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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924705/glutamate-and-gaba-concentrations-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#1
Alia L Yasen, Jolinda Smith, Anita D Christie
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) suggest that metabolic changes in the brain occur immediately after a mechanical injury to the head. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) can be used to determine relative concentrations of metabolites in vivo in the human brain. PURPOSE: To determine concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the brain acutely after mTBI and throughout 2 months of recovery. METHODS: Concentrations of glutamate and GABA were obtained using 1H-MRS in nine individuals who had suffered an mTBI and nine control individuals in two brain regions of interest: the primary motor cortex (M1), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and at three different time points post injury: 72-hours, 2-weeks, and 2 months post-injury...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912445/anterior-cingulate-glutamate-and-gaba-associations-on-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#2
Dinesh K Shukla, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Hongji Chen, Joshua J Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Background: The underlying neurobiological mechanism for abnormal functional connectivity in schizophrenia (SCZ) remains unknown. This project investigated whether glutamate and GABA, 2 metabolites that contribute to excitatory and inhibitory functions, may influence functional connectivity in SCZ. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired from 58 SCZ patients and 61 healthy controls (HC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911072/inhibiting-glycine-decarboxylase-suppresses-pyruvate-to-lactate-metabolism-in-lung-cancer-cells
#3
Chern Chiuh Woo, Kavita Kaur, Wei Xin Chan, Xing Qi Teo, Teck Hock Philip Lee
Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer including lung, prostate and brain. It catabolizes glycine to yield 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an important substrate in one-carbon metabolism for nucleotide synthesis. In this study, we used exon splicing modulating steric hindrance antisense oligonucleotide (shAON) to suppress GLDC expression and investigated its effect on pyruvate metabolism via hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The MRS technique allows us to study in vivo metabolic flux in tumor tissues with/without GLDC-shAON intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907927/-1-h-mrs-spectroscopy-in-preclinical-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#4
Elizabeth Joe, Luis D Medina, John M Ringman, Joseph O'Neill
1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can reveal changes in brain biochemistry in vivo in humans and has been applied to late onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Carriers of mutations for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may show changes in levels of metabolites prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Proton MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T for 16 cognitively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic mutation carriers (CDR < 1) and 11 non-carriers as part of a comprehensive cross-sectional study of preclinical ADAD...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902200/acrin-6684-multicenter-phase-ii-assessment-of-tumor-hypoxia-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#5
Eva-Maria Ratai, Zheng Zhang, James Fink, Mark Muzi, Lucy Hanna, Erin Greco, Todd Richards, Daniel Kim, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Akiva Mintz, Lale Kostakoglu, Melissa Prah, Benjamin Ellingson, Kathleen Schmainda, Gregory Sorensen, Daniel Barboriak, David Mankoff, Elizabeth R Gerstner
A multi-center imaging trial by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) "A Multicenter, phase II assessment of tumor hypoxia in glioblastoma using 18F Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) with PET and MRI (ACRIN 6684)", was conducted to assess hypoxia in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). The aims of this study were to support the role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) as a prognostic marker for brain tumor patients in multi-center clinical trials. Seventeen participants from four sites had analyzable 3D MRSI datasets acquired on Philips, GE or Siemens scanners at either 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898739/longitudinal-chemokine-profile-expression-in-a-blood-brain-barrier-model-from-alzheimer-transgenic-versus-wild-type-mice
#6
J Vérité, T Janet, D Chassaing, B Fauconneau, H Rabeony, G Page
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is widely described since the discovery of histopathological lesions in Mrs. Auguste Deter in 1906. However to date, there is no effective treatment to deal with the many cellular and molecular alterations. The complexity is even higher with the growing evidence of involvement of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Indeed, monocytes and T cells are shown in the cerebral parenchyma of AD patients, and these cells grafted to the periphery are able to go through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic mouse models...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896087/changes-of-visual-pathway-and-brain-connectivity-in-glaucoma-a-systematic-review
#7
Raffaele Nuzzi, Laura Dallorto, Teresa Rolle
Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The increasing interest in the involvement of the cortical visual pathway in glaucomatous patients is due to the implications in recent therapies, such as neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Objective: In this review, we outline the current understanding of brain structural, functional, and metabolic changes detected with the modern techniques of neuroimaging in glaucomatous subjects. Methods: We screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, LILACS, Trip Database, and NICE for original contributions published until 31 October 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886723/serum-neurofilament-light-chain-levels-are-related-to-small-vessel-disease-burden
#8
Marco Duering, Marek J Konieczny, Steffen Tiedt, Ebru Baykara, Anil Man Tuladhar, Esther van Leijsen, Philippe Lyrer, Stefan T Engelter, Benno Gesierich, Melanie Achmüller, Christian Barro, Ruth Adam, Michael Ewers, Martin Dichgans, Jens Kuhle, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Nils Peters
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a blood marker for neuroaxonal damage. We assessed the association between serum NfL and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which is highly prevalent in elderly individuals and a major cause of stroke and vascular cognitive impairment. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we studied 53 and 439 patients with genetically defined SVD (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy [CADASIL]) and sporadic SVD, respectively, as well as 93 healthy controls...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882765/inhaled-xenon-washout-as-a-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Francis T Hane, Tao Li, Jennifer-Anne Plata, Ayman Hassan, Karl Granberg, Mitchell S Albert
Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the sixty second 129 Xe retention time, and the xenon washout parameter, based on the washout of hyperpolarized 129 Xe from the brain of AD participants following inhalation. The xenon washout parameter is influenced by cerebral perfusion, T1 relaxation of xenon, and the xenon partition coefficient, all factors influenced by AD...
