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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920977/neurochemical-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-detected-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Xianjing Zhao, Maosheng Xu, Kristen Jorgenson, Jian Kong
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a highly prevalent health problem around the world, affecting 50% to 85% of people at some point in life. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on brain chemical changes in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: We identified relevant studies from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE from 1980 to March 2016. Data extraction was performed on the subjects' characteristics, MRS methods, spectral analyses, cerebral metabolites and perceptual measurements...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917121/neurochemical-and-neuroanatomical-plasticity-following-memory-training-and-yoga-interventions-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Hongyu Yang, Amber M Leaver, Prabha Siddarth, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M St Cyr, Harris A Eyre, Katherine L Narr, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915238/pontine-changes-in-metabolites-and-axonal-fibres-of-rats-following-four-week-alcohol-exposure-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-7-0-t
#3
Jianming Luo, Zhiwei Shen, Guang Chen, Dian Wang, Xiaojun Yu
AIMS: We characterized the metabolite content and axonal fibre changes in the rat pontine, in vivo, using (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner following chronic alcohol administration to explore new indicators for the early diagnosis and treatment of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the EtOH and control groups (water group)...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909746/brain-glutamate-in-anorexia-nervosa-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-case-control-study-at-7-tesla
#4
Beata R Godlewska, Alexandra Pike, Ann L Sharpley, Agnes Ayton, Rebecca J Park, Philip J Cowen, Uzay E Emir
RATIONALE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. There are no established pharmacological treatments and the neurobiology of the condition is poorly understood. Previous studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown that AN may be associated with reductions in indices of brain glutamate; however, at conventional field strengths (≤3 T), it is difficult to separate glutamate from its precursor and metabolite, glutamine...
December 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903933/translocator-positron-emission-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-of-brain-glial-cell-activation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Gourab Datta, Ines R Violante, Gregory Scott, Karl Zimmerman, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by a diffuse inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes. Brain translocator protein (TSPO) positron-emission tomography (PET) and [myo-inositol] magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used together to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vivo relationships between MRS and PET [(11)C]PBR28 in MS over a range of brain inflammatory burden. METHODS: A total of 23 patients were studied...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902528/increased-brain-lactate-during-depressive-episodes-and-reversal-effects-by-lithium-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-bipolar-disorder-a-3-t-1h-mrs-study
#6
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Marcus V Zanetti, Maria C Otaduy, Rafael T De Sousa, Marcio G Soeiro-de-Souza, Alana C Costa, Andre F Carvalho, Claudia C Leite, Geraldo F Busatto, Carlos A Zarate, Wagner F Gattaz
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment are key components in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and may involve a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Measurement of brain lactate in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) represents an important tool to evaluate mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction during mood episodes, as well as to monitor treatment response. To date, very few studies have quantified brain lactate in BD...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898701/assessing-white-matter-microstructure-in-brain-regions-with-different-myelin-architecture-using-mri
#7
Samuel Groeschel, Gisela E Hagberg, Thomas Schultz, Dávid Z Balla, Uwe Klose, Till-Karsten Hauser, Thomas Nägele, Oliver Bieri, Thomas Prasloski, Alex L MacKay, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Klaus Scheffler
OBJECTIVE: We investigate how known differences in myelin architecture between regions along the cortico-spinal tract and frontal white matter (WM) in 19 healthy adolescents are reflected in several quantitative MRI parameters that have been proposed to non-invasively probe WM microstructure. In a clinically feasible scan time, both conventional imaging sequences as well as microstructural MRI parameters were assessed in order to quantitatively characterise WM regions that are known to differ in the thickness of their myelin sheaths, and in the presence of crossing or parallel fibre organisation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898072/elevated-brain-lactate-in-schizophrenia-a-7%C3%A2-t-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#8
L M Rowland, S Pradhan, S Korenic, S A Wijtenburg, L E Hong, R A Edden, P B Barker
