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Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441370/conventional-modalities-and-novel-emerging-imaging-techniques-for-musculoskeletal-tumors
#1
Meera Raghavan
BACKGROUND: Imaging of musculoskeletal tumors requires a multimodality approach and includes radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Topics related to primary bone and soft-tissue tumors are reviewed. The fundamental imaging principles are discussed as well as the applications of emerging imaging modalities. RESULTS: MRI is the preferred technique for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors, whereas other imaging modalities play a complementary role...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440823/quantitative-nmr-of-quadrupolar-nucleus-as-a-novel-analytical-method-hydrolysis-behaviour-analysis-of-aluminum-ion
#2
Hideshi Maki, Genki Sakata, Minoru Mizuhata
In this study, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei has been established. The complicated hydrolysis behavior of the Al(3+) ion, which causes fish poisoning and inhibits the growth of plants in environmental water, was clarified by (27)Al qNMR spectroscopy. Highly accurate simultaneous multicomponent quantitative analysis of various hydrolyzed forms of the Al ion was achieved in a non-destructive manner. The calibration curve of the external standard aqueous Al(NO3)3 solution showed excellent linearity over a very wide concentration range from 1 × 10(-4) to 1 mol L(-1) (an increase in concentration of 10 000 times), with a simple experimental and analytical procedure...
April 25, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440629/relevant-features-of-a-triethylene-glycol-dimethyl-ether-based-electrolyte-for-application-in-lithium-battery
#3
Lorenzo Carbone, Daniele Di Lecce, Mallory Gobet, Stephen Munoz, Matthew Devany, Steve Greenbaum, Jusef Hassoun
Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TREGDME) dissolving lithium trifluoromethane sulfonate (LiCF3SO3) is studied as a suitable electrolyte medium for lithium battery. Thermal and rheological characteristics, transport properties of the dissolved species, and the electrochemical behavior in lithium cell represent the most relevant investigated properties of the new electrolyte. The self-diffusion coefficients, the lithium transference numbers, the ionic conductivity, and the ion association degree of the solution are determined by pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439224/richness-in-functional-connectivity-depends-on-the-neuronal-integrity-within-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#4
Anton R Lord, Meng Li, Liliana R Demenescu, Johan van den Meer, Viola Borchardt, Anna Linda Krause, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Michael Breakspear, Martin Walter
The brain's connectivity skeleton-a rich club of strongly interconnected members-was initially shown to exist in human structural networks, but recent evidence suggests a functional counterpart. This rich club typically includes key regions (or hubs) from multiple canonical networks, reducing the cost of inter-network communication. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub node embedded within the default mode network, is known to facilitate communication between brain networks and is a key member of the "rich club...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437686/synthesis-optical-properties-and-application-of-a-set-of-novel-pyrazole-nopinone-derivatives
#5
Jinlai Yang, Xu Xu, Jian Rui, Zhonglong Wang, Yan Zhang, Shifa Wang, Liangru Wu
Pyrazole derivatives (4-6) were directly synthesized from β-pinene derivative nopinone, and they were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectoscope, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry. Their optical properties were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The three compounds emitted strong blue fluorescence in ethanol. Using a fluorescence quenching method, compound 4 could be used to detect the content (100.57%) of copper sulfate pentahydrate (≥99%) with a RSD of 1...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436463/relation-between-molecular-electronic-structure-and-nuclear-spin-induced-circular-dichroism
#6
Petr Štěpánek, Sonia Coriani, Dage Sundholm, Vasily A Ovchinnikov, Juha Vaara
The recently theoretically described nuclear spin-induced circular dichroism (NSCD) is a promising method for the optical detection of nuclear magnetization. NSCD involves both optical excitations of the molecule and hyperfine interactions and, thus, it offers a means to realize a spectroscopy with spatially localized, high-resolution information. To survey the factors relating the molecular and electronic structure to the NSCD signal, we theoretically investigate NSCD of twenty structures of the four most common nucleic acid bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine)...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435985/elucidating-the-a%C3%AE-42-anti-aggregation-mechanism-of-action-of-tramiprosate-in-alzheimer-s-disease-integrating-molecular-analytical-methods-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-data
#7
Petr Kocis, Martin Tolar, Jeremy Yu, William Sinko, Soumya Ray, Kaj Blennow, Howard Fillit, John A Hey
BACKGROUND: Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and represent a promising target for drug development. Tramiprosate is a small-molecule Aβ anti-aggregation agent that was evaluated in phase III clinical trials for AD but did not meet the primary efficacy endpoints; however, a pre-specified subgroup analysis revealed robust, sustained, and clinically meaningful cognitive and functional effects in patients with AD homozygous for the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4/4 homozygotes), who carry an increased risk for the disease...
