sai K Merugumala, Frances Rohr, Susan E Waisbren, Rebecca Lynch, Vatche Tchekmedyian, Aaron D Goldberg, Andrew Bellinger, J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Tracey Simon, Esteban F Gershanik, Bruce D Levy, David E Cohen, Martin A Samuels, Gerard T Berry, Natasha Y Frank
Acute idiopathic hyperammonemia in an adult patient is a life-threatening condition often resulting in a rapid progression to irreversible cerebral edema and death. While ammonia-scavenging therapies lower blood ammonia levels, in comparison, clearance of waste nitrogen from the brain may be delayed. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to monitor cerebral glutamine levels, the major reservoir of ammonia, in a gastric bypass patient with hyperammonemic coma undergoing therapy with N-carbamoyl glutamate and the ammonia-scavenging agents, sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400900/conjugate-eye-deviation-on-ct-associated-with-worse-outcomes-despite-iv-thrombolysis
#11
Nirav H Shah, Nirav Bhatt, Anita Tipirneni, Diego Condes, Priyank Khandelwal, Jose G Romano
INTRODUCTION: Rapid stroke management has significant implications in patient outcomes. Ipsilateral computed tomography conjugate eye deviation (CT-CED) has been associated with worse outcomes but has never been evaluated as predictive of vascular occlusion. To test the hypothesis that CT-CED is a marker for vascular occlusion, we evaluated patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with IV tPA at a large tertiary care hospital over an 18-month period...
April 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397726/long-term-brain-tissue-monitoring-after-semi-brain-irradiation-in-rats-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-preliminary-study-in-vivo
#12
Hong Chen, Yu-Shu Cheng, Zheng-Rong Zhou
BACKGROUND: In head and neck neoplasm survivors treated with brain irradiation, metabolic alterations would occur in the radiation-induced injury area. The mechanism of these metabolic alterations has not been fully understood, while the alternations could be sensitively detected by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, we investigated the metabolic characteristics of radiation-induced brain injury through a long-term follow-up after radiation treatment using MRS in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396157/coupled-brain-and-urine-spectroscopy-in-vivo-metabolomic-characterization-of-hmg-coa-lyase-deficiency-in-5-patients
#13
Dominique Roland, Patrice Jissendi-Tchofo, Gilbert Briand, Joseph Vamecq, Monique Fontaine, Vincent Ultré, Cécile Acquaviva-Bourdain, Karine Mention, Dries Dobbelaere
BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase deficiency is a rare inborn error of leucine metabolism and ketogenesis. Despite recurrent hypoglycemia and metabolic decompensations, most patients have a good clinical and neurological outcome contrasting with abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals and consistent abnormal brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) metabolite peaks. Identifying these metabolites could provide surrogate markers of the disease and improve understanding of MRI-clinical discrepancy and follow-up of affected patients...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394203/dysregulation-of-energy-metabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis-measured-in-vivo-with-diffusion-weighted-spectroscopy
#14
Benedetta Bodini, Francesca Branzoli, Emilie Poirion, Daniel García-Lorenzo, Mélanie Didier, Elisabeth Maillart, Julie Socha, Geraldine Bera, Catherine Lubetzki, Itamar Ronen, Stephane Lehericy, Bruno Stankoff
OBJECTIVE: We employed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS), which allows to measure in vivo the diffusion properties of metabolites, to explore the functional neuro-axonal damage and the ongoing energetic dysregulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with MS and 18 healthy controls (HC) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DW-MRS. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of total N-acetyl-aspartate (tNAA) and creatine-phosphocreatine (tCr) were measured in the parietal normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in the thalamic grey matter (TGM)...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391258/dexmedetomidine-combined-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-instability-and-neurotoxicity-in-a-piglet-model-of-perinatal-asphyxia
#15
Mojgan Ezzati, Go Kawano, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Jane K Hassell, Kevin D Broad, Igor Fierens, Bobbi Fleiss, Alan Bainbridge, David L Price, Pardis Kaynezhad, Brian Anderson, Mariya Hristova, Ilias Tachtsidis, Xavier Golay, Pierre Gressens, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
The selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine has shown neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sympatholytic properties that may be beneficial in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). As therapeutic hypothermia is only partially effective, adjunct therapies are needed to optimize outcomes. The aim was to assess whether hypothermia + dexmedetomidine treatment augments neuroprotection compared to routine treatment (hypothermia + fentanyl sedation) in a piglet model of NE using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers, which predict outcomes in babies with NE, and immunohistochemistry...