Various lines of evidence suggest that brain bioenergetics and mitochondrial function may be altered in schizophrenia. On the basis of prior phosphorus-31 ((31)P)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), post-mortem and preclinical studies, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that abnormal glycolysis leads to elevated lactate concentrations in subjects with schizophrenia. The high sensitivity of 7 Tesla proton ((1)H)-MRS was used to measure brain lactate levels in vivo. Twenty-nine controls and 27 participants with schizophrenia completed the study...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894920/effects-of-repeated-dizocilpine-treatment-on-glutamatergic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-an-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-9-4t
#9
Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Kyu-Ho Song, Song-I Lim, Do-Wan Lee, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Repeated exposure to dizocilpine (MK-801) can be used as a model of schizophrenia that incorporates disease progression. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) has been widely used to investigate schizophrenia-related alterations in glutamate (Glu). The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in an animal model of schizophrenia by using in vivo (1)H MRS. Because of the spectral overlap of Glu and glutamine (Gln), high-field (1)H MRS with short echo time (TE) was used...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891691/probing-metabolite-diffusion-at-ultra-short-time-scales-in-the-mouse-brain-using-optimized-oscillating-gradients-and-short-echo-time-diffusion-weighted-mrs
#10
Clémence Ligneul, Julien Valette
Measuring diffusion at ultra-short time scales may yield information about short-range intracellular structure and cytosol viscosity. However, reaching such time scales usually requires oscillating gradients, which in turn imply long echo times TE . Here we propose a new kind of stretched oscillating gradient that allows us to increase diffusion-weighting b while preserving spectral and temporal properties of the gradient modulation. We used these optimized gradients to measure metabolite diffusion in the mouse brain down to effective diffusion times of 1 ms while keeping TE relatively short (60 ms)...
November 28, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890741/perisylvian-gaba-levels-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#11
Murat İlhan Atagün, Elif Muazzez Şıkoğlu, Çağlar Soykan, Can Serdar Süleyman, Semra Ulusoy-Kaymak, Ali Çayköylü, Oktay Algın, Mary Louise Phillips, Dost Öngür, Constance Mary Moore
The aim of this study is to measure GABA levels of perisylvian cortices in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Patients with schizophrenia (n=25), bipolar I disorder (BD-I; n=28) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II; n=20) were compared with healthy controls (n=30). (1)H-MRS data was acquired using a Siemens 3T whole body scanner to quantify right and left perisylvian structures' (including superior temporal lobes) GABA levels. Right perisylvian GABA values differed significantly between groups [χ(2)=9...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889838/changes-of-brain-metabolite-concentrations-during-maturation-in-different-brain-regions-measured-by-chemical-shift-imaging
#12
Eva Bültmann, Thomas Nägele, Heinrich Lanfermann, Uwe Klose
INTRODUCTION: We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. METHODS: From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits...
November 26, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885633/oligodendrocytes-development-physiology-and-glucose-metabolism
#13
Ana I Amaral, Joana M Tavares, Ursula Sonnewald, Mark R N Kotter
The glutamate-glutamine cycle is an outstanding example of how essential neuronal-glial interactions are for brain function. For several decades, this and other metabolic cycles in the brain have only included neurons and astrocytes but not oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent data revealed that oligodendrocytes are highly metabolically active cells in the brain and, therefore, should not be ignored. Using (13)C-labelled glucose in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and/or mass spectrometry (MS) it is possible to characterize metabolic functions in primary oligodendrocyte cultures...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869141/fronto-striatal-glutamate-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Houshang Amiri, Steven Cr Williams, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Daniel Brandeis, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Matthias Ruf, Isabella Wolf, Tobias Banaschewski, Jeffrey C Glennon, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, David J Lythgoe
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid with the overlap based on compulsive behaviors. Although previous studies suggest glutamatergic deficits in fronto-striatal brain areas in both disorders, this is the first study to directly compare the glutamate concentrations across the two disorders with those in healthy control participants using both categorical and dimensional approaches. In the current multi-center study (four centers), we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in 51 children with ASD, 29 with OCD, and 53 healthy controls (aged 8 to 13 years) to investigate glutamate (Glu) concentrations in two regions of the fronto-striatal circuit: midline anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left dorsal striatum...