April 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435872/unraveling-self-assembly-pathways-of-the-468-kda-proteolytic-machine-tet2
#8
Pavel Macek, Rime Kerfah, Elisabetta Boeri Erba, Elodie Crublet, Christine Moriscot, Guy Schoehn, Carlos Amero, Jerome Boisbouvier
The spontaneous formation of biological higher-order structures from smaller building blocks, called self-assembly, is a fundamental attribute of life. Although the protein self-assembly is a time-dependent process that occurs at the molecular level, its current understanding originates either from static structures of trapped intermediates or from modeling. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has the unique ability to monitor structural changes in real time; however, its size limitation and time-resolution constraints remain a challenge when studying the self-assembly of large biological particles...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435869/a-dynamic-hydrophobic-core-orchestrates-allostery-in-protein-kinases
#9
Jonggul Kim, Lalima G Ahuja, Fa-An Chao, Youlin Xia, Christopher L McClendon, Alexandr P Kornev, Susan S Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia
Eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) constitute a class of allosteric switches that mediate a myriad of signaling events. It has been postulated that EPKs' active and inactive states depend on the structural architecture of their hydrophobic cores, organized around two highly conserved spines: C-spine and R-spine. How the spines orchestrate the transition of the enzyme between catalytically uncommitted and committed states remains elusive. Using relaxation dispersion nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that the hydrophobic core of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A, a prototypical and ubiquitous EPK, moves synchronously to poise the C subunit for catalysis in response to binding adenosine 5'-triphosphate...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435103/magnetization-transfer-contrast-and-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-features-and-analysis-of-the-field-dependent-saturation-spectrum
#10
Peter C M van Zijl, Wilfred W Lam, Jiadi Xu, Linda Knutsson, Greg J Stanisz
Magnetization Transfer Contrast (MTC) and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) experiments measure the transfer of magnetization from molecular protons to the solvent water protons, an effect that becomes apparent as an MRI signal loss ("saturation"). This allows molecular information to be accessed with the enhanced sensitivity of MRI. In analogy to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), these saturation data are presented as a function of the chemical shift of participating proton groups, e.g. OH, NH, NH2, which is called a Z-spectrum...
April 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434615/searching-for-cross-diagnostic-convergence-neural-mechanisms-governing-excitation-and-inhibition-balance-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Brendan D Adkinson, Jie Lisa Ji, Genevieve Yang, Vinod H Srihari, James C McPartland, John H Krystal, John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
Recent theoretical accounts have proposed excitation and inhibition (E/I) imbalance as a possible mechanistic, network-level hypothesis underlying neural and behavioral dysfunction across neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These two disorders share some overlap in their clinical presentation as well as convergence in their underlying genes and neurobiology. However, there are also clear points of dissociation in terms of phenotypes and putatively affected neural circuitry...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433479/modeling-short-range-substitution-order-and-disorder-in-crystals-application-to-the-ga-si-distribution-in-a-natrolite-zeolite
#12
Sylvian Cadars, Nak Ho Ahn, Kirill Okhotnikov, Jiho Shin, Aurélie Vicente, Suk Bong Hong, Christian Fernandez
Atomic substitutions are a central feature of the physicochemical properties of an increasing number of solid-state materials. The complexity that this chemical disorder locally generates in otherwise crystalline solids poses a major challenge to the understanding of the relationships between the structure and properties of materials at the atomic and molecular level. Strategies designed to efficiently explore the ensemble of local chemical environments present in disordered crystals and predict their signatures in local spectroscopies such as solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are therefore essential...
