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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#1
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419083/pneumococcal-vaccination-and-efficacy-in-patients-with-heterotaxy-syndrome
#2
Pei-Lan Shao, Mei-Hwan Wu, Jou-Kou Wang, Hui-Wen Hsu, Li-Min Huang, Shuenn-Nan Chiu
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal vaccines, including pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV), are important in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease. We analyzed the pneumococcal vaccination rate, efficacy and durability in patients with heterotaxy. METHODS: All patients with heterotaxy and CCHD who were followed at our institution between 2010 and 2015 were included. Pneumococcal vaccine status and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F were analyzed...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404574/parasitic-infections-in-pregnancy-decrease-placental-transfer-of-anti-pneumococcal-antibodies
#3
Noah D McKittrick, David M Vu, Indu Malhotra, Charles H King, Francis Mutuku, A Desiree LaBeaud
Many factors can influence maternal placental antibody transfer to the fetus, which confers important immune protection to the newborn infant. However, little is known about the effect of maternal parasitic infection on placental antibody transfer. To investigate this, we selected, from a parent study of 576 pregnant Kenyan women, four groups of women with term deliveries (≥37 weeks), including uninfected women (N=30) and women with solo infections of malaria (N=30), hookworm (N=30), or schistosomiasis (N=10)...
April 12, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403047/risk-factors-in-children-older-than-5-years-with-pneumococcal-meningitis-data-from-a-national-network
#4
Fanny Hénaff, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Capucine Picard, Emmanuelle Varon, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Elise Launay
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of meningitis in children >5 years old may be associated with specific predisposing factors that can be anatomic, such as cerebrospinal fluid fistula or breach, or related to genetic susceptibility or N inborn or acquired immunologic defect. This study aimed to assess the anatomical and immunologic risk factors in children >5 years old with pneumococcal meningitis and prospectively enrolled in the French national meningitis network. METHODS: We analyzed all data for children who were 5-15 years old with a diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis between 2001 and 2013...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397940/phenotypic-and-molecular-study-of-pneumococci-causing-respiratory-tract-infections-a-3-year-prospective-cohort
#5
Amani M Alnimr, Maha Farhat
To study serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams and macrolides in pneumococci causing respiratory diseases after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a hospital-based and a cross-sectional prospective surveillance study conducted at King Fahad Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, Kingdom  of Saudi Arabia, in which respiratory pneumococcal isolates collected between 2012 and 2014 were serotyped by multiplex sequential polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Pneumotest-Latex...
April 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370485/19f-nmr-spectroscopic-analysis-of-the-binding-modes-in-triple-helical-pna-microrna-complexes
#6
Pasi Markus Virta, Ville Tähtinen, Lotta Granqvist, Merita Murtola, Roger Strömberg
Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (TFPNAs) were targeted to double helical regions of 19F-labelled RNA hairpin models (a UA-rich duplex with a hexaethylene glycol (heg) loop and a miR-215 model). In addition to the conventional UV- and CD-based detection, the binding was monitored by 19F NMR spectroscopy. Detailed information considering the stoichiometry and transition between the triple helical PNA/RNA- and (PNA)2/RNA-binding modes could be obtained. γ-(R)-hydroxymethyl-modified (thymine-1-yl- and 2-aminopyridin-3-yl-acetyl derivatives) TFPNAs were additionally synthesized, targeted to the same RNA models and the effect of the γ-(R)-hydroxymethyl group on the binding was studied...
March 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350443/monitoring-the-disassembly-of-virus-like-particles-by-19-f-nmr
#7
Rogen L C Leung, Matthew D M Robinson, Alaa A A Ajabali, Gogulan Karunanithy, Brian Lyons, Ritu Raj, Saeed Raoufmoghaddam, Shabaz Mohammed, Timothy D W Claridge, Andrew J Baldwin, Benjamin G Davis
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are stable protein cages derived from virus coats. They have been used extensively as biomolecular platforms, e.g., nanocarriers or vaccines, but a convenient in situ technique is lacking for tracking functional status. Here, we present a simple way to monitor disassembly of (19)F-labeled VLPs derived from bacteriophage Qβ by (19)F NMR. Analysis of resonances, under a range of conditions, allowed determination not only of the particle as fully assembled but also as disassembled, as well as detection of a degraded state upon digestion by cells...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339189/polymerization-induced-self-assembly-pisa-control-over-the-morphology-of-19-f-containing-polymeric-nano-objects-for-cell-uptake-and-tracking
#8
Wei Zhao, Hang T Ta, Cheng Zhang, Andrew K Whittaker
Fluorine-containing polymeric materials are receiving increasing attention as imaging probes in fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging ((19)F MRI), for example to enable quantitative in vivo detection of cells. Here we describe the one-pot polymerization synthesis of (19)F-containing functional poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate-b-poly(styrene-co-3-vinylbenzaldehyde) (poly(OEGA-co-TFEA)-b-poly(St-co-VBA)) copolymers as a new class of fluorinated MRI agent...