November 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868234/efficient-31-p-band-inversion-transfer-approach-for-measuring-creatine-kinase-activity-atp-synthesis-and-molecular-dynamics-in-the-human-brain-at-7-t
#15
Jimin Ren, A Dean Sherry, Craig R Malloy
PURPOSE: To develop an efficient (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) method for measuring creatine kinase (CK) activity, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and motion dynamics in the human brain at 7 Tesla (T). METHODS: Three band inversion modules differing in center frequency were used to induce magnetization transfer (MT) effect in three exchange pathways: (i) CK-mediated reaction PCr → γ-ATP; (ii) de novo ATP synthesis Pi → γ-ATP; and (iii) ATP intramolecular (31) P-(31) P cross-relaxation γ-(α-) ↔ β-ATP...
November 20, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862464/randomized-assessment-of-imatinib-in-patients-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke-treated-with-intravenous-thrombolysis
#16
N Wahlgren, M Thorén, B Höjeberg, T-B Käll, A-C Laska, C Sjöstrand, J Höijer, H Almqvist, S Holmin, A Lilja, L Fredriksson, D Lawrence, U Eriksson, N Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to restore blood-brain barrier integrity and reduce infarct size, haemorrhagic transformation and cerebral oedema in stroke models treated with tissue plasminogen activator. We evaluated the safety of imatinib, based on clinical and neuroradiological data, and its potential influence on neurological and functional outcomes. METHODS: A phase II randomized trial was performed in patients with acute ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861540/thrombolysis-in-stroke-within-30-minutes-results-of-the-acute-brain-care-intervention-study
#17
Sanne M Zinkstok, Ludo F Beenen, Jan S Luitse, Charles B Majoie, Paul J Nederkoorn, Yvo B Roos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Time is brain: benefits of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in ischemic stroke last for 4.5 hours but rapidly decrease as time progresses following symptom onset. The goal of the Acute Brain Care (ABC) intervention study was to reduce the door-to-needle time (DNT) to ≤30 minutes by optimizing in-hospital stroke treatment. METHODS: We performed a single-centre before (pre-intervention period: 2000-2005) versus after (post-intervention period: 2006-2012) comparison in a cohort of consecutive patients treated with IVT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861379/moderate-to-severe-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-lithium
#18
Eric H Decloedt, Carla Freeman, Fleur Howells, Martine Casson-Crook, Maia Lesosky, Eleni Koutsilieri, Simon Lovestone, Gary Maartens, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent despite effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART). A number of adjunctive pharmacotherapies for HAND have been studied with disappointing results, but preliminary data suggest that lithium may provide clinical benefit. In addition, the low cost of lithium would facilitate access in low- and middle-income countries which carry the greatest burden of HIV. METHODS: Our objective was to evaluate the 24-week efficacy and safety of lithium in patients with moderate to severe HAND...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859933/spectroscopic-biomarkers-of-motor-cortex-developmental-plasticity-in-hemiparetic-children-after-perinatal-stroke
#19
Helen L Carlson, Frank P MacMaster, Ashley D Harris, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes hemiparetic cerebral palsy and lifelong motor disability. Bilateral motor cortices are key hubs within the motor network and their neurophysiology determines clinical function. Establishing biomarkers of motor cortex function is imperative for developing and evaluating restorative interventional strategies. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) quantifies metabolite concentrations indicative of underlying neuronal health and metabolism in vivo. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided MRS to investigate motor cortex metabolism in children with perinatal stroke...
November 17, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859844/in-vivo-estimation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-levels-in-the-neonatal-brain
#20
Moyoko Tomiyasu, Noriko Aida, Jun Shibasaki, Masahiro Umeda, Katsutoshi Murata, Keith Heberlein, Mark A Brown, Eiji Shimizu, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takayuki Obata
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and plays a key role in brain development. However, the in vivo levels of brain GABA in early life are unknown. Using edited MRS, in vivo GABA can be detected as GABA+ signal with contamination of macromolecule signals. GABA+ is evaluated as the peak ratio of GABA+/reference compound, for which creatine (Cr) or water is typically used. However, the concentrations and T1 and T2 relaxation times of these references change during development...
November 11, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
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