June 6, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880882/response-to-initial-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis-is-related-to-anterior-cingulate-glutamate-levels-a-multicentre-1-h-mrs-study-optimise
#10
A Egerton, B V Broberg, N Van Haren, K Merritt, G J Barker, D J Lythgoe, R Perez-Iglesias, L Baandrup, S W Düring, K V Sendt, J M Stone, E Rostrup, I E Sommer, B Glenthøj, R S Kahn, P Dazzan, P McGuire
Conventional antipsychotic medication is ineffective in around a third of patients with schizophrenia, and the nature of the therapeutic response is unpredictable. We investigated whether response to antipsychotics is related to brain glutamate levels prior to treatment. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure glutamate levels (Glu/Cr) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the thalamus in antipsychotic-naive or minimally medicated patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, n = 71) and healthy volunteers (n = 60), at three sites...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880254/elevated-hippocampal-choline-level-is-associated-with-altered-functional-connectivity-in-females-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#11
Yingying Tang, Xiaoliu Zhang, Jianhua Sheng, Xuanhong Zhang, Jianye Zhang, Jiale Xu, Yajing Zhu, Junjie Wang, Tianhong Zhang, Shanbao Tong, Lipeng Ning, Manhua Liu, Yao Li, Jijun Wang
Metabolic and functional alterations in hippocampus have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how the hippocampal biochemical disruptions lead to dysfunction of limbic-cortical circuit remains unclear. The present pilot study combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the hippocampal metabolic alteration and its relationship with the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) changes in MDD...
May 26, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876253/pedophilic-sex-offenders-are-characterised-by-reduced-gaba-concentration-in-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#12
Inka Ristow, Meng Li, Lejla Colic, Vanessa Marr, Carina Födisch, Felicia von Düring, Kolja Schiltz, Krasimira Drumkova, Joachim Witzel, Henrik Walter, Klaus Beier, Tillmann H C Kruger, Jorge Ponseti, Boris Schiffer, Martin Walter
A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876246/altered-brain-high-energy-phosphate-metabolism-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-a-3-dimensional-31-p-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-study
#13
Anne Rijpma, Marinette van der Graaf, Olga Meulenbroek, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Arend Heerschap
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), defects in essential metabolic processes for energy supply and phospholipid membrane function have been implicated in the pathological process. However, post-mortem investigations are generally limited to late stage disease and prone to tissue decay artifacts. In vivo assessments of high energy phosphates, tissue pH and phospholipid metabolites are possible by phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31 P-MRS), but so far only small studies, mostly focusing on single brain regions, have been performed...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870894/gut-microbiome-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-of-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-may-support-the-membrane-hypothesis
#14
Ying He, Tomasz Kosciolek, Jinsong Tang, Yao Zhou, Zongchang Li, Xiaoqian Ma, Qiyun Zhu, Ning Yuan, Liu Yuan, Chunwang Li, Ke Jin, Rob Knight, Ming T Tsuang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: The microbiota-gut-brain axis and membrane dysfunction in the brain has attracted increasing attention in the field of psychiatric research. However, the possible interactive role of gut microbiota and brain function in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia has not been studied yet. METHODS: To explore this, we collected fecal samples and performed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) scans in 81 high risk (HR) subjects, 19 ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects and 69 health controls (HC)...
