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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672312/impact-of-brain-atrophy-on-early-neurological-deterioration-and-outcome-in-severe-ischemic-stroke-treated-by-intravenous-thrombolysis
#1
Olivier Tschirret, Gabriela Moreno Legast, Adeline Mansuy, Nathan Mewton, Marielle Buisson, Salem Hannoun, Leila Chamard, Dominique Sappey-Marinier, Carlos El Khoury, Magali Bischoff, Audrey de Parisot, Laurent Derex, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yves Berthezène, Laura Mechtouff
BACKGROUND: Brain atrophy has shown a protective effect on the risk of early neurological deterioration (END) related to malignant edema in patients with hemispheric infarction but could be deleterious on the outcome. AIMS: We aimed to assess whether brain atrophy has an impact on the risk of END and on the outcome in severe ischemic strokes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis. METHODS: From a prospective thrombolysis registry, 137 patients who had a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥15, MRI at admission, and IV thrombolysis were included...
April 19, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670128/mitochondrial-function-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
Tania Da Silva, Abbie Wu, Isabelle Laksono, Ivana Prce, Margaret Maheandiran, Michael Kiang, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Alterations in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Most studies have investigated alterations in mitochondrial function in patients in which the disorder is already established; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction predates the onset of psychosis remains unknown. We measured peripheral mitochondrial complex (I-V) function and lactate/pyruvate levels in 27 antipsychotic-naïve individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and 16 healthy controls. We also explored the association between mitochondrial function and brain microglial activation and glutathione levels using a translocator protein 18 kDa [18 F]FEPPA PET scan and 1 H-MRS scan, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668904/a-whole-brain-longitudinal-study-in-the-yac128-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-shows-distinct-trajectories-of-neurochemical-structural-connectivity-and-volumetric-changes
#3
Lorena I Petrella, João M Castelhano, Mario Ribeiro, José V Sereno, Sónia I Gonçalves, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Ana C Rego, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing cognitive and motor impairments, evolving to death within 15-20 years after symptom onset. We previously established a mouse model with the entire human HD gene containing 128 CAG repeats (YAC128) which accurately recapitulates the natural history of the human disease. Defined time points in this natural history enable the understanding of longitudinal trajectories from the neurochemical and structural points of view using non-invasive high-resolution multimodal imaging...
April 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667260/tai-chi-improves-brain-metabolism-and-muscle-energetics-in-older-adults
#4
Min Zhou, Huijun Liao, Lasya P Sreepada, Joshua R Ladner, James A Balschi, Alexander P Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663187/mri-patient-selection-for-endovascular-thrombectomy-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-correlation-between-pretreatment-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-outcome-scores
#5
Marcello Longo, Gianmarco Bernava, Alessandro Calamuneri, Antonio A Caragliano, Antonio Pitrone, Rosario Papa, Enricomaria Mormina, Francesca Granata, Rosa Musolino, Agostino Tessitore, Giuseppe Centorrino, Federico Midiri, Federica Vernuccio, Sergio L Vinci
INTRODUCTION: Eligibility for endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) depends, amongst other factors, on CT- or MR-based scores. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score based on diffusion weighted imaging (MR-ASPECT) in the assessment of brain damage pre-EVT, patient selection for EVT and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included in this study patients with National Institute of Health stroke score (NIHSS) at admission ≥ 8, MR-ASPECT ≥ 5 and anterior AIS, who were treated with EVT in our hospital...
April 16, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648462/a-systematic-review-of-neuroimaging-findings-in-children-and-adolescents-with-sports-related-concussion
#6
Emilie Chamard, Jonathan D Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion (SRC) generally does not result in structural anomalies revealed through clinical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. While advanced neuroimaging techniques offer another avenue to investigate the subtle alterations following SRC, the current pediatric literature in this area has yet to be reviewed. The aim of this review is to systematically explore the literature on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and cortical thickness following SRC in children and adolescents...
