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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905836/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-post-vaccine-era
#1
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
A breakthrough infection occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Turkey are previously described. A breakthrough infection is defined as IPD in a child who had received ≥1 PCV-7 or PCV-13 and for which the pneumococcal isolate was a vaccine serotype. During one year period, among six patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, two patients were considered to have a vaccine failure with serotype 19F. Antibiotic resistance results were remarkable; macrolide resistance were observed in all strains except one, and high and intermediate penicillin resistance were determined in two strains...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879152/preparation-and-immunogenicity-of-gold-glyco-nanoparticles-as-antipneumococcal-vaccine-model
#2
Maria Vetro, Dodi Safari, Silvia Fallarini, Korrie Salsabila, Martina Lahmann, Soledad Penadés, Luigi Lay, Marco Marradi, Federica Compostella
AIM: Nanotechnology-based fully synthetic carbohydrate vaccines are promising alternatives to classic polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines. We have prepared gold glyco-nanoparticles (GNP) bearing two synthetic carbohydrate antigens related to serotypes 19F and 14 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated their immunogenicity in vivo. RESULTS: A tetrasaccharide fragment of serotype 14 (Tetra-14), a trisaccharide fragment of serotype 19F (Tri-19F), a T-helper peptide and d -glucose were loaded onto GNP in different ratios...
November 23, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831604/-epidemiologic-clinical-and-bacteriologic-characteristics-of-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-pediatric-patients-from-lima-peru
#3
Long Davalos, Yessica Terrazas, Ana Quintana, Martha Egoavil, Katherine Sedano, María E Castillo, Isabel Reyes, Eduardo Chaparro, Wilda Silva, Francisco Campos, Andrés Saenz, Roger Hernandez, Olguita Del Águila, Daniel Guillén Pinto, Theresa J Ochoa
Objectives.: To describe the clinical characteristics, lethality, antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype distribution of pneumococcal meningitis in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods.: A case series of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 16 years of age from two prospective, multicenter, passive surveillance studies of invasive pneumococcal diseases held in Lima-Peru from 2006 to 2008 and 2009 to 2011. Results.: We report 44 pneumococcal meningitis episodes; 68...
July 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829063/pneumococcal-carriage-in-children-under-five-years-in-uganda-will-present-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-be-appropriate
#4
Ann Lindstrand, Joan Kalyango, Tobias Alfvén, Jessica Darenberg, Daniel Kadobera, Freddie Bwanga, Stefan Peterson, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Karin Källander
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children globally, with more than 900,000 deaths annually in children under five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes most deaths, most often in the form of community acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are currently being implemented in many low-income countries. PCVs decrease vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease, and thereby affects pneumococcal disease and transmission...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819116/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-preterm-infants-a-meta-analysis
#5
Kai Duan, Jin Guo, Ping Lei
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCVs) in preterm infants. METHODS: In accordance with the PRISM (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement (as of May 2015), a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of PCVs in preterm infants. RESULTS: Ten thousand nine hundred sixty full-term infants and 2131 preterm infants with 344 preterm infants of <2500 g birth weight [low-birth weight (LBW)] were included, and all the subjects were immunized with either PCV-7, PCV-10 or PCV-13 in this random-effects meta-analysis...
