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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231773/molecular-imaging-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Brian Jaeho Hwang, Mona Adel Mohamed, James Robert Brašić
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230507/evidence-for-regional-hippocampal-damage-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Sadhana Singh, Subash Khushu, Pawan Kumar, Satnam Goyal, Triptish Bhatia, Smita N Deshpande
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) procedures. METHODS: 1H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system...
December 11, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224573/brain-glutamate-in-medication-free-depressed-patients-a-proton-mrs-study-at-7-tesla
#3
Beata R Godlewska, Charles Masaki, Ann L Sharpley, Philip J Cowen, Uzay E Emir
BACKGROUND: The possible role of glutamate in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression is of intense current interest. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the detection of glutamate in the living human brain and meta-analyses of previous MRS studies in depressed patients have suggested that glutamate levels are decreased in anterior brain regions. Nevertheless, at conventional magnetic field strengths [1.5-3 Tesla (T)], it is difficult to separate glutamate from its metabolite and precursor, glutamine, with the two often being measured together as Glx...
December 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224114/coated-platelet-trends-predict-short-term-clinical-outcomeafter-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Bappaditya Ray, Vijay M Pandav, Eleanor A Mathews, David M Thompson, Lance Ford, Lori K Yearout, Bradley N Bohnstedt, Shuchi Chaudhary, George L Dale, Calin I Prodan
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high socio-economic burden. Prothrombotic states of early brain injury (EBI) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aSAH determine morbidity and mortality. To understand how activated platelets might contribute to such prothrombotic states, we studied trends in coated-platelets during EBI and DCI periods. Serial blood samples from a prospective cohort of aSAH patients were collected and assayed for coated-platelet levels. Patient's coated-platelet level during post-hospital discharge follow-up served as an estimate of baseline...
December 9, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217493/effects-of-proximity-and-noise-level-of-phased-array-coil-elements-on-overall-signal-to-noise-in-parallel-mr-spectroscopy
#5
Candace C Fleischer, Xiaodong Zhong, Hui Mao
Parallel imaging using phased array coils facilitates accelerated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). Parallel data reconstruction requires the combination of data from individual coil elements, but limited combination algorithms currently exist for higher-order phased arrays and MRS data. Here, we present a systematic framework for identifying coil proximity-related signal inhomogeneities and noise levels in phased array coils that may affect sensitivity of parallel MRS. Single-voxel MRS was acquired in nine voxel positions in a brain spectroscopy phantom on a 3T whole-body MR scanner using commercially available 64-, 32-, and 20-channel phased array coils...
December 4, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212047/whole-brain-neuronal-abnormalities-in-focal-quantified-with-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#6
Ivan I Kirov, Ruben Kuzniecky, Hoby P Hetherington, Brian J Soher, Matthew S Davitz, James S Babb, Heath R Pardoe, Jullie W Pan, Oded Gonen
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that localization-related epilepsy is associated with widespread neuronal dysfunction beyond the ictal focus, reflected by a decrease in patients' global concentration of their proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) observed marker, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA). METHODS: Thirteen patients with localization-related epilepsy (7 men, 6 women) 40±13 (mean±standard-deviation)years old, 8.3±13.4years of disease duration; and 14 matched controls, were scanned at 3 T with MRI and whole-brain (WB) 1H MRS...