April 12, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629229/ambiguity-in-the-dural-tail-sign-on-mri
#7
Ramesh S Doddamani, Rajesh K Meena, Dattaraj Sawarkar
Background: Meningiomas give rise to the dural tail sign (DTS) on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI). The presence of DTS does not always qualify for a meningioma, as it is seen in only 60-72% of cases. This sign has been described in various other lesions like lymphomas, metastasis, hemangiopericytomas, schwannomas and very rarely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The characteristics of dural-based GBMs are discussed here, as only eleven such cases are reported in the literature till date...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625312/strokectomy-and-extensive-cerebro-spinal-fluid-drainage-for-the-treatment-of-space-occupying-cerebellar-ischemic-strokes
#8
Fulvio Tartara, Daniele Bongetta, Elena Virginia Colombo, Carlo Bortolotti, Marco Cenzato, Ermanno Giombelli, Paolo Gaetani, Francesco Zenga, Giulia Pilloni, Alfonso Ciccone, Maria Sessa
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Cerebellar ischemia may lead to space-occupying edema, resulting in potentially fatal complications. Different surgical procedures have been reported to create space for the swollen ischemic brain; still, both the type and timing of surgical treatments are debated in literature. We present here a case series of patients treated with a unilateral craniotomy to perform a cerebellar strokectomy and extensive cerebro-spinal fluid drainage without osteo-dural posterior fossa decompression...
April 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624727/autovoi-real-time-automatic-prescription-of-volume-of-interest-for-single-voxel-spectroscopy
#9
Young Woo Park, Dinesh K Deelchand, James M Joers, Brian Hanna, Adam Berrington, Joseph S Gillen, Kejal Kantarci, Brian J Soher, Peter B Barker, HyunWook Park, Gülin Öz, Christophe Lenglet
PURPOSE: To develop a fast and automated volume-of-interest (VOI) prescription pipeline (AutoVOI) for single-voxel MRS that removes the need for manual VOI placement, allows flexible VOI planning in any brain region, and enables high inter- and intra-subject consistency of VOI prescription. METHODS: AutoVOI was designed to transfer pre-defined VOIs from an atlas to the 3D anatomical data of the subject during the scan. The AutoVOI pipeline was optimized for consistency in VOI placement (precision), enhanced coverage of the targeted tissue (accuracy), and fast computation speed...
April 6, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616444/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-schizophrenia-evidence-for-glutamatergic-dysfunction-and-impaired-energy-metabolism
#10
João M N Duarte, Lijing Xin
In the past couple of decades, major efforts were made to increase reliability of metabolic assessments by magnetic resonance methods. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been valuable for providing in vivo evidence and investigating biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia. Alterations of glutamate and glutamine levels in brains of schizophrenia patients relative to healthy subjects are generally interpreted as markers of glutamatergic dysfunction. However, only a small fraction of MRS-detectable glutamate is involved in neurotransmission...
April 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614900/mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-control-of-genomic-responses-to-stress-in-the-brain
#11
Karen R Mifsud, Johannes M H M Reul
Successful coping with stressful events involves adaptive and cognitive processes in the brain that make the individual more resilient to similar stressors in the future. Stressful events result in the secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) from the adrenal glands into the blood stream. Early work proved instrumental for developing the concept that these hormones act in the brain to coordinate physiological and behavioral responses to stress through binding to two different GC-binding receptors. Once activated these receptors translocate to the nucleus where they act on target genes to facilitate (or sometimes inhibit) transcription...
April 4, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608677/regional-gaba-concentrations-modulate-inter-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#12
Xi Chen, Xiaoying Fan, Yuzheng Hu, Chun Zuo, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Daphne Holt, Qiyong Gong, Yihong Yang, Diego A Pizzagalli, Fei Du, Dost Ongur
Coordinated activity within and differential activity between large-scale neuronal networks such as the default mode network (DMN) and the control network (CN) is a critical feature of brain organization. The CN usually exhibits activations in response to cognitive tasks while the DMN shows deactivations; in addition, activity between the two networks is anti-correlated at rest. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to measure whole-brain BOLD signal during resting-state and task-evoked conditions, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA and glutamate concentrations, in nodes within the DMN and CN (MPFC and DLPFC, respectively) in 19 healthy individuals at 3 Tesla...
March 28, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595449/routine-low-dose-continuous-or-nocturnal-oxygen-for-people-with-acute-stroke-three-arm-stroke-oxygen-supplementation-rct
#13
Christine Roffe, Tracy Nevatte, Jon Bishop, Julius Sim, Cristina Penaloza, Susan Jowett, Natalie Ives, Richard Gray, Phillip Ferdinand, Girish Muddegowda
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Hypoxia is common after stroke and is associated with worse outcomes. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and secondary brain damage. OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess whether or not routine low-dose oxygen supplementation in patients with acute stroke improves outcome compared with no oxygen; and (2) to assess whether or not oxygen given at night only, when oxygen saturation is most likely to be low, is more effective than continuous supplementation...
March 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588974/seizures-electroencephalographic-abnormalities-and-outcome-of-ischemic-stroke-patients
#15
Carla Bentes, Ana Rita Peralta, Hugo Martins, Carlos Casimiro, Carlos Morgado, Ana Catarina Franco, Pedro Viana, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities have been associated with unfavorable stroke functional outcome. However, this association may depend on clinical and imaging stroke severity. We set out to analyze whether epileptic seizures and early EEG abnormalities are predictors of stroke outcome after adjustment for age and clinical/imaging infarct severity. Methods: A prospective study was made on consecutive and previously independent acute stroke patients with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 4 on admission and an acute anterior circulation ischemic lesion on brain imaging...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587752/alzheimer-like-brain-metabolic-and-structural-features-in-cholesterol-fed-rabbit-detected-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Ping Jin, Yongming Pan, Zhiyong Pan, Jianqin Xu, Min Lin, Zhichao Sun, Minli Chen, Maosheng Xu
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is known to increase the risk of AD in later life, the purpose of this study is to illustrate brain metabolic and structural changes in a cholesterol-fed rabbit model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) by using clinical 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University approved the study. Totally 16 Japanese White Rabbits (JWR) were randomly divided into 2 groups including normal control group fed with routine diet (group NC) and high cholesterol diet group (group CD) fed a 2% cholesterol diet with 0...
March 27, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581538/brain-lactate-and-ph-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-findings-from-magnetic-resonance-studies
#17
Asli Ercan Dogan, Cagri Yuksel, Fei Du, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Dost Öngür
Converging evidence from molecular to neuroimaging studies suggests brain energy metabolism abnormalities in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One emerging hypothesis is: decreased oxidative phosphorylation leading to accumulation of lactic acid from glycolysis and subsequent acidification of tissue. In this regard, integrating lactate and pH data from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in both diseases may help us understand underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In order to achieve this goal, we performed a systematic search of case-control studies examining brain lactate or pH among schizophrenia and/or bipolar patients by using MRS...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576392/clinical-outcome-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-profiles-in-patients-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-and-prior-vaccination-history
#18
Thorsten Lenhard, Daniela Ott, Nurith J Jakob, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Uta Meyding-Lamadé
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in southern and eastern districts of Germany. Approximately 10-14% of the infected individuals suffer from long-term disability and in 1.5-3.6% the course is fatal. Two well-tolerated vaccines are available, which provide high protection and which have been confirmed in several field studies. Here we investigate clinical course, long-term outcome and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics of TBE cases with a prior history of any vaccination as well as real vaccination breakthrough (VBT)...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567651/brain-mri-characteristics-of-patients-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-their-associations-with-2-year-clinical-outcome
#19
T Zhang, Y Duan, J Ye, W Xu, N Shu, C Wang, K Li, Y Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anti- N -methyl-D-aspertate receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease without specific brain MRI features. Our aim was to investigate the brain MR imaging characteristics of anti- N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and their associations with clinical outcome at a 2-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 53 patients with anti- N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and performed 2-year follow-up. Brain MRIs were acquired for all patients at the onset phase...
March 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562995/a-study-of-atrial-and-brain-natriuretic-peptides-in-tuberculous-meningitis-and-acute-encephalitis
#20
U K Misra, J Kalita, M Kumar, A Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: To report atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), and evaluate their relationship with hyponatraemia. METHODS: Consecutive patients with TBM and AES were included in the study. Hyponatraemia was categorised as cerebral salt wasting (CSW), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and a miscellaneous group based on clinical and laboratory criteria...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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