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Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Christine Gonzales, Hikari A I Yoshihara, Nahzli Dilek, Julie Leignadier, Melita Irving, Pascal Mieville, Lothar Helm, Olivier Michielin, Juerg Schwitter
BACKGROUND: 19F-MRI and 19F-MRS can identify specific cell types after in-vitro or in-vivo 19F-labeling. Knowledge on the potential to track in-vitro 19F-labeled immune cells in tumor models by 19F-MRI/MRS is scarce. AIM: To study 19F-based MR techniques for in-vivo tracking of adoptively transferred immune cells after in-vitro 19F-labeling, i.e. to detect and monitor their migration non-invasively in melanoma-bearing mice. METHODS: Splenocytes (SP) were labeled in-vitro with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) and IV-injected into non-tumor bearing mice...
2016: PloS One
Hannah Dengel, Crispin Lichtenberg
The synthetic access to cationic bismuth compounds based on simple, monodentate, synthetically useful amido ligands, [Bi(NR2)2(L)n]+, has been investigated (R = Me, iPr, Ph; L = neutral ligand). With [BPh4]- as a counteranion, the formation of contact ion pairs and subsequent phenyl transfer from B to Bi is observed. An intermediate of this reaction, [Bi(NMe2)2(HNMe2)(BPh4)] (1), could be isolated and fully characterized. The use of fluorinated tetrarylborates as counteranions leads to more stable cationic bismuth amides...
October 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Alexander J Taylor, Josef Granwehr, Clémentine Lesbats, James L Krupa, Joseph S Six, Galina E Pavlovskaya, Neil R Thomas, Dorothee P Auer, Thomas Meersmann, Henryk M Faas
Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration...
2016: PloS One
Anneke Steens, Natacha Milhano, Ingeborg S Aaberge, Didrik F Vestrheim
BACKGROUND: As a standard method for pneumococcal carriage studies, the World Health Organization recommends nasopharyngeal swabs be transported and stored at cool temperatures in a medium containing skim-milk, tryptone, glucose and glycerol (STGG). An enrichment broth used for transport at room temperature in three carriage studies performed in Norway may have a higher sensitivity than STGG. We therefore compared the media in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro component, three strains (serotype 4, 19F and 3) were suspended in STGG and enrichment broth...
2016: PeerJ
Jayne Manning, Eileen M Dunne, Philip A Wescombe, John D F Hale, E Kim Mulholland, John R Tagg, Roy M Robins-Browne, Catherine Satzke
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal adherence to the nasopharyngeal epithelium is a critical step in colonisation and disease. The probiotic bacterium, Streptococcus salivarius, can inhibit pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells in vitro. We investigated the mechanism(s) of inhibition using a human pharyngeal epithelial cell line (Detroit 562) following pre-administration of two different strains of S. salivarius. RESULTS: Whilst the bacteriocin-encoding megaplasmids of S...
September 29, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Sunil Gairola, Manish Gautam, Dada Patil, Krishna Manoj Kumar, Pravin Shinde, S K Jana, Rajeev Dhere, Suresh Jadhav
The analysis of residual sodium deoxycholate (DOC); a detergent of biological origin used in manufacturing of polysaccharide vaccines is challenging due to complex sample matrices and the lack of suitable methods. Here we report, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index (HPLC-RI) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) methods for estimation of residual DOC in pneumococcal polysaccharides. For HPLC-RI method, separation was achieved using Luna C18 column and mobile phase compositions of acetonitrile: methanol: 20 mM sodium acetate (60:05:35% v/v)...
September 22, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Maria Şologan, Domenico Marson, Stefano Polizzi, Paolo Pengo, Silvia Boccardo, Sabrina Pricl, Paola Posocco, Lucia Pasquato
The spontaneous self-organization of dissimilar ligands on the surface of metal nanoparticles is a very appealing approach to obtain anisotropic "spherical" systems. In addition to differences in ligand length and end groups, a further thermodynamic driving force to control the self-assembled monolayer organization may become available if the ligands are inherently immiscible, as is the case of hydrogenated (H-) and fluorinated (F-) species. Here, we validate the viability of this approach by combining (19)F NMR experiments and multiscale molecular simulations on large sets of mixed-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (NPs)...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
María E Toledo, Maria F Casanova, Nivaldo Linares-Pérez, Dagmar García-Rivera, Gilda Toraño Peraza, Indira Barcos Pina, Martha Montes de Oca, Laura M Rodriguez-Noda, Mayelín Mirabal, Beatriz Paredes, Dunia M Chávez Amaro, Darielys Santana Mederos, Yury Valdés-Balbín, Vicente Verez-Bencomo
BACKGROUND: A new vaccine candidate against pneumococcus is being developed in Cuba, and it is a priority of the national health system. There is limited information on nasopharyngeal colonization burden, though it is essential for monitoring the impact of the vaccine. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization in 2-18 month old toddlers, identify circulating serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and its association with selected risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 in Cienfuegos municipality...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Niharika Sharma-Chawla, Vicky Sender, Olivia Kershaw, Achim D Gruber, Julia Volckmar, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, Dunja Bruder
Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pn.) are major causes of respiratory tract infections, particularly during co-infection. The synergism between these two pathogens is characterized by a complex network of dysregulated immune responses, some of which last until recovery post IAV infection. Despite the high serotype-diversity of S. pn. and the serotype-replacement observed since the introduction of conjugate vaccines, little is known about pneumococcal strain-dependency in the enhanced susceptibility to severe secondary S...
