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Maximilian Ginders, Michael Leschnik, Frank Künzel, Doris Kampner, Claudia Mikula, Georg Steindl, Inga Eichhorn, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Joachim Spergser, Igor Loncaric
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. RESULTS: Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes...
November 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Sonia Ktari, Ikram Jmal, Manel Mroua, Sonda Maalej, Nour El Houda Ben Ayed, Basma Mnif, Faouzia Rhimi, Adnene Hammami
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected in the South of Tunisia over a 5-year period in different age groups and assess their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. METHODS: A total of 305 non duplicate S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from January 2012 to December 2016 at University Hospital of Sfax,Tunisia. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined using the disk diffusion or E-test assays...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Toyotaka Sato, Yasuo Ohkoshi, Takayuki Wada, Yukari Fukushima, Hiromi Murabayashi, Yasunari Takakuwa, Kaoru Nishiyama, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Yokota
Invasive infection of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious clinical concern. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae serotype 19F strain isolated from a patient with an invasive infection in Sapporo, Japan.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
Mitsuru Oodate, Kouji Kimura, Hirotsugu Banno, Satoru Yokoyama, Wanchun Jin, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Yoshichika Arakawa
Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 19, including serotypes 19A and 19F, associated with clonal complex 320/271 (CC320/271), was previously shown to be predominant in many countries after the introduction of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). However, in Japan there has been no epidemiological research focused on penicillin-non-susceptible isolates after this event. Thus, we aimed to characterize penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSSP; penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 4...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marta Marín-Luna, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
This paper compares the absolute shieldings obtained by GIPAW to those obtained by GIAO/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)-PCM (DMSO) for nine benzazoles (benzimidazoles, indazoles, benzotriazoles) recorded in the solid-state. Three nuclei were explored, 13C, 15N and 19F, and the GIPAW approach only proved better for 15N MAS NMR.
October 27, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Merryn Voysey, Thomas R Fanshawe, Dominic F Kelly, Katherine L O'Brien, Rama Kandasamy, Shrijana Shrestha, Stephen Thorson, Jason Hinds, Andrew J Pollard
Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) provide direct protection against disease in those vaccinated, and interrupt transmission through the prevention of nasopharyngeal carriage. Methods: We analysed immunogenicity data from 5224 infants who received PCV in prime-boost schedules. We defined any increase in antibody between the one-month post-priming visit and the booster dose as an indication of nasopharyngeal carriage ('seroincidence'). We calculated antibody concentrations using receiver-operator characteristic curves, and used generalised additive models to compute their protective efficacy against seroincidence...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Roy Schreiber, Liat Avram, Ronny Neumann
High order elementary reactions in homogeneous solutions involving more than two molecules are statistically improbable and very slow to proceed. They are not generally considered in classic transition state or collision theories. Yet, rather selective high yield product formation is common in self-assembly processes that require many reaction steps. Based on recent observations of crystallization as well as reactions in dense phases, we show that self-assembly can occur by preorganization of reactants in a non-covalent supramolecular assembly where directing forces can lead to an apparent one step transformation of multiple reactants...
October 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Allison E B Turner, Jonas E Gerson, Helen Y So, Daniel J Krasznai, Adrienne J St Hilaire, Donald F Gerson
Pneumonia remains the single leading cause of childhood death worldwide. Despite the commercial availability of multiple pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), high dosage cost and supply shortages prevent PCV delivery to much of the developing world. The current work presents high-yield pneumococcal conjugates that are immunogenic in animals and suitable for use in human vaccine development. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) investigated in this research incorporated serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F...
March 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Xiaodong Xu, Lujie Yuan, Lianglan Yin, Yaqun Jiang, Yongkang Gai, Qingyao Liu, Yichun Wang, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaoli Lan
Although (18)F-5-fluoro-N-(2-[diethylamino]ethyl)picolinamide ((18)F-5-FPN) is considered a promising radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of melanoma, it accumulates at high concentrations in the liver. The aim in this research was to optimize the structure of (18)F-5-FPN with triethylene glycol to reduce liver uptake as well as improve pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate its performance in detection of melanoma liver and lung metastases. (18)F-PEG3-FPN was successfully prepared with a high radiolabeling yield (44...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ross Widenhoefer, Robert Carden, Nathan Lam
29Si NMR spectroscopy was employed to evaluate the electron donor properties of the (L)Au fragments in the cationic gold (β,β-disilyl)vinylidene complexes [L = P(tBu)2o-biphenyl or NHC] relative to the p-substituted aryl group in the α-aryl-(β,β-disilyl)vinyl cations . Similarly, 19F NMR was employed to evaluate the σ- and π-electron donor properties of the (L)Au fragments in the neutral gold fluorophenyl complexes (L)Au(C6H4F) and in the cationic (fluorophenyl)methoxycarbene complexes [(L)AuC(OMe)(C6H4F)]+ SbF6- [L = P(t-Bu)2o-biphenyl or IPr] relative to the p-substituted aryl group of the protonated monofluorobenzophenones [(p-C6H4X)(C6H4F)COH]+ OTf-...
October 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Deirdre A Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A Stemberger, Amanda J Leach, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD, and PCVs alter serotype distribution. METHODS: To assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, identify emerging serotypes, and assess risk factors for carriage, nasopharyngeal swabs and information on demographic characteristics, health, medication and living conditions from Aboriginal children and adults across WA from August 2008 to November 2014 were collected...
