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Ying-Chun Cho, Nan-Chang Chiu, Chun-Yi Lu, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Fu-Yuan Huang, Luan-Yin Chang, Li-Min Huang, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, public health officials in Taiwan monitored a decline in circulating vaccine serotypes and the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes in children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). A gradually expanded PCV13 national immunization program was launched in 2013 in Taiwan. Here we evaluate the changes in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial nonsusceptibility in children during the evolution of vaccination policy...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Simone Mastrogiacomo, Weiqiang Dou, Olga Koshkina, Otto C Boerman, John A Jansen, Arend Heerschap, Mangala Srinivas, X Frank Walboomers
Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is used in bone repair because of its biocompatibility. However, high similarity between CPC and the natural osseous phase results in poor image contrast in most of the available in vivo imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For accurate identification and localization during and after implantation in vivo, a composition with enhanced image contrast is needed. In this study, we labeled CPC with perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether-loaded (PFCE) poly(latic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (hydrodynamic radius 100 nm) and gold nanoparticles (diameter 40 nm), as 19F MRI and CT contrast agents respectively...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
Hisashi Shoji, Masayuki Maeda, Takahiro Takuma, Yoshihito Niki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reports on the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been received from many countries. However, in countries where the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were introduced, overall coverage of the serotypes by the vaccine gradually decreased due to pneumococcal serotype replacement. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and to also provide basic data on adult respiratory infection in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 1086 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated from respiratory tract infection specimens in adult patients from 2006 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Erida Gjini
Although mean efficacy of multivalent pneumococcus vaccines has been intensively studied, variance in vaccine efficacy (VE) has been overlooked. Different net individual protection across settings can be driven by environmental conditions, local serotype and clonal composition, as well as by socio-demographic and genetic host factors. Understanding efficacy variation has implications for population-level effectiveness and other eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Here I show that realized VE can vary across epidemiological settings, by applying a multi-site-one-model approach to data post-vaccination...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
R Erik Plata, David E Hill, Brandon E Haines, Djamaladdin G Musaev, Ling Chu, David P Hickey, Matthew S Sigman, Jin-Quan Yu, Donna G Blackmond
Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the desymmetrization of benzhydrylamine using Pd/monoprotected amino acid ligands (Pd/MPAA) via C-H functionalization with molecular iodine provide mechanistic insight into the rate-determining step and the oxidation state of Pd in the C-H functionalization step. Intriguingly, C-H bond breaking does not occur prior to the addition of I2 to the reaction mixture. Electrochemical experiments and 19F NMR studies suggest that iodine oxidatively adds to Pd(II) prior to addition of the amine substrate...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Annelise H Gorensek-Benitez, Austin E Smith, Samantha S Stadmiller, Gerardo M Perez Goncalves, Gary J Pielak
Long accepted as the most important interaction, recent work shows that steric repulsions alone cannot explain the effects of macromolecular cosolutes on the equilibrium thermodynamics of protein stability. Instead, chemical interactions have been shown to modulate, and even dominate, crowding-induced steric repulsions. Here, we use 19F NMR to examine the effects of small and large cosolutes on the kinetics of protein folding and unfolding using the metastable 7-kDa N-terminal SH3 domain of the Drosophila signaling protein drk (SH3), which folds by a two-state mechanism...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
C R Laratta, K Williams, D Vethanayagam, M Ulanova, H Vliagoftis
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an independent risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the immune response of adult asthma patients to pneumococcal vaccination is unknown. We explore the serologic response of patients with moderate to severe asthma to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). METHODS: Seventeen moderate to severe adult asthma patients that had not been vaccinated against pneumococcus over the 5 previous years were prospectively recruited from a tertiary care asthma clinic...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Chryssoula Drouza, Anthi Dieronitou, Ioanna Hadjiadamou, Marios Stylianou
A novel dynamic method for the investigation of the phenols activity in early stage oxidation of edible oils based on the formation of α-tocopheryl radicals initiated by oil-soluble vanadium complexes is developed. Two new vanadium complexes in oxidation states V and IV were synthesized by reacting 2,2'-((2-hydroxyoctadecyl)azanediyl)bis(ethan-1-ol) (C18DEA) with [VO(acac)2] and 1-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)octadecan-2-ol (C18DPA) with VOCl2. Addition of a solution of either complex in edible oils resulted in the formation of α-tocopheryl radical, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Paul Coote, Clemens Anklin, Walter Massefski, Gerhard Wagner, Haribabu Arthanari
We present a numerical method for rapidly solving the Bloch equation for an arbitrary time-varying spin-1/2 Hamiltonian. The method relies on fast, vectorized computations such as summation and quaternion multiplication, rather than slow computations such as matrix exponentiation. A toggling frame is constructed in which the Hamiltonian is time-invariant, and therefore has a simple analytical solution. The key insight is that constructing this frame is faster than solving the system dynamics in the original frame...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Alexander D James, Cyrille Marvalin, Alexandre Luneau, Axel Meissner, Gian Camenisch
The human mass balance study is the definitive study for the assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties of a new chemical entity (NCE) in humans. Traditionally this has been carried out by the administration of radiolabeled drug substances, typically 14C or occasionally 3H, as detection methods for these isotopes allow the absolute quantification of drug related material (DRM) in blood, plasma and excreta. Coupled with the use of analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, a picture of the metabolic fate of a compound can be elucidated...