March 30, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324771/synthesis-and-conformational-analysis-of-a-simplified-inositol-model-of-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-19f-capsular-polysaccharide-repeating-unit
#9
Giorgio Catelani, Felicia D'Andrea, Lorenzo Guazzelli, Alessio Griselli, Nicola Testi, Maria Assunta Chiacchio, Laura Legnani, Lucio Toma
Carbohydrate mimics have been studied for a long time as useful sugar substitutes, both in the investigation of biological events and in the treatment of sugar-related diseases. Here we report further evaluation of the capabilities of inositols as carbohydrate substitutes. The conformational features of an inositol-model of a simplified repeating unit corresponding to the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae 19F has been evaluated by computational analysis, and compared to the native repeating unit...
March 14, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318766/bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-at-birth-and-antibody-responses-to-childhood-vaccines-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#10
Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Gaby Smits, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Lone Graff Stensballe, Mihai G Netea, Fiona van der Klis, Christine Stabell Benn, Ole Pryds
INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants...
March 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303826/prevalence-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-in-adults-%C3%A2-50-years-of-age
#11
Chand Wattal, Neeraj Goel, S P Byotra
CONTEXT: Currently, majority of studies on antibiotic resistance and serotype prevalence in Streptococcus pneumoniae are in paediatric population and there is limited epidemiologic data pertaining to elderly Indian population. AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess antibiotic resistance pattern and the coverage of the polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPV23) in the elderly population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective 2-year pneumococcal surveillance study in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal infections of ≥50 years' age group on fifty isolates of S...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267311/model-free-analysis-of-critical-micellar-concentrations-for-detecting-demixing-in-surfactant-mixtures
#12
Erik Frotscher, Jonas Höring, Grégory Durand, Carolyn Vargas, Sandro Keller
Aqueous mixtures of two or more surfactants are often employed for research or industrial purposes because such mixtures offer advantages over single-surfactant systems. This is particularly true for mixtures of fluorocarbon (FC) and hydrocarbon (HC) surfactants, which display a broad range of mutual miscibilities in mixed micelles. Unfortunately, the prediction and even the experimental elucidation of the micellar mixing behavior of surfactant mixtures remain challenging, as evidenced by conflicting results and conclusions derived from diverse, and often complex, mixing models...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264733/pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-among-children-in-brazil-prior-to-the-introduction-of-the-10-valent-conjugate-vaccine-a-culture-and-pcr-based-survey
#13
H G Rodrigues, T C A Pinto, R R Barros, L M Teixeira, F P G Neves
We performed two different approaches (broth enrichment step prior to culture (BEC) and PCR (BEPCR)) for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one hospital (n = 140) and one childcare centre (n = 102) in a major urban area in Brazil. These specimens were collected immediately before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) for routine use in Brazil. Results were compared with previous findings obtained with direct culture (DC) on a selective medium...