December 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211751/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-in-preterm-lambs
#7
Dhafer M Alahmari, Kyra Y Y Chan, Vanesa Stojanovska, Domenic LaRosa, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Valerie Zahra, Jade Barbuto, Michael Farrell, Shigeo Yamaoka, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: Injurious mechanical ventilation causes white matter (WM) injury in preterm infants through inflammatory and haemodynamic pathways. The relative contribution of each of these pathways is not known. We hypothesised that in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect WM brain injury resulting from mechanical ventilation 24 h after preterm delivery. Further we hypothesised that the combination of inflammatory and haemodynamic pathways, induced by umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) increases brain injury at 24 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207680/correlation-between-cerebellar-metabolism-and-post-stroke-depression-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#8
Lei Zhang, Muzi Li, Rubo Sui
The neurochemical changes that occur in the brain of patients with post-stroke depression (PSD) are not fully understood. This study aims to explore the correlation between cerebellar metabolism changes and PSD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Participants were assigned to 3 groups: 60 patients with PSD (PSD group), 60 stroke patients without depression (NOPSD group), and 60 healthy volunteers (HEAL group). T1 WI, T2 WI, DWI and 1H-MRS examination were performed for patients at 14 days, 3 months after the stroke, respectively, and for healthy volunteers once when included in the study...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201643/relationships-between-brain-metabolite-levels-functional-connectivity-and-negative-mood-in-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-patients-compared-to-controls-a-mapp-research-network-study
#9
Daniel E Harper, Eric Ichesco, Andrew Schrepf, Megan Halvorson, Tudor Puiu, Daniel J Clauw, Richard E Harris, Steven E Harte
Until recently, the predominant pathology of chronic pelvic pain conditions was thought to reside in the peripheral tissues. However, mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests an important role of the central nervous system in the pathogenesis of these conditions. In the present cross-sectional study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain was conducted in female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) to determine if they exhibit abnormal concentrations of brain metabolites (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199890/application-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-geriatric-mood-disorders
#10
Liana K Mathias, Patrick J Monette, David G Harper, Brent P Forester
The prevalence of mood disorders in the rapidly-growing older adult population merits attention due to the likelihood of increased medical comorbidities, risk of hospitalization or institutionalization, and strains placed on caregivers and healthcare providers. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) quantifies biochemical compounds in vivo, and has been used specifically for analyses of neural metabolism and bioenergetics in older adults with mood disorders, usually via proton or phosphorous spectroscopy. While yet to be clinically implemented, data gathered from research subjects may help indicate potential biomarkers of disease state or trait or putative drug targets...
December 4, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198888/salvage-therapy-for-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-after-failure-of-gamma-knife-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#11
Kai Quan, Xuqun Tang, Jianping Song, Xiancheng Chen, Yanlong Tian, Peixi Liu, Yuan Shi, Zixiao Yang, Yinjun Liu, Feng Zhou, Li Pan, Wei Zhu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate delayed complications in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) patients after gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) and to present the salvage therapy experiences of BAVM patients with radiation-induced changes (RICs) or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: This cohort consisted of 44 BAVM patients who underwent failed GKRS between 2000 and 2015. These patients were further divided into an RIC group (23 patients) and an ICH group (21 patients) based on their post-GKRS complications...
November 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196269/diffusion-mri-and-mr-spectroscopy-reveal-microstructural-and-metabolic-brain-alterations-in-chronic-mild-stress-exposed-rats-a-cms-recovery-study
#12
Ahmad Raza Khan, Brian Hansen, Ove Wiborg, Christopher D Kroenke, Sune Nørhøj Jespersen
Chronic mild stress (CMS) induced depression elicits several debilitating symptoms and causes a significant economic burden on society. High variability in the symptomatology of depression poses substantial impediment to accurate diagnosis and therapy outcome. CMS exposure induces significant metabolic and microstructural alterations in the hippocampus (HP), prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate-putamen (CP) and amygdala (AM), however, recovery from these maladaptive changes are limited and this may provide negative effects on the therapeutic treatment and management of depression...