September 19, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Nobuyasu Kato, Masaaki Yamagishi, Keiichi Kanda, Takako Miyazaki, Yoshinobu Maeda, Masashi Yamanami, Taiji Watanabe, Hitoshi Yaku
PURPOSE: The ideal material for pediatric pulmonary artery (PA) augmentation is autologous pericardium. However, its utility for multistaged operations is limited. In this study, we applied an in vivo tissue-engineered autologous Biotube graft to a patient with congenital heart disease for the first time. DESCRIPTION: For molds of the Biotubes, two silicone 19F drain tubes were embedded in the subcutaneous spaces of a 2-year-old girl with a diagnosis of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries during palliative surgical procedures...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Andrew K Urick, Luis Pablo Calle, Juan F Espinosa, Haitao Hu, William C K Pomerantz
To evaluate its potential as a ligand discovery tool, we compare a newly developed 1D protein-observed fluorine NMR (PrOF NMR) screening method with the well-characterized ligand-observed (1)H CPMG NMR screen. We selected the first bromodomain of Brd4 as a model system to benchmark PrOF NMR because of the high ligandability of Brd4 and the need for small molecule inhibitors of related epigenetic regulatory proteins. We compare the two methods' hit sensitivity, triaging ability, experiment speed, material consumption, and the potential for false positives and negatives...
October 5, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Rongcheng Li, Kong-Xiong Fang, Mariano Young, Xin Zhou, Zhangjing Chen, John Z Liang, Peter C Giardina, Daniel A Scott
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, Chinese infants were vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) ⩾7days before routine diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); PCV7 administered concomitantly with DTaP (PCV7+DTaP); or DTaP alone. This study examined antibody persistence at a single time point 3years after the last vaccination. METHODS: Children who participated in the prior PCV7 study were eligible to participate. A single blood sample was drawn at enrollment...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Jian-She Zhu, Nicole E McCormick, Shannon C Timmons, David L Jakeman
Eight fluorinated isosteric α-d-glucopyranosyl 1-phosphate (Glc 1P) analogues have been synthesized. A promiscuity investigation of the thymidylyltransferase Cps2L and the guanidylyltansferase GDP-ManPP with these analogues showed that all were accepted by either enzyme, with the exception of 1,6-diphosphate 6. Kinetic parameters were determined for these analogues using a continuous coupled assay. These data demonstrated the broad substrate promiscuity of Cps2L, with kcat/Km changes for monofluoro substitution at C-2, C-4, and C-6 and difluoro substitution at C-2 within two orders of magnitude...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
R Belfort-DeAguiar, D Seo, S Naik, J Hwang, C Lacadie, C Schmidt, R T Constable, R Sinha, R Sherwin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. While insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ewa Kowalik, Łukasz Mazurkiewicz, Mirosław Kowalski, Anna Klisiewicz, Magdalena Marczak, Piotr Hoffman
BACKGROUND: The survival in adults with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) might be reduced due to dysfunction of the systemic right ventricle (sRV). The quantitative echocardiographic assessment of sRV function and tricuspid (systemic atrioventricular valve) regurgitation (TR) is still a diagnostic challenge. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare echocardiographic indices of sRV function and the degree of TR with corresponding MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)-derived parameters in adults with ccTGA...
August 20, 2016: Echocardiography
Kai-Uwe Schmitt, Nicole Hörterer, Michael Vogt, Walter O Frey, Silvio Lorenzetti
BACKGROUND: ACL ruptures in Alpine ski racers are frequently observed. This study analysed the association between physical fitness, race performance and the knee injury history. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the influence of physical fitness and performance on the knee injury outcome. As part of this study an injury data base (covering 2004-2013) was established that recorded information about the athletes, their fitness status as determined by a standardised fitness test (Swiss Ski Power Test, SSPT) as well as medical information related to injuries...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Gaofei Hu, Nannan Li, Juan Tang, Suying Xu, Leyu Wang
(19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to its high sensitivity and negligible background, is anticipated to be a powerful noninvasive, sensitive, and accurate molecular imaging technique. However, the major challenge of (19)F MRI is to increase the number of (19)F atoms while maintaining the solubility and molecular mobility of the probe. Here, we successfully developed a facile and general strategy to synthesize the multifunctional (19)F MRI nanoprobes by encapsulating the hydrophobic inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into a hybrid polymer micelle consisting of hydrolysates of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDTES) and oleylamine-functionalized poly(succinimide) (PSIOAm)...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yifei Huang, Zimeng Wang, Chunfang Jin, Lei Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu, Yun Xiang, Wei Wang, Xiujing He, Yibing Yin, Yujuan He
BACKGROUND: The natural course of otitis media (OM) in most children is acute and self-limiting; however, approximately 10-20% of children can experience persistent or recurrent OM. Determining the host factors that influence outcome of OM will help us design better therapies. This study focused on the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in a pneumococcal OM mouse model. METHODS: The middle ears (MEs) of wild-type (WT) and TLR2(-/-) mice were inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) serotype 19F via transbullar injection...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Sittana Elshafie, Saad J Taj-Aldeen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7). METHODS: A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
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