November 7, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798547/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-in-middle-ear-fluid-isolates-during-acute-otitis-media-and-nasopharyngeal-isolates-during-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-in-central-romania
#6
Raluca-Ileana Lixandru, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, Laura Bleotu, Alice Mercas, Eugene Leibovitz, Ron Dagan, David Greenberg, Oana Falup-Pecurariu
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Romania has high rates of S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) are not being used routinely in this country. The aims of the study were: 1) To compare pneumococcal antibiotic resistance patterns in AOM and CAAP in children from central Romania; and 2) to compare differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from the middle ear fluid (MEF) of children with AOM and from the nasopharynx (NP) of children with CAAP...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788227/perfluorocarbon-loaded-lipid-nanocapsules-to-assess-the-dependence-of-u87-human-glioblastoma-tumor-po2-on-in-vitro-expansion-conditions
#7
Laurent Lemaire, Janske Nel, Florence Franconi, Guillaume Bastiat, Patrick Saulnier
Growing tumor cell lines, such as U87-MG glioma cells, under mild hypoxia (3% O2) leads to a ca. 40% reduction in growth rate once implanted in the brain of nude mice, as compared to normoxia (21% O2) grown cells, wherein the former over-express HIF-1 and VEGF-A. Despite developing differently, the tumors have similar: blood perfusion, oxygen consumption, and vascular surface area parameters, whereas the number of blood vessels is nearly doubled in the tumor arising from normoxia cultured cells. Interestingly, tumor oxygen tension, measured using 19F-oximetry, showed that the normoxia grown cells led to tumors characterized by mild hypoxic environment (approximately 4%) conditions, whilst the hypoxia grown cells led to tumors characterized by physioxic environment (approximately 6%) conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783520/probing-the-complex-binding-modes-of-the-ppar%C3%AE-partial-agonist-2-chloro-n-3-chloro-4-5-chlorobenzo-d-thiazol-2-yl-thio-phenyl-4-trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamide-t2384-to-orthosteric-and-allosteric-sites-with-nmr-spectroscopy
#8
Travis S Hughes, Jinsai Shang, Richard Brust, Ian Mitchelle S de Vera, Jakob Fuhrmann, Claudia Ruiz, Michael D Cameron, Theodore M Kamenecka, Douglas J Kojetin
In a previous study, a co-crystal structure of PPARγ bound to 2-chloro-N-(3-chloro-4-((5-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)thio)phenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide (1, T2384) revealed two orthosteric pocket binding modes attributed to a concentration-dependent biochemical activity profile. However, 1 also bound an alternate/allosteric site that could alternatively account for the profile. Here, we show ligand aggregation afflicts the activity profile of 1 in biochemical assays. However, ligand-observed fluorine (19F) and protein-observed NMR confirms 1 binds PPARγ with two orthosteric binding modes and an allosteric site...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768845/understanding-the-mutagenicity-of-o-linked-and-c-linked-guanine-dna-adducts-a-combined-experimental-and-computational-approach
#9
Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736925/in-vivo-detection-and-tracking-of-t-cells-in-various-organs-in-a-melanoma-tumor-model-by-19f-fluorine-mrs-mri
#10
Christine Gonzales, Hikari A I Yoshihara, Nahzli Dilek, Julie Leignadier, Melita Irving, Pascal Mieville, Lothar Helm, Olivier Michielin, Juerg Schwitter
BACKGROUND: 19F-MRI and 19F-MRS can identify specific cell types after in-vitro or in-vivo 19F-labeling. Knowledge on the potential to track in-vitro 19F-labeled immune cells in tumor models by 19F-MRI/MRS is scarce. AIM: To study 19F-based MR techniques for in-vivo tracking of adoptively transferred immune cells after in-vitro 19F-labeling, i.e. to detect and monitor their migration non-invasively in melanoma-bearing mice. METHODS: Splenocytes (SP) were labeled in-vitro with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) and IV-injected into non-tumor bearing mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731910/cationic-bismuth-amides-accessibility-structure-and-reactivity
#11
Hannah Dengel, Crispin Lichtenberg
The synthetic access to cationic bismuth compounds based on simple, monodentate, synthetically useful amido ligands, [Bi(NR2 )2 (L)n ](+) , has been investigated (R=Me, iPr, Ph; L=neutral ligand). With [BPh4 ](-) as a counteranion, the formation of contact ion pairs and subsequent phenyl transfer from B to Bi is observed. An intermediate of this reaction, [Bi(NMe2 )2 (HNMe2 )(BPh4 )] (1), could be isolated and fully characterized. The use of a fluorinated tetraarylborate as a counteranion leads to more stable cationic bismuth amides...