March 7, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261176/nasopharyngeal-and-oropharyngeal-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-prognostic-markers-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-from-the-northeast-of-brazil
#14
Larissa C Rocha, Magda O S Carvalho, Valma M L Nascimento, Milena S Dos Santos, Tânia F Barros, Elisângela V Adorno, Joice N Reis, Caroline C da Guarda, Rayra P Santiago, Marilda de Souza Gonçalves
We investigated the nasopharynx and oropharynx microbiota in sickle cell disease (SCD) to identify the microorganisms, antibiotic sensitivity, prevalent serotypes, and association of with laboratorial markers. Oropharynx/nasopharynx secretions were investigated in 143 SCD children aging 6 months to 17 years. Pathogens were isolated using standard procedures, and laboratorial markers were performed by automated methods. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was isolated from nasopharynx and oropharynx of 64 and of 17 SCD children respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246190/phosphorylation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-from-the-barcode-hypothesis-to-the-flute-model
#15
Zhao Yang, Fan Yang, Daolai Zhang, Zhixin Liu, Amy Lin, Chuan Liu, Peng Xiao, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often phosphorylated at the C-terminus and on intracellular loops in response to various extracellular stimuli. Phosphorylation of GPCRs by GPCR kinases (GRKs) and certain other kinases can promote the recruitment of arrestin molecules. The arrestins critically regulate GPCR functions, not only by mediating receptor desensitization and internalization, but also by redirecting signalling to G protein-independent pathways via interactions with numerous downstream effector molecules...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230365/catalytic-enantioselective-2-3-rearrangements-of-allylic-ammonium-ylides-a-mechanistic-and-computational-study
#16
Thomas H West, Daniel M Walden, James E Taylor, Alexander C Brueckner, Ryne C Johnston, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Guy C Lloyd-Jones, Andrew D Smith
A mechanistic study of the isothiourea-catalyzed enantioselective [2,3]-rearrangement of allylic ammonium ylides is described. Reaction kinetic analyses using (19)F NMR and density functional theory computations have elucidated a reaction profile and allowed identification of the catalyst resting state and turnover-rate limiting step. A catalytically relevant catalyst-substrate adduct has been observed, and its constitution elucidated unambiguously by (13)C and (15)N isotopic labeling. Isotopic entrainment has shown the observed catalyst-substrate adduct to be a genuine intermediate on the productive cycle toward catalysis...
March 29, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224673/orthogonal-click-postfunctionalization-of-alternating-copolymers-prepared-by-nitroxide-mediated-polymerization
#17
Matthias Tesch, Sergej Kudruk, Matthias Letzel, Armido Studer
Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization (NMP) was applied to prepare alternating copolymers using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropyl acrylate (HFIPA) 1 and ((6-trimethylsilyl)-hex-5-yn-1-yl)vinyl ether (THVE) 2 as monomers. The alternating sequence of the resulting poly(HFIPA-alt-THVE) 3 was proved via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and further supported by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Alternating alkyne and activated ester moieties of copolymer 3 were further functionalized with organic azides and amines using sequential Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) and amidation reactions, providing dually functionalized poly(acrylamide-alt-triazole) polymers 5...
February 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221772/desleucyl-oritavancin-with-a-damaged-d-ala-d-ala-binding-site-inhibits-the-transpeptidation-step-of-cell-wall-biosynthesis-in-whole-cells-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Sung Joon Kim, Manmilan Singh, Shasad Sharif, Jacob Schaefer
We have used solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize the exact nature of the dual mode of action of oritavancin in preventing cell-wall assembly in Staphylococcus aureus. Measurements performed on whole cells labeled selectively in vivo have established that des-N-methylleucyl-N-4-(4-fluorophenyl)benzyl-chloroeremomycin, an Edman degradation product of [(19)F]oritavancin, which has a damaged d-Ala-d-Ala binding aglycon, is a potent inhibitor of the transpeptidase activity of cell-wall biosynthesis...
March 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216405/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-nonsecosteroidal-vitamin-d3-receptor-ligands-as-anti-tumor-agents
#19
Bin Wang, Meixi Hao, Can Zhang
1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3, also known as calcitriol), the active form of vitamin D3, is being increasingly recognized for cancer therapy. Our previous work showed that phenyl-pyrrolyl pentane analogs, which mimicked anti-proliferative activities against several cancer cell lines of the natural secosteroidal ligand 1,25-(OH)2D3. Here, in order to optimize the structural features and discover more potent derivative, a series of nonsecosteroidal vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) ligands bearing acetylene bond linker was designed, synthesized and evaluated...
February 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215915/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-adult-patients-in-jakarta-indonesia
#20
Wahyu Finasari Said, Edy Sukoto, Miftahuddin Majid Khoeri, July Kumalawati, Dodi Safari
Currently, the data on pneumococcal invasive disease in the Indonesian population are limited. In this study, we investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae. These samples were isolated from the sputum of adult patients with non-specific clinical symptoms aged 18-87 years in Jakarta, Indonesia, from August to October 2014. Of the 349 sputum specimens, thirteen isolates were identified as S. pneumoniae strains (4%), with two strains each for serotype 19F, 3, and 15A, and one strain each for serotype/serogroup 13, 23A, 6, 34, 17F, 16F, and untypeable...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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