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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#1
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098776/distinguishing-benign-from-malignant-pancreatic-and-periampullary-lesions-using-combined-use-of-%C3%A2-h-nmr-spectroscopy-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#2
Yarrow J McConnell, Farshad Farshidfar, Aalim M Weljie, Karen A Kopciuk, Elijah Dixon, Chad G Ball, Francis R Sutherland, Hans J Vogel, Oliver F Bathe
Previous work demonstrated that serum metabolomics can distinguish pancreatic cancer from benign disease. However, in the clinic, non-pancreatic periampullary cancers are difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer. Therefore, to test the clinical utility of this technology, we determined whether any pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma could be distinguished from benign masses and biliary strictures. Sera from 157 patients with malignant and benign pancreatic and periampullary lesions were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 13, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098279/eu-3-doped-y3-xndxal3o12-garnet-synthesis-and-structural-investigation
#3
L Pavasaryte, A Katelnikovas, V Klimavicius, V Balevicius, A Krajnc, G Mali, J Plavec, A Kareiva
Nd(3+)-Doped yttrium aluminium garnet and Eu(3+)-Nd(3+)-co-doped yttrium aluminium garnet were synthesized using an environmentally friendly sol-gel method at low temperatures. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the powders sintered at 1000 °C showed the purity and formation of monophasic compounds. The phase composition and purity confirmation of the samples were also characterized via FTIR spectroscopy. Desirable microstructural features and particle size of phosphorous materials of the polycrystalline samples were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098142/carbon-translocation-from-a-plant-to-an-insect-pathogenic-endophytic-fungus
#4
Scott W Behie, Camila C Moreira, Irina Sementchoukova, Larissa Barelli, Paul M Zelisko, Michael J Bidochka
Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using (13)CO2, we show the incorporation of (13)C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of (13)C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096310/characterization-of-the-dtdp-fuc3n-and-dtdp-qui3n-biosynthetic-pathways-in-campylobacter-jejuni-81116%C3%A2
#5
Zack Z Li, Alexander S Riegert, Marie-France Goneau, Anna M Cunningham, Evgeny Vinogradov, Jianjun Li, Ian C Schoenhofen, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden, Michel Gilbert
The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni 81116 (Penner serotype HS:6) has a class E lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus containing 19 genes, which encode for 11 putative glycosyltransferases, 1 lipid A acyltransferase and 7 enzymes thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of dideoxyhexosamine (ddHexN) moieties. Although the LOS outer core structure of C. jejuni 81116 is still unknown, recent mass spectrometry analyses suggest that it contains acetylated forms of two ddHexN residues. For this investigation, five of the genes encoding enzymes reportedly involved in the biosyntheses of these sugar residues were examined, rmlA, rmlB, wlaRA, wlaRB and wlaRG Specifically, these genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding enzymes were purified and tested for biochemical activity...
January 16, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096234/glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-enables-anaplerotic-refilling-of-tca-cycle-intermediates-in-stroke-affected-brain
#6
Cameron Rink, Surya Gnyawali, Richard Stewart, Seth Teplitsky, Hallie Harris, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna
Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094138/new-normoxic-n-hydroxymethyl-acrylamide-based-polymer-gel-for-3d-dosimetry-in-radiation-therapy
#7
Khalid A Rabaeh, Ahmed A Basfar, Akram A Almousa, Slobodan Devic, Belal Moftah
A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for 3D dosimetry for Quality Assurance (QA) in radiation therapy. Dosimeters were irradiated by 6, 10 and 18MV photon beams of a medical linear accelerator at various dose rates to doses of up to 20Gy. The dose response of polymer gel dosimeters was studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) of hydrogen protons within the water molecule...