June 2, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868826/normalization-of-soluble-cd163-after-institution-of-antiretroviral-therapy-during-acute-hiv-infection-tracks-with-fewer-neurological-abnormalities
#15
Michelle L D'Antoni, Mary Margaret Byron, Phillip Chan, Napapon Sailasuta, Carlo Sacdalan, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan, Somporn Tipsuk, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Eugene Kroon, Bonnie M Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Vedbar S Khadka, Thep Chalermchai, Kalpana J Kallianpur, Merlin Robb, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu
Background: Myeloid activation contributes to cognitive impairment in chronic HIV. We explored whether combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) initiation during acute HIV-infection impacts CD163 shedding, a myeloid activation marker, and in turn, implications on the CNS. Methods: We measured soluble (s)CD163 in plasma and CSF by ELISA in Thais who initiated cART during acute HIV-infection (Fiebig stages I-IV). Examination of CNS involvement included neuropsychological testing and brain metabolites by MRS...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868772/brain-bioenergetics-during-resting-wakefulness-are-related-to-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-31p-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#16
Angela L D'Rozario, Delwyn J Bartlett, Keith K H Wong, Toos Sach, Qiao Yang, Ronald R Grunstein, Caroline D Rae
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a well-established cause of impaired daytime functioning. However, there is a complex inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance in OSA patients. We previously reported compromised brain bioenergetics during apneic sleep in severe OSA. In this study, we investigate whether brain bioenergetics during resting wakefulness are related to neurobehavioural performance. Methods: Patients attended the sleep laboratory in the evening and were kept awake over-night...
June 1, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866434/quantitative-imaging-of-brain-energy-metabolisms-and-neuroenergetics-using-in-vivo-x-nuclear-2-h-17-o-and-31-p-mrs-at-ultra-high-field
#17
Xiao-Hong Zhu, Ming Lu, Wei Chen
Brain energy metabolism relies predominantly on glucose and oxygen utilization to generate biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is essential for maintaining basal electrophysiological activities in a resting brain and supporting evoked neuronal activity under an activated state. Studying complex neuroenergetic processes in the brain requires sophisticated neuroimaging techniques enabling noninvasive and quantitative assessment of cerebral energy metabolisms and quantification of metabolic rates...
July 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864489/from-fetus-to-older-age-a-review-of-brain-metabolic-changes-across-the-lifespan
#18
REVIEW
Monika Cichocka, Anna Bereś
INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of metabolic changes across the lifespan is poorly understood. Thus we systematically reviewed the available literature to determine the changes in brain biochemical composition from fetus to older age and tried to explain them in the context of neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes. METHODS: The search identified 1262 articles regarding proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) examinations through December 2017. The following data was extracted: age range of the subjects, number of subjects studied, brain regions studied, MRS sequence used, echo time, MR system, method of statistical analysis, metabolites analyzed, significant differences in metabolites concentrations with age as well as the way of presentation of the results...
June 1, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860500/intralipid-heparin-infusion-alters-the-brain-metabolites-assessed-with-1h-mrs-spectroscopy-in-young-healthy-men
#19
Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Remigiusz Filarski, Radoslaw Majewski, Eugeniusz Tarasów
Context: We previously demonstrated that insulin infusion altered the metabolite concentrations in cerebral tissues, assessed with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in young subjects with high insulin sensitivity, but not with low insulin sensitivity. Fat overload is an important factor leading to insulin resistance. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) elevation on the metabolites in cerebral tissues, assessed with 1H-MRS...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808778/a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-produces-lasting-deficits-in-brain-metabolism
#20
Danielle N Lyons, Hemendra Vekaria, Teresa Macheda, Vikas Bakshi, David K Powell, Brian T Gold, Ai-Ling Lin, Pat Sulllivan, Adam D Bachstetter
Metabolic uncoupling has been well-characterized during the first minutes-to-days after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet mitochondrial bioenergetics during the weeks-to-months after a brain injury is poorly defined, particularly after a mild TBI. We hypothesized that a closed head injury (CHI) would be associated with deficits in mitochondrial bioenergetics at one month after the injury. A significant decrease in state-III (ATP production) and state-V (complex-I) driven mitochondrial respiration was found at 1-month post-injury in adult C57Bl/6J mice...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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