April 13, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432983/improved-resolution-and-simplification-of-the-spin-diffusion-based-nmr-method-for-the-structural-analysis-of-mixed-linker-mofs
#13
Andraž Krajnc, Bart Bueken, Dirk De Vos, Gregor Mali
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with modeling represents a powerful tool for the structural analysis of heterogeneous materials. In this contribution we describe an upgraded method, particularly suited for the structural analysis of mixed-linker metal-organic framework materials, which is based on the measurement and modeling of proton spin diffusion among constituents. We tested the method on a UiO-66-type metal-organic material, in which the organic building units were 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate and trans-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate anions distributed within the framework in an unknown manner...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432796/an-acetone-based-phantom-for-quantitative-diffusion-mri
#14
Xiaoke Wang, Scott B Reeder, Diego Hernando
PURPOSE: To propose and evaluate an acetone-D2 O phantom that has an extended range of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for quantitative diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as to compare its properties to previously described water-based phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed acetone-D2 O, and previously described sucrose water solution and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) water solution phantoms, were constructed in a number of concentrations between 0% and 50%...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432645/efficacy-of-lomitapide-in-the-treatment-of-familial-homozygous-hypercholesterolemia-results-of-a-real-world-clinical-experience-in-italy
#15
Laura D'Erasmo, Angelo Baldassare Cefalù, Davide Noto, Antonina Giammanco, Maurizio Averna, Paolo Pintus, Paolo Medde, Giovanni Battista Vigna, Cesare Sirtori, Laura Calabresi, Chiara Pavanello, Marco Bucci, Carlo Sabbà, Patrizia Suppressa, Francesco Natale, Paolo Calabrò, Tiziana Sampietro, Federico Bigazzi, Francesco Sbrana, Katia Bonomo, Fulvio Sileo, Marcello Arca
INTRODUCTION: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare form of inherited dyslipidemia resistant to conventional cholesterol-lowering medications so that lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is usually required. Lomitapide has been approved for the treatment of HoFH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of lomitapide in HoFH patients followed with the usual clinical care. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected in 15 HoFH patients (10 with mutations in the LDLR gene and 5 in the LDLRAP1 gene) treated for at least 6 months with lomitapide in addition to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) in different Lipid Clinics across Italy...
April 21, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432403/bone-marrow-fat-content-in-70-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#16
Kirsten Ecklund, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Catherine M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432336/structure-function-analysis-of-the-dna-binding-domain-of-a-transmembrane-transcriptional-activator
#17
Andreas Schlundt, Sophie Buchner, Robert Janowski, Thomas Heydenreich, Ralf Heermann, Jürgen Lassak, Arie Geerlof, Ralf Stehle, Dierk Niessing, Kirsten Jung, Michael Sattler
The transmembrane DNA-binding protein CadC of E. coli, a representative of the ToxR-like receptor family, combines input and effector domains for signal sensing and transcriptional activation, respectively, in a single protein, thus representing one of the simplest signalling systems. At acidic pH in a lysine-rich environment, CadC activates the transcription of the cadBA operon through recruitment of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to the two cadBA promoter sites, Cad1 and Cad2, which are directly bound by CadC...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432309/fano-resonance-with-high-local-field-enhancement-under-azimuthally-polarized-excitation
#18
Wuyun Shang, Fajun Xiao, Weiren Zhu, Hongsen He, Malin Premaratne, Ting Mei, Jianlin Zhao
Being an enabling technology for applications such as ultrasensitive biosensing and surface enhanced spectroscopy, enormous research interests have been focused on further boosting the local field enhancement at Fano resonance. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic Fano resonance resulting from the interference between a narrow magnetic dipole mode and a broad electric dipole mode in a split-ring resonator (SRR) coupled to a nanoarc structure. Strikingly, when subjected to an azimuthally polarized beam (APB) excitation, the intensity enhancement becomes more than 60 times larger than that for a linearly polarized beam (LPB)...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431965/origin-of-nanodroplet-formation-upon-dissolution-of-an-amorphous-solid-dispersion-a-mechanistic-isotope-scrambling-study
#19
Anura S Indulkar, Jan E Waters, Huaping Mo, Yi Gao, Shweta A Raina, Geoff G Z Zhang, Lynne S Taylor
It has been observed that certain amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), upon dissolution, generate drug-rich amorphous nanodroplets. These nanodroplets, present as a dispersed phase, can potentially enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by serving as a drug reservoir that efficiently feeds the continuous aqueous solution phase following absorption of drug. The purpose of this study was to probe the formation mechanism of the nanodroplets. The model system studied was nifedipine (NFD) formulated as an ASD with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 Premium LV (HPMC-E5) or polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVPVA)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#20
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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