November 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194929/procarboxypeptidase-u-procpu-tafi-procpb2-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-during-ischemic-stroke-is-associated-with-stroke-progression-outcome-and-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction
#13
Joachim C Mertens, Dorien Leenaerts, Raf Brouns, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Margareta Ieven, Peter P De Deyn, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Dirk Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Procarboxypeptidase U (proCPU, TAFI, proCPB2), the zymogen of CPU which is a potent antifibrinolytic enzyme and a modulator of inflammation has previously been investigated in plasma of stroke patients, but so far, no information on the proCPU levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is available. OBJECTIVES: This case-control observational study investigates proCPU in CSF of AIS patients compared with controls with an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and evaluates the relationship of CSF/plasma proCPU ratios with stroke parameters...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194662/quantitative-predictive-models-for-the-degree-of-disability-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
Hyeong-Seok Lim, Seung Min Kim, Dong-Wha Kang
Although stroke is a leading cause of disability, the quantitative relationship between baseline clinical and imaging characteristics and long-term disability outcomes has rarely been studied. Prospectively collected clinical data from 405 patients with acute ischemic stroke including brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and disability outcomes assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3 month after the onset of disease were analyzed using a proportional odds cumulative logit model implemented in NONMEM...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193406/online-1-h-mrs-measurements-of-time-varying-lactate-production-in-an-animal-model-of-glioma-during-administration-of-an-anti-tumoral-drug
#15
Yannick Crémillieux, Roberto Salvati, Ursule Dumont, Noël Pinaud, Véronique Bouchaud, Stéphane Sanchez, Stefan Glöggler, Alan Wong
The aims of this study were to implement a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) protocol for the online profiling of subnanomolar quantities of metabolites sampled from the extracellular fluid using implanted microdialysis and to apply this protocol in glioma-bearing rats for the quantification of lactate concentration and the measurement of time-varying lactate concentration during drug administration. MRS acquisitions on the brain microdialysate were performed using a home-built, proton-tuned, microsolenoid with an active volume of 2 μL...
November 29, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191873/time-for-a-time-window-extension-insights-from-late-presenters-in-the-escape-trial
#16
J W Evans, B R Graham, P Pordeli, F S Al-Ajlan, R Willinsky, W J Montanera, J L Rempel, A Shuaib, P Brennan, D Williams, D Roy, A Y Poppe, T G Jovin, T Devlin, B W Baxter, T Krings, F L Silver, D F Frei, C Fanale, D Tampieri, J Teitelbaum, D Iancu, J Shankar, P A Barber, A M Demchuk, M Goyal, M D Hill, B K Menon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy for large-artery stroke in the extended time window is not yet well-established. We performed a subgroup analysis on subjects enrolled within an extended time window in the Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE) trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine of 315 subjects (33 in the intervention group and 26 in the control group) were randomized in the ESCAPE trial between 5...
November 30, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187242/statistical-analysis-plan-for-the-eurohyp-1-trial-european-multicentre-randomised-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-the-therapeutic-hypothermia-plus-best-medical-treatment-versus-best-medical-treatment-alone-for-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#17
Per Winkel, Philip M Bath, Christian Gluud, Jane Lindschou, H Bart van der Worp, Malcolm R Macleod, Istvan Szabo, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Stefan Schwab
BACKGROUND: Cooling may reduce infarct size and improve neurological outcomes in patients with ischaemic stroke. In phase II trials, cooling awake patients with ischaemic stroke has been shown to be feasible and safe, but the effects in functional outcomes has not yet been investigated in an adequately sized randomised clinical trial. METHODS/DESIGN: The EuroHYP-1 trial is a multinational, randomised, superiority phase III clinical trial with masked outcome assessment testing the benefits and harms of therapeutic cooling in awake adult patients with acute ischaemic stroke...
November 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177139/high-field-in-vivo13c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-brain-by-random-radiofrequency-heteronuclear-decoupling-and-data-undersampling
#18
Ningzhi Li, Shizhe Li, Jun Shen
In vivo13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65 ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH = 125-145 Hz)...
2017: Frontiers in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174766/brain-choline-in-major-depression-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Colin A Riley, Perry F Renshaw
The focus of this review is to provide a synthesis of the current literature on the role of brain choline, as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), in major depressive disorder (MDD). The most recent 1H-MRS literature review took place over 10 years ago and, reflecting the high level of research on this topic, much has been learned since then. Higher brain choline levels have been linked to an increase in depression, and a cholinergic model for MDD development has been postulated. However, current 1H-MRS studies have been inconclusive regarding the role of choline in depression...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172053/associations-of-neurofunctional-morphometric-and-metabolic-abnormalities-with-clinical-symptom-severity-and-recognition-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) causes neural dysfunction associated with cognitive deficit and emotional dysregulation. This study assessed the associations of the neurofunctional changes, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in conjunction with in vivo metabolic changes on the working memory tasks in patients with OCD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with OCD and 18 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational levels underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), event-related functional MRI (fMRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3T...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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