October 12, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727294/probe-specific-procedure-to-estimate-sensitivity-and-detection-limits-for-19f-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Alexander J Taylor, Josef Granwehr, Clémentine Lesbats, James L Krupa, Joseph S Six, Galina E Pavlovskaya, Neil R Thomas, Dorothee P Auer, Thomas Meersmann, Henryk M Faas
Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688966/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-comparison-of-transport-media-for-detecting-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#13
Anneke Steens, Natacha Milhano, Ingeborg S Aaberge, Didrik F Vestrheim
BACKGROUND: As a standard method for pneumococcal carriage studies, the World Health Organization recommends nasopharyngeal swabs be transported and stored at cool temperatures in a medium containing skim-milk, tryptone, glucose and glycerol (STGG). An enrichment broth used for transport at room temperature in three carriage studies performed in Norway may have a higher sensitivity than STGG. We therefore compared the media in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro component, three strains (serotype 4, 19F and 3) were suspended in STGG and enrichment broth...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681377/investigation-of-streptococcus-salivarius-mediated-inhibition-of-pneumococcal-adherence-to-pharyngeal-epithelial-cells
#14
Jayne Manning, Eileen M Dunne, Philip A Wescombe, John D F Hale, E Kim Mulholland, John R Tagg, Roy M Robins-Browne, Catherine Satzke
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal adherence to the nasopharyngeal epithelium is a critical step in colonisation and disease. The probiotic bacterium, Streptococcus salivarius, can inhibit pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells in vitro. We investigated the mechanism(s) of inhibition using a human pharyngeal epithelial cell line (Detroit 562) following pre-administration of two different strains of S. salivarius. RESULTS: Whilst the bacteriocin-encoding megaplasmids of S...
September 29, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666435/development-and-application-of-hplc-ri-and-hplc-ms-ms-based-methods-for-quantification-of-residual-deoxycholate-levels-in-pneumococcal-polysaccharides
#15
Sunil Gairola, Manish Gautam, Dada Patil, Krishna Manoj Kumar, Pravin Shinde, S K Jana, Rajeev Dhere, Suresh Jadhav
The analysis of residual sodium deoxycholate (DOC); a detergent of biological origin used in manufacturing of polysaccharide vaccines is challenging due to complex sample matrices and the lack of suitable methods. Here we report, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index (HPLC-RI) and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) methods for estimation of residual DOC in pneumococcal polysaccharides. For HPLC-RI method, separation was achieved using Luna C18 column and mobile phase compositions of acetonitrile: methanol: 20 mM sodium acetate (60:05:35% v/v)...
September 22, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662338/patchy-and-janus-nanoparticles-by-self-organization-of-mixtures-of-fluorinated-and-hydrogenated-alkanethiolates-on-the-surface-of-a-gold-core
#16
Maria Şologan, Domenico Marson, Stefano Polizzi, Paolo Pengo, Silvia Boccardo, Sabrina Pricl, Paola Posocco, Lucia Pasquato
The spontaneous self-organization of dissimilar ligands on the surface of metal nanoparticles is a very appealing approach to obtain anisotropic "spherical" systems. In addition to differences in ligand length and end groups, a further thermodynamic driving force to control the self-assembled monolayer organization may become available if the ligands are inherently immiscible, as is the case of hydrogenated (H-) and fluorinated (F-) species. Here, we validate the viability of this approach by combining (19)F NMR experiments and multiscale molecular simulations on large sets of mixed-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (NPs)...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649366/prevalence-of-pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-among-children-2-18-months-of-age-baseline-study-pre-introduction-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-cuba
#17
María E Toledo, Maria F Casanova, Nivaldo Linares-Pérez, Dagmar García-Rivera, Gilda Toraño Peraza, Indira Barcos Pina, Martha Montes de Oca, Laura M Rodriguez-Noda, Mayelín Mirabal, Beatriz Paredes, Dunia M Chávez Amaro, Darielys Santana Mederos, Yury Valdés-Balbín, Vicente Verez-Bencomo
BACKGROUND: A new vaccine candidate against pneumococcus is being developed in Cuba, and it is a priority of the national health system. There is limited information on nasopharyngeal colonization burden, though it is essential for monitoring the impact of the vaccine. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization in 2-18 month old toddlers, identify circulating serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and its association with selected risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 in Cienfuegos municipality...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647871/influenza-a-virus-infection-predisposes-hosts-to-secondary-infection-with-different-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-with-similar-outcome-but-serotype-specific-manifestation
#18
Niharika Sharma-Chawla, Vicky Sender, Olivia Kershaw, Achim D Gruber, Julia Volckmar, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, Dunja Bruder
Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of respiratory tract infections, particularly during coinfection. The synergism between these two pathogens is characterized by a complex network of dysregulated immune responses, some of which last until recovery following IAV infection. Despite the high serotype diversity of S. pneumