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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Pere Domingo, Sara Ferrando-Martínez, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Sergi Veloso, Miguel López-Dupla, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Verónica Alba, Montserrat Vargas, Alfonso J Castellano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda María Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Félix Gutiérrez, Francesc Vidal, Anna Rull
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes. METHODS: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months...
April 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Emi Ono, Hiroyuki Murota, Yuki Mori, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Yuko Nomura, Takichi Munetsugu, Hiroo Yokozeki, Ichiro Katayama
Sweat includes active components and metabolites, which are needed to maintain skin homeostasis. Component changes in sweat derived from atopic dermatitis (AD) have been reported. To investigate the influence of sweat components on the pathogenesis of AD, we performed a multifaceted assessment, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis, and linked these features to clinical features of AD. Distinctive properties of AD sweat are the quite-variation in protein, anti-microbial peptides and glucose concentrations...
2018: PloS One
Roberto García-Figueiras, Sandra Baleato-González, Anwar R Padhani, Antonio Luna-Alcalá, Ana Marhuenda, Joan C Vilanova, Iria Osorio-Vázquez, Anxo Martínez-de-Alegría, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño
Imaging techniques are clinical decision-making tools in the evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of recent advances in imaging for diagnosis, prognosis, therapy planning, and assessment of response to treatment of CRC. Recent developments and new clinical applications of conventional imaging techniques such as virtual colonoscopy, dual-energy spectral computed tomography, elastography, advanced computing techniques (including volumetric rendering techniques and machine learning), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based magnetization transfer, and new liver imaging techniques, which may offer additional clinical information in patients with CRC, are summarized...
April 20, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
D Mahaboob Basha, G Venkata Reddy, Y Gopi Krishna, B E Kumara Swamy, Rajani Vijay
The first approach of this research paper explores the simultaneous characterization and determination of theAsulam active ingredient and its associated nine impurities in bulk batch production by the gradient reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method. The best separation from its potential impurities and reproducible method was achieved by selecting the Cosmosil C-18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) analytical column with a run time of 40 min. The pumping chromatographic mobile phase was composed of 0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Naif Mohammed Al-Hada, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Anwar Ali Baqer, Abdul H Shaari, Elias Saion
SnO₂ nanoparticle production using thermal treatment with tin(II) chloride dihydrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone capping agent precursor materials for calcination was investigated. Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse UV-vis reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and the electron spin resonance (ESR)...
April 17, 2018: Nanomaterials
Franciele Pereira Camargo, Aparecido Júnior de Menezes, Paulo Sérgio Tonello, André Cordeiro Alves Dos Santos, Iolanda Cristina Silveira Duarte
This study aimed at the production of biosurfactants from yeasts under acidic conditions using residual soybean oil as a carbon source, as well as the biosurfactant produced in the solubilization of metals in sewage sludge. The yeast Meyerozyma guilliermondii was considered the best producer in both pH 4.0 and 2.0, therefore the product obtained by this yeast was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Moreover, it was applied in metal removal assays in anaerobic sewage sludge...
April 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Seyed Abbas Mirzaei, Mansureh Safari Kavishahi, Zhila Keshavarz, Fatemeh Elahian
The search for new chemotherapeutics unaffected by efflux pumps would significantly increase life expectancy in patients with malignant cancers. In this study, butylcycloheptylprodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin were HPLC-purified and verified, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cell cytotoxicity and transportation kinetics on multiple-drug resistance (MDR) cells were evaluated. Daunorubicin and butylcycloheptylprodigiosin were less toxic in the MDR1 overexpressing line, but undecylprodigiosin revealed potent toxicity toward MDR1 and BCRP expressing malignant cells...
April 19, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Andrew Bernard, Keye Zhang, Daniel Larson, Katayoon Tabatabaei, Susan M Kauzlarich
Solvent effects on the microwave-assisted synthesis of germanium nanoparticles are presented. A mixture of oleylamine and 1-dodecene was used as the reaction solvent. Oleylamine serves as a reducing agent in the synthesis while both molecules act as binding ligands. Increased concentrations of 1-dodecene in the solvent mixture were found to increase the size of the formed nanoparticles. Crystallinity was also dependent on the solvent mixture. Amorphous nanoparticles were obtained at lower 1-dodecene concentrations, whereas, at higher concentrations, particles contained crystalline and amorphous domains...