May 31, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Roman V Shchepin, Boyd M Goodson, Thomas Theis, Warren S Warren, Eduard Y Chekmenev
Fluorine-19 has high NMR detection sensitivity-similar to that of protons, owing to its large gyromagnetic ratio and high natural abundance (100%). Unlike protons, however, fluorine-19 (19F) has a negligible occurrence in biological objects, as well as a more sensitive chemical shift. As a result, in vivo 19F NMR spectroscopy and MR imaging offer advantages of negligible background signal and sensitive reporting of the local molecular environment. Here we report on NMR hyperpolarization of 19F nuclei using reversible exchange reactions with parahydrogen gas as the source of nuclear spin order...
May 29, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Frantisek Sersen, Fridrich Gregan, Peter Kotora, Jarmila Kmetova, Juraj Filo, Dusan Loos, Juraj Gregan
Hydroxybenzylidene hydrazines exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. Here, we report synthesis and free radical scavenging activity of nine new N-(hydroxybenzylidene)-N'-[2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)]phenylhydrazines. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 19F-NMR, IR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and elemental analysis. The prepared compounds were tested for their activity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), galvinoxyl radical (GOR), and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radicals...
May 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2010 and, in 2013, the PCV7 was replaced with the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13). This study was conducted to investigate serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of pilus islets in pneumococcal isolates from inpatients in a Japanese tertiary hospital. METHODOLOGY: From April 2011 to February 2016, 151 isolates [95 (18 children, 77 adults) and 56 (19 children, 37 adults) in the PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively] were collected...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Amani L Lee, Clifford T Gee, Bradley P Weegman, Samuel A Einstein, Adam R Juelfs, Hattie L Ring, Katie R Hurley, Sam M Egger, Garrett Swindlehurst, Michael Garwood, William C K Pomerantz, Christy L Haynes
Oxygen homeostasis is important in the regulation of biological function. Disease progression can be monitored by measuring oxygen levels, thus producing information for the design of therapeutic treatments. Noninvasive measurements of tissue oxygenation require the development of tools with minimal adverse effects and facile detection of features of interest. Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ((19)F MRI) exploits the intrinsic properties of perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquids for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and oxygen sensing...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
Yi Jin, Robert W Molt, Erika Pellegrini, Matthew J Cliff, Matthew W Bowler, Nigel G J Richards, G Michael Blackburn, Jonathan P Waltho
We report X-ray crystallographic and (19) F NMR studies of the G-protein RhoA complexed with MgF3(-) , GDP, and RhoGAP, which has the mutation Arg85'Ala. When combined with DFT calculations, these data permit the identification of changes in transition state (TS) properties. The X-ray data show how Tyr34 maintains solvent exclusion and the core H-bond network in the active site by relocating to replace the missing Arg85' sidechain. The (19) F NMR data show deshielding effects that indicate the main function of Arg85' is electronic polarization of the transferring phosphoryl group, primarily mediated by H-bonding to O(3G) and thence to P(G) ...
May 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Stefan Bandlitz, Joachim Bäumer, Uwe Conrad, James Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: A detailed evaluation of the corneo-scleral-profile (CSP) is of particular relevance in soft and scleral lenses fitting. The aim of this study was to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyse the profile of the limbal sclera and to evaluate the relationship between central corneal radii, corneal eccentricity and scleral radii. METHODS: Using OCT (Optos OCT/SLO; Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) the limbal scleral radii (SR) of 30 subjects (11M, 19F; mean age 23...
May 8, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Xavier Creary, Kyle Chormanski, Gabriel Peirats, Carol Renneburg
Three fluorobenzenes substituted with meta-triazole groups have been prepared, and (19)F chemical shifts indicate that these triazole groups are all inductively electron-withdrawing in character, with the 1,5-triazole being the most electron-withdrawing. σ(+) values for these three triazoles have also been determined from solvolysis rates of substituted cumyl trifluoroacetates. When substituted in the para-position, the 1,4 and the 2,4-triazoles are cation-stabilizing, whereas the 1,5-triazole is carbocation-destabilizing...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Lena Setchanova, Marianna Murdjeva, Iglika Stancheva, Alexandra Alexandrova, Maria Sredkova, Temenuga Stoicheva, Magda Yoneva, Anna Kurchatova, Ivan Mitov
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) has been included in Bulgarian Childhood Immunization Program since 2010. This study aimed to assess serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 198 invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated in Bulgaria during 2011-2016 from patients with invasive (IPD) and non-invasive (NIPD) pneumococcal diseases. The most common invasive serotypes were 3 (10.1%), 19F (4.0%), and 7F (3.0%). A significant decrease in the proportion of invasive vaccine types (VTs) from 64...
May 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sebastian Schäfer, Michael T Gamer, Sergei Lebedkin, Florian Weigend, Manfred M Kappes, Peter W Roesky
Bis-(6-methylene-2,2'-bipyridine)phenylphosphine (PN4) was designed as a tailor-made ligand with different metal binding sites (N and P) to support metallophilic interactions between the different coinage metals, as these are far less common than homometallic interactions, typically between gold(I) ions. Furthermore, the phosphorus(V)sulfide derivative of PN4 was synthesized to get additional structural information in the solid state. Two mononuclear gold complexes [(PN4)AuCl] and [(PN4)2 Au]ClO4 were synthesized first...
May 2, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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