April 8, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388601/early-post-natal-exposure-to-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rodents-is-pro-inflammatory-impairs-white-matter-integrity-and-alters-brain-metabolism
#16
Robert A Darnall, Xi Chen, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Chrystelle M Sirieix, Barjor Gimi, Susan Knoblach, Betty L McEntire, Carl E Hunt
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are frequently exposed to intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea and periodic breathing that may result in inflammation and brain injury that later manifests as cognitive and executive function deficits. We used a rodent model to determine whether early postnatal exposure to IH would result in inflammation and brain injury. METHODS: Rat pups were exposed to IH from P2-P12. Control animals were exposed to room air. Cytokines were analyzed in plasma and brain tissue at P13 and P18...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386718/globus-pallidus-mr-signal-abnormalities-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-and-or-porto-systemic-shunting
#17
Sylviane Hanquinet, Claire Morice, Delphine S Courvoisier, Vladimir Cousin, Mehrak Anooshiravani, Laura Merlini, Valérie A McLin
OBJECTIVES: Detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in children is difficult. We aimed to assess the changes in imaging of the central nervous system in children with chronic liver disease using MR imaging, diffusion, and (1)H -spectroscopy. METHODS: Forty three children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting (111.4±56.9 months) and 24 controls (72.0±51.8 months) underwent brain MRI/spectroscopy on a 1.5T to examine T1, T2, ADC, Cho/Cr, ml/Cr, Glx/Cr ratio spectroscopy in the globus pallidus...
April 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381928/prevalence-of-shunt-dependency-and-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-massive-intraventricular-haemorrhage-treated-with-endoscopic-washout-and-external-ventricular-drainage
#18
Jason Raj Johnson, Zamzuri Idris, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Azmi Alias, Mohammad Saffari Mohammad Haspani
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) causes blockage of ventricular conduits leading to hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and a reduced level of consciousness. The current standard management of IVH is insertion of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter. However, this procedure addresses only the problems of acute hydrocephalus and raised ICP. Endoscopic washout allows for a more complete removal of the intraventricular clot. This study compared these two types of treatment in terms of shunt dependency and relevant clinical outcomes...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381507/integrity-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-and-functional-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Mark R Etherton, Ona Wu, Pedro Cougo, Anne-Katrin Giese, Lisa Cloonan, Kaitlin M Fitzpatrick, Allison S Kanakis, Gregoire Boulouis, Hasan H Karadeli, Arne Lauer, Jonathan Rosand, Karen L Furie, Natalia S Rost
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effect of white matter microstructural integrity on cerebral tissue and long-term functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: Consecutive AIS patients with brain MRI acquired within 48 hours of symptom onset and 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score were included. Acute infarct volume on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWIv) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHv) on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI were measured...
April 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378255/vitamin-d-levels-in-cerebral-autosomal-dominant-arteriopathy-with-subcortical-infarcts-and-leukoencephalopathy-cadasil
#20
Maria Alessandra Carluccio, Ilaria Di Donato, Francesca Pescini, Marco Battaglini, Silvia Bianchi, Raffaella Valenti, Serena Nannucci, Beatrice Franci, Maria Laura Stromillo, Nicola De Stefano, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni, Ranuccio Nuti, Antonio Federico, Stefano Gonnelli, Maria Teresa Dotti
Besides its well known function on bone metabolism, vitamin D role in cerebrovascular pathologies including cerebral small vessel disease has been confirmed by recent meta-analysis. In this study, we measured vitamin D levels in 56 Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) patients (mean age 49.9) with no or minimal disability (modified Ranking Score, mRS ≤2) and in 56 age, sex and seasonality matched healthy controls. History of ischemic events was recorded and cognitive functions were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination...
April 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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