April 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Kelly A Bowden Davies, Victoria S Sprung, Juliette A Norman, Andrew Thompson, Katie L Mitchell, Jason C G Halford, Jo A Harrold, John P H Wilding, Graham J Kemp, Daniel J Cuthbertson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of a short-term reduction in physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour on metabolic profiles and body composition, comparing the effects in individuals with first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes (FDR+ve) vs those without (FDR-ve). METHODS: Forty-five habitually active participants (16 FDR+ve [10 female, 6 male] and 29 FDR-ve [18 female, 11 male]; age 36 ± 14 years) were assessed at baseline, after 14 days of step reduction and 14 days after resuming normal activity...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
Sigrun Goluch, Roberta Frass-Kriegl, Martin Meyerspeer, Michael Pichler, Jürgen Sieg, Martin Gajdošík, Martin Krššák, Elmar Laistler
13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a viable, non-invasive method to study cell metabolism in skeletal muscles. However, MR sensitivity of 13 C is inherently low, which can be overcome by applying a higher static magnetic field strength together with radiofrequency coil arrays instead of single loop coils or large volume coils, and 1 H decoupling, which leads to a simplified spectral pattern. 1 H-decoupled 13 C-MRS requires RF coils which support both, 1 H and 13 C, Larmor frequencies with sufficient electromagnetic isolation between the pathways of the two frequencies...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seunghyun Ahn, Youngshim Lee, Jihyun Park, Junho Lee, Soon Young-Shin, Young Han Lee, Dongsoo Koh, Yoongho Lim
BACKGROUND: The Hantzsch ester, diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate, has been used as a hydride donor and its various biological effects have been reported. To identify chemotherapeutic agents with apoptotic effects, 21 diethyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates were designed and synthesized; they have not been reported as apoptosis inducers thus far. Their structure-cytotoxicity relationships were investigated. Further biological experiments were performed on the title compound...
April 18, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Can Xu, Ningbo Qin, Chunyan Yan, Shumei Wang
The root of Pueraria lobata is considered to be a medicinal and edible herb for the treatment of diabetes, and it has a long history of application in China. To explore the constituents responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic activities of P. lobata, a water-soluble polysaccharide (PL70-1-1) was isolated and purified by using a DEAE-Cellulose 52 anion exchange column and a Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration column. Its molecular weight (2584 Da) was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC)...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
Min Zhou, Huijun Liao, Lasya P Sreepada, Joshua R Ladner, James A Balschi, Alexander P Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Maria A Sitnikova, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
In this review, we aim to highlight the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a useful neuroimaging technique for the investigation of cognitive development. We focus on brain activation changes during the development of mathematics and language skills in schoolchildren. We discuss how technical limitations of common neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have resulted in our limited understanding of neural changes during development, while fNIRS would be a suitable and child-friendly method to examine cognitive development...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Radka Klepochová, Ladislav Valkovič, Thomas Hochwartner, Christoph Triska, Norbert Bachl, Harald Tschan, Siegfried Trattnig, Michael Krebs, Martin Krššák
Purpose: The influence of endurance training on skeletal muscle metabolism can currently be studied only by invasive sampling or through a few related parameters that are investigated by either proton (1 H) or phosphorus (31 P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic differences between endurance-trained triathletes and healthy volunteers using multi-parametric data acquired by both, 31 P- and 1 H-MRS, at ultra-high field (7T) in a single experimental protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Wenjing Gao, Xiao Wang, Fuyan Li, Wenqi Shi, Hongxia Li, Qingshi Zeng
Background Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) has been demonstrated to be useful in grading glioma, but the utility in assessing cellular proliferation activity and prognosis correlated with the expression of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) has not been reported. Purpose To explore the correlation between proton MR spectroscopy parameters (including choline [Cho]/creatine [Cr], N-acetyl aspartate [NAA]/Cr, and Cho/NAA ratios) and the expression of MCM2 and to further evaluate whether 1 H-MRS can predict cell proliferative activity and provide prognostic information in high-grade gliomas (HGGs)...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Livia Angeloni, Melania Reggente, Daniele Passeri, Marco Natali, Marco Rossi
Identification of nanoparticles and nanosystems into cells and biological matrices is a hot research topic in nanobiotechnologies. Because of their capability to map physical properties (mechanical, electric, magnetic, chemical, or optical), several scanning probe microscopy based techniques have been proposed for the subsurface detection of nanomaterials in biological systems. In particular, atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to reveal stiff nanoparticles in cells and other soft biomaterials by probing the sample mechanical properties through the acquisition of local indentation curves or through the combination of ultrasound-based methods, like contact resonance AFM (CR-AFM) or scanning near field ultrasound holography...
April 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Irene M Vavasour, Roger Tam, David Kb Li, Cornelia Laule, Carolyn Taylor, Shannon H Kolind, Alex L MacKay, Adil Javed, Anthony Traboulsee
BACKGROUND: Tissue damage in both multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) are important contributors to disability and progression. Specific aspects of MS pathology can be measured using advanced imaging. Alemtuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 developed for MS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes over 2 years of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) metrics in lesions and NAWM of MS patients treated with alemtuzumab...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Fengxia Wang, Wei Wang, Xiaobo Niu, Yulong Huang, Ji Zhang
In this study, a second water-soluble polysaccharide (designated as LDP-2) was isolated from the bulbs of Lanzhou Lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor). Based on monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis, its structural features were investigated using a variety of characterizations, such as size-exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that LDP-2 is a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide (molecular weight 6...
April 17, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mohammad Asad, Naheed Saba, Abdullah M Asiri, M Jawaid, Eti Indarti, W D Wanrosli
TEMPO-oxidize nanocellulose (TONC) suspension has been obtained from total chlorine free (TCF) oil palm empty-fruit-bunches (OPEFB) pulp using 4-acetamido-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidin-1-oxyl) mediated oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and sodium bromide in water at 25 °C and pH 10. TONC suspension with varied content from 0.5 to 6% (w/w) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer based nanocomposite films were prepared by the casting method. The structural interaction between the TONC and PVA was characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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