2017: Pneumonia
John Ojal, David Goldblatt, Caroline Tigoi, J Anthony G Scott
Background: In developing countries, introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not eliminated circulation of vaccine serotypes. Vaccinating pregnant mothers to increase antibody concentrations in their newborn infants may reduce the acquisition of pneumococcal carriage and subsequent risk of disease. We explored the efficacy of passive immunity, attributable to anti-protein and anti-capsular pneumococcal antibodies, against acquisition of carriage. Methods: We examined the rate of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci in the first 90 days of life associated with varying anti-capsular and anti-protein antibody concentrations in infant cord/maternal venous blood in Kilifi, Kenya...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Pontus Naucler, Ilias Galanis, Eva Morfeldt, Jessica Darenberg, Åke Örtqvist, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Background: Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines, PCV10 or PCV13, are used in childhood immunization programs worldwide, but direct comparisons of impacts against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in equivalent populations have not been performed. We used the unique opportunity in Sweden, where the 21 counties use either PCV10 or PCV13 (introduced 2009-2010), to compare the vaccines (pre-vaccination 2007-2009 versus post-vaccination 2013-2016). Methods: All IPD episodes (n=16992) were recorded in Sweden during 2005-2016...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Agata Olszewska, Radek Pohl, Michal Hocek
A series of 7-[4-(trifluoroacetyl)phenyl]-7-deazaadenine and -7-deazaguanine as well as 5-substituted uracil and cytosine 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and mono- and triphosphates were synthesized through aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura crosscoupling of halogenated nucleosides or nucleotides with 4-(trifluoroacetyl)phenylboronic acid. The modified nucleoside triphosphates were good substrates for DNA polymerases applicable in primer extension or PCR synthesis of modified oligonucleotides or DNA. Attempted cross-linking with a serine-containing protein did not proceed, however the trifluoroacetophenone group was a sensitive probe for the study of DNA-protein interactions by (19)F NMR...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Alexa R Barres, Megan R Wimmer, Sandro Mecozzi
The presence of a perfluorocarbon block in a multiblock polymer has been shown to be an additional driving force toward nanoparticle assembly. In the preparation of nanoemulsions, this perfluorocarbon block also provides enhanced particle stability. Herein, the synthesis of a new triphilic, semifluorinated copolymer, M2F8H18, is introduced. This ABC type block copolymer can be used to formulate extremely stable nanoemulsions, assembled around a lipophilic droplet, with lifetimes of one year or more. The central oil droplet can stably solubilize high concentrations of hydrophobic drugs, making this system an ideal drug delivery vehicle...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kunihiko Aizawa, Sara Sbragi, Alessandro Ramalli, Piero Tortoli, Francesco Casanova, Carmela Morizzo, Clare E Thorn, Angela C Shore, Phillip E Gates, Carlo Palombo
Wall shear rate (WSR) is an important stimulus for the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response. However, WSR estimation near the arterial wall by conventional Doppler is inherently difficult. To overcome this limitation, we utilised multi-gate Doppler to accurately determine the WSR stimulus near the vessel wall simultaneously with the FMD response using an integrated FMD system [Ultrasound Advanced Open Platform (ULA-OP)]. Using the system, we aimed to perform a detailed analysis of WSR-FMD response and establish novel WSR parameters in a healthy young population...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Manish Sadarangani, Thomas R Fanshawe
BACKGROUND: At the time of an infant's initial vaccination at age ∼2 to 3months, some infants already have maternal antibodies against vaccine antigens and these can suppress the immune response to vaccination. Modelling the effects of maternal antibody and the timing of infant doses on the antibody response to vaccination, requires estimates of the rate of maternal antibody decay. Decay rates are not well characterised in the medical literature. We investigated variation in the prevalence of maternal anti-capsular pneumococcal and meningococcal antibodies in infants in 14 countries, and estimated type-specific half-lives...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
Lütfiye Öksüz, Nezahat Gürler
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. S.pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in adults. Invasive pneumococcal disease can usually occur in the elderly, children and immunocompromised individuals. Usage of the vaccines for the protection against S.pneumoniae infections, is an effective method to reduce the burden of disease in both children and adults. Serotypes frequently isolated from purified capsular polysaccharides of S...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Sarah K Grinn, Kathryn B Wiseman, Jason A Baker, Colleen G Le Prell
This study tested hypothesized relationships between noise exposure and auditory deficits. Both retrospective assessment of potential associations between noise exposure history and performance on an audiologic test battery and prospective assessment of potential changes in performance after new recreational noise exposure were completed. Methods: 32 participants (13M, 19F) with normal hearing (25-dB HL or better, 0.25-8 kHz) were asked to participate in 3 pre- and post-exposure sessions including: otoscopy, tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) (f2 frequencies 1-8 kHz), pure-tone audiometry (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Max R Schroeder, Scott T Chancey, Stephanie Thomas, Wan-Hsuan Kuo, Sarah W Satola, Monica M Farley, David S Stephens
Background: Macrolide efflux encoded by mef(E)/mel and ribosomal methylation encoded by erm(B) confer most macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 reduced macrolide-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease (MR-IPD) due to PCV7 serotypes (6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F). Methods: In this study, the impact of PCV7 and PCV13 on MR-IPD was prospectively assessed. A 20-year study of IPD performed in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, using active, population-based surveillance formed the basis for this study...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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