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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331947/-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-brain-tumors
#1
P Ditter, E Hattingen
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. OBJECTIVE: This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in brain tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by (1)H-MRS...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330762/effect-of-whole-brain-irradiation-on-the-specific-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-metabolic-and-histopathological-changes
#2
Soňa Bálentová, Petra Hnilicová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Murín, Eva Hajtmanová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis)...
March 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327955/differences-in-functional-outcome-across-subtypes-with-spetzler-martin-grade-ii-arteriovenous-malformations
#3
Alice L Hung, Wuyang Yang, Erick M Westbroek, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Justin M Caplan, Maria Braileanu, Joanna Y Wang, Geoffrey P Colby, Alexander L Coon, Rafael J Tamargo, Judy Huang
BACKGROUND: The Spetzler-Martin grading system for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is based on size (S), eloquence (E), and deep venous drainage (V). However, variation exists due to subgroup heterogeneity. While previous studies have demonstrated variations in outcomes within grade III AVMs, no studies have focused on grade II AVM subtypes. OBJECTIVE: We aim to delineate how functional outcomes differ among patients with subtypes of grade II AVMs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with AVMs evaluated at our institution from 1990 to 2013...
February 4, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324183/multimodality-management-and-outcomes-of-brain-arterio-venous-malformations-avms-in-children-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature-with-specific-emphasis-on-age-at-first-avm-bleed
#4
REVIEW
Anan Shtaya, John Millar, Owen Sparrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to study the presentation and analyse the results of multimodality treatment of brain arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in children at our centre and review age at first AVM rupture in the literature. METHODS: Of 52 patients aged <18 years, 47 with brain AVMs (27 males and 20 females) aged 4-17 years (mean 12.2) were retrospectively reviewed. PubMed search revealed five additional studies including 267 patients where the prevalence of age-related AVMs rupture was analysed...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324065/neurod-factors-discriminate-mineralocorticoid-from-glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-binding-in-the-male-rat-brain
#5
Lisa T C M van Weert, Jacobus C Buurstede, Ahmed Mahfouz, Pamela S M Braakhuis, J Annelies E Polman, Hetty C M Sips, Benno Roozendaal, Judit Balog, E Ronald de Kloet, Nicole A Datson, Onno C Meijer
In the limbic brain, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) both function as receptors for the naturally occurring glucocorticoids (corticosterone/cortisol), but mediate distinct effects on cellular physiology via transcriptional mechanisms. The transcriptional basis for specificity of these MR- versus GR-mediated effects is unknown. To address this conundrum we have identified the extent of MR/GR DNA binding selectivity in the rat hippocampus using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323841/detection-of-crossed-cerebellar-diaschisis-in-hyperacute-ischemic-stroke-using-arterial-spin-labeled-mr-imaging
#6
Koung Mi Kang, Chul-Ho Sohn, Seung Hong Choi, Keun-Hwa Jung, Roh-Eul Yoo, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Sun-Won Park
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Arterial spin-labeling (ASL) was recently introduced as a noninvasive method to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics. The purposes of this study were to assess the ability of ASL imaging to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with their first unilateral supratentorial hyperacute stroke and to identify imaging or clinical factors significantly associated with CCD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 204 consecutive patients who underwent MRI less than 8 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323192/multimodality-management-of-spetzler-martin-grade-3-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-with-subgroup-analysis
#7
Isaac Josh Abecassis, John D Nerva, Abdullah Feroze, Jason Barber, Basavaraj V Ghodke, Louis J Kim, Laligam N Sekhar
INTRODUCTION: Spetzler-Martin grade 3 (SM3) lesions entail 4 distinct subtypes described based on size, eloquence, and deep venous drainage (DVD) (3A-3D). The ideal management of each is contentious, and the results of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs (ARUBA) introduced additional controversy and attention towards management strategies of unruptured bAVMs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 114 patients with treated SM3 bAVMs, including both ruptured and unruptured lesions...
March 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323160/effect-of-age-and-the-apoe-gene-on-metabolite-concentrations-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#8
Sana Suri, Uzay Emir, Charlotte J Stagg, Jamie Near, Ralf Mekle, Florian Schubert, E Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay, Nicola Filippini
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) has provided valuable information about the neurochemical profile of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its clinical utility has been limited in part by the lack of consistent information on how metabolite concentrations vary in the normal aging brain and in carriers of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, an established risk gene for AD. We quantified metabolites within an 8cm(3) voxel within the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus in 30 younger (20-40 years) and 151 cognitively healthy older individuals (60-85 years)...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322622/central-nervous-system-changes-induced-by-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#9
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Julie L Proctor, Gary Fiskum, Rao P Gullapalli
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) resulting from improvised explosive devices is the hallmark injury of recent wars, and affects many returning veterans who experienced either direct or indirect exposure. Many of these veterans have long-term neurocognitive symptoms. However, there is very little evidence to show whether blast-induced acceleration alone, in the absence of secondary impacts, can cause mild TBI. In this study, we examine the effect of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration (uBIH) of ∼1700 g on the biochemical and microstrucutral changes in the brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321606/evidence-for-cognitive-resource-imbalance-in-adolescents-with-narcolepsy
#10
Suzanne T Witt, Natasha Morales Drissi, Sofie Tapper, Anna Wretman, Attila Szakács, Tove Hallböök, Anne-Marie Landtblom, Thomas Karlsson, Peter Lundberg, Maria Engström
The study investigated brain activity changes during performance of a verbal working memory task in a population of adolescents with narcolepsy. Seventeen narcolepsy patients and twenty healthy controls performed a verbal working memory task during simultaneous fMRI and EEG acquisition. All subjects also underwent MRS to measure GABA and Glutamate concentrations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Activation levels in the default mode network and left middle frontal gyrus were examined to investigate whether narcolepsy is characterized by an imbalance in cognitive resources...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319946/rebleeding-and-outcome-in-patients-with-symptomatic-brain-stem-cavernomas
#11
Antonio Arauz, Hernán M Patiño-Rodriguez, Mónica Chavarria-Medina, Mayra Becerril, Gabriel Mauricio Longo, Edgar Nathal
PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the long-term functional outcomes and identify the potential risk factors for rebleeding in patients with brain stem cavernous malformations (BCMs) who presented with hemorrhages and were surgically or conservatively treated and prospectively monitored. METHODS: From January 1990 to July 2015, we included patients with first hemorrhagic episodes secondary to single BCMs. Modified Rankin score (mRS) was used for neurological status assessment...
March 21, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316866/alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-in-the-prognostication-after-endovascular-treatment-for-ischemic-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#12
Chang-Woo Ryu, Hee Shup Shin, Soonchan Park, Sang Hyun Suh, Jun Seok Koh, Hye-Yeon Choi
PURPOSE: The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) was devised to quantify the extent of early ischemic changes in the middle cerebral artery territory on brain CT. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that presented clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients managed with endovascular methods to validate the use of ASPECTS for risk prognostication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochran databases for observational or interventional studies that reported clinical outcomes and baseline ASPECTS in ischemic stroke patients treated with endovascular methods...
March 2017: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316774/glutathione-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-brain-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-mrs-study
#13
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon A Meyer, Bernd Feige, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Andreas Riedel, Dieter Ebert, Thomas Lange, Volkmar Glauche, Monica Biscaldi, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon J Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by difficulties in social communication, unusually restricted, repetitive behavior and interests, and specific abnormalities in language and perception. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and probably heterogeneous. In a subgroup of patients, toxic environmental exposure might lead to an imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant systems. Previous serum and postmortem studies measuring levels of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular free radical scavenger in the brain, have supported the hypothesis that this compound might play a role in the pathophysiology of autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#14
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306418/an-mrs-and-pet-guided-biopsy-tool-for-intraoperative-neuronavigational-systems
#15
Matthew Grech-Sollars, Babar Vaqas, Gerard Thompson, Tara Barwick, Lesley Honeyfield, Kevin O'Neill, Adam D Waldman
OBJECTIVE Glioma heterogeneity and the limitations of conventional structural MRI for identifying aggressive tumor components can limit the reliability of stereotactic biopsy and, hence, tumor characterization, which is a hurdle for developing and selecting effective treatment strategies. In vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) and PET enable noninvasive imaging of cellular metabolism relevant to proliferation and can detect regions of more highly active tumor. Here, the authors integrated presurgical PET and MRS with intraoperative neuronavigation to guide surgical biopsy and tumor sampling of brain gliomas with the aim of improving intraoperative tumor-tissue characterization and imaging biomarker validation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302607/brain-development-in-fetuses-of-mothers-with-diabetes-a-case-control-mr-imaging-study
#16
F C Denison, G Macnaught, S I K Semple, G Terris, J Walker, D Anblagan, A Serag, R M Reynolds, J P Boardman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment, but its origins are unknown. With MR imaging, we investigated the feasibility of comprehensive assessment of brain metabolism ((1)H-MRS), microstructure (DWI), and macrostructure (structural MRI) in third-trimester fetuses in women with diabetes and determined normal ranges for the MR imaging parameters measured. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies with diabetes (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 26) were recruited prospectively for MR imaging studies between 34 and 38 weeks' gestation...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302557/prevalence-and-prognostic-features-of-ecg-abnormalities-in-acute-stroke-findings-from-the-siren-study-among-africans
#17
Abiodun M Adeoye, Okechukwu S Ogah, Bruce Ovbiagele, Rufus Akinyemi, Vincent Shidali, Francis Agyekum, Akinyemi Aje, Oladimeji Adebayo, Joshua O Akinyemi, Philip Kolo, Lambert Tetteh Appiah, Henry Iheonye, Uwanuruochi Kelechukwu, Amusa Ganiyu, Taiwo O Olunuga, Onoja Akpa, Ojo Olakanmi Olagoke, Fred Stephen Sarfo, Kolawole Wahab, Samuel Olowookere, Adekunle Fakunle, Albert Akpalu, Philip B Adebayo, Kwadwo Nkromah, Joseph Yaria, Philip Ibinaiye, Godwin Ogbole, Aridegbe Olumayowa, Sulaiman Lakoh, Benedict Calys-Tagoe, Paul Olowoyo, Chukwuonye Innocent, Hemant K Tiwari, Donna Arnett, Osaigbovo Godwin, Bisi Ayotunde, Josephine Akpalu, Okeke Obiora, Odo Joseph, Adeleye Omisore, Carolyn Jenkins, Daniel Lackland, Lukman Owolabi, Suleiman Isah, Abdu H Dambatta, Morenikeji Komolafe, Andrew Bock-Oruma, Ezinne Sylvia Melikam, Lucius Chidiebere Imoh, Taofiki Sunmonu, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Oluyemisi Olabisi, Kevin Armstrong, Ugochukwu U Onyeonoro, Emmanuel Sanya, Atinuke M Agunloye, Luqman Ogunjimi, Oyedunni Arulogun, Temitope H Farombi, Olugbo Obiabo, Reginald Obiako, Mayowa Owolabi
BACKGROUND: Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans. OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293774/hiv-associated-neurodegeneration-and-neuroimmunity-multivoxel-mr-spectroscopy-study-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treated-patients
#18
Jasmina Boban, Dusko Kozic, Vesna Turkulov, Jelena Ostojic, Robert Semnic, Dajana Lendak, Snezana Brkic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test neurobiochemical changes in normal appearing brain tissue in HIV+ patients receiving and not receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and healthy controls, using multivoxel MR spectroscopy (mvMRS). METHODS: We performed long- and short-echo 3D mvMRS in 110 neuroasymptomatic subjects (32 HIV+ subjects on cART, 28 HIV+ therapy-naïve subjects and 50 healthy controls) on a 3T MR scanner, targeting frontal and parietal supracallosal subcortical and deep white matter and cingulate gyrus (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and mI/Cr ratios were analysed)...
March 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289809/imaging-characteristics-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#19
Andrew D Schweitzer, Neal S Parikh, Gulce Askin, Ajay Nemade, John Lyo, Sasan Karimi, Anna Knobel, Babak B Navi, Robert J Young, Ajay Gupta
PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder of cerebrovascular autoregulation that can result in brain edema, hemorrhage, and infarction. We sought to investigate whether certain imaging characteristics in PRES are associated with clinically significant patient outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of PRES occurring between 2008 and 2014 at two major academic medical centers. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data were collected...
March 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286721/functional-outcome-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-patients-with-dominant-or-non-dominant-malignant-middle-cerebral-infarcts
#20
Bilal Kamal Alam, Ahmed S Bukhari, Salman Assad, Pir Muhammad Siddique, Haider Ghazanfar, Muhammad Junaid Niaz, Maryam Kundi, Saima Shah, Maimoona Siddiqui
BACKGROUND:  The use of decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been studied in the setting of different conditions, including traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. The rationale of this study is to determine the functional outcome after DC in patients with malignant MCA infarcts. METHODS:  A longitudinal cohort study was performed based on patients diagnosed with malignant MCA territory infarction admitted to the Neurosurgery Department of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan between July 2015 and November 2016...
January 26, 2017: Curēus
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