January 13, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093330/effect-of-solution-plasma-process-with-bubbling-gas-on-physicochemical-properties-of-chitosan
#8
Fengming Ma, Pu Li, Baiqing Zhang, Qun Fu, Zhenyu Wang, Cailian Gu
In the present work, solution plasma process (SPP) with bubbling gas was used to prepare oligochitosan. The effect of SPP irradiation with bubbling gas on the degradation of chitosan was evaluated by the intrinsic viscosity reduction rate and the degradation kinetic. The formation of OH radical was studied. Changes of the physicochemical properties of chitosan were measured by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, as well as ultraviolet-visible, Fourier-transform infrared, and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093096/structural-biology-of-supramolecular-assemblies-by-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy
#9
Caitlin M Quinn, Tatyana Polenova
In recent years, exciting developments in instrument technology and experimental methodology have advanced the field of magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to new heights. Contemporary MAS NMR yields atomic-level insights into structure and dynamics of an astounding range of biological systems, many of which cannot be studied by other methods. With the advent of fast MAS, proton detection, and novel pulse sequences, large supramolecular assemblies, such as cytoskeletal proteins and intact viruses, are now accessible for detailed analysis...
January 2017: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092975/characterisation-of-the-antiproliferative-constituents-and-activity-of-ficus-exasperata-vahl-on-ovarian-cancer-cells-a-preliminary-investigation
#10
Enitome E Bafor, Jennifer McKenna, Edward G Rowan, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers today. This study therefore investigates the anticancer effects of Ficus exasperata extracts and fractions on ovarian cancer cells. The antiproliferative activity of the crude extracts (1 mg/mL) was assessed using the MTT assay on A2780 (ovarian cancer) cell line. Bio-activity guided fractionation was performed and preliminary identification was further achieved using high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 17, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090443/topographical-and-depth-dependent-glycosaminoglycan-concentration-in-canine-medial-tibial-cartilage-3-weeks-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-transection-surgery-a-microscopic-imaging-study
#11
Daniel Mittelstaedt, David Kahn, Yang Xia
BACKGROUND: Medical imaging has become an invaluable tool to diagnose damage to cartilage. Depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) has been shown to be one of the early signs of cartilage degradation. In order to investigate the topographical changes in GAG concentration caused by the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) surgery in a canine model, microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) and microscopic computed tomography (µCT) were used to measure the GAG concentration with correlation from a biochemical assay, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), to understand where the topographical and depth-dependent changes in the GAG concentration occur...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090342/-1-h-mrs-measured-ectopic-fat-in-liver-and-muscle-is-associated-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-danish-girls-but-not-in-boys-with-overweight-and-obesity
#12
A Nissen, C E Fonvig, E Chabanova, C Bøjsøe, C Trier, O Pedersen, T Hansen, H S Thomsen, J-C Holm
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complication to overweight and obesity, which can be observed already in childhood. Ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle and liver has been shown to associate with the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, the interaction between MetS and ectopic fat may offer clinical relevance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of MetS, or components hereof, and ectopic fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue in children, as well as interactions between these...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089709/objective-assessment-of-dietary-patterns-by-use-of-metabolic-phenotyping-a-randomised-controlled-crossover-trial
#13
Isabel Garcia-Perez, Joram M Posma, Rachel Gibson, Edward S Chambers, Tue H Hansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Manfred Beckmann, Oluf Pedersen, Paul Elliott, Jeremiah Stamler, Jeremy K Nicholson, John Draper, John C Mathers, Elaine Holmes, Gary Frost
BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20-35 kg/m(2)) from a database of a clinical research unit in the UK...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089502/an-extended-fatty-liver-index-to-predict-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
K Kantartzis, I Rettig, H Staiger, J Machann, F Schick, L Scheja, A Gastaldelli, E Bugianesi, A Peter, M B Schulze, A Fritsche, H-U Häring, N Stefan
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, there is a strong interest in non-invasive markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our hypothesis was that the fold-change in plasma triglycerides (TG) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (fold-change TGOGTT) in concert with blood glucose and lipid parameters, and the rs738409 C>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PNPLA3 might improve the power of the widely used fatty liver index (FLI) to predict NAFLD. METHODS: The liver fat content of 330 subjects was quantified by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 12, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088662/metabolic-profiles-of-exudates-from-chronic-leg-ulcerations
#15
Adam Junka, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Adam Ząbek, Grzegorz Krasowski, Danuta Smutnicka, Barbara Bakalorz, Agnieszka Boruta, Mariusz Dziadas, Piotr Młynarz, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh, Marzenna Bartoszewicz
Chronic leg ulceration is a disease usually associated with other comorbidities, and significantly reduces patient quality of life. Infected leg ulcers can lead to limb-threatening sequelae or mortality. Leg ulcerations are colonized by a number of microbes that are able to cause life-threating infections in susceptible patients. Wound exudate is a body fluid that collects metabolites from patient eukaryotic cells and from prokaryotic bacterial communities inhabiting the wound. This study aimed at identification of metabolites in exudates collected from chronic leg ulcers, and correlation of this metabolome with patient comorbidities and microbiological status of the wound...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088566/removal-of-salicylic-acid-as-an-emerging-contaminant-by-a-polar-nano-dendritic-adsorbent-from-aqueous-media
#16
M Arshadi, F Mousavinia, M K Abdolmaleki, M J Amiri, A Khalafi-Nezhad
A polar nano-dendritic adsorbent containing amine groups (SAPAMAA) was synthesized onto the nanoparticles of SiO2Al2O3 and its uptake of salicylic acid (SA) from the synthetic and real water was investigated. The synthesized nanomaterials were fully studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta potential (ζ), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and elemental analysis...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086802/brain-metabolic-pattern-analysis-using-a-magnetic-resonance-spectra-classification-software-in-experimental-stroke
#17
Elena Jiménez-Xarrié, Myriam Davila, Ana Paula Candiota, Raquel Delgado-Mederos, Sandra Ortega-Martorell, Margarida Julià-Sapé, Carles Arús, Joan Martí-Fàbregas
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain Regions Classifier in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke using SpectraClassifier. RESULTS: A total of 164 single-voxel proton spectra obtained with a 7 Tesla magnet at an echo time of 12 ms from non-infarcted parenchyma, subventricular zones and infarcted parenchyma were analyzed with SpectraClassifier ( http://gabrmn...
January 13, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080214/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomic-studies-of-bisphenol-a-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#18
Changshin Yoon, Dahye Yoon, Junghee Cho, Siwon Kim, Heonho Lee, Hyeonsoo Choi, Suhkmann Kim
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to increasing concentrations of bisphenol A (4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol, BPA). Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to detect aberrant metabolomic profiles after 72 h of BPA exposure at all levels tested (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/L). The OPLS-DA score plots showed that BPA exposure caused significant alterations in the metabolome. The metabolomic changes in response to BPA exposure generally exhibited nonlinear patterns, with the exception of reduced levels of several metabolites, including glutamine, inosine, lactate, and succinate...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079713/interrogating-idh-mutation-in-brain-tumor-magnetic-resonance-and-hyperpolarization
#19
Jingzhe Hu, Travis C Salzillo, Napapon Sailasuta, Frederick F Lang, Pratip Bhattacharya
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers the possibility to noninvasively quantify 2HG concentration in the brain in the clinic, thereby serving as a valuable tool for patient-stratification as well as targeted treatment monitoring. Recently, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance techniques have opened up new opportunities for metabolic imaging not possible with conventional MRS in the brain. With over 10,000-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic metabolic processes can be interrogated in vivo with very high specificity by hyperpolarized MRI...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079396/does-brain-creatine-content-rely-on-exogenous-creatine-in-healthy-youth-a-proof-of-principle-study
#20
Carlos Alberto Abujabra Merege-Filho, Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy, Ana Lúcia de Sá-Pinto, Maira Okada de Oliveira, Lívia de Souza Gonçalves, Ana Paula Tanaka Hayashi, Hamilton Roschel, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Clovis Artur Silva, Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki, Claudia da Costa Leite, Bruno Gualano
It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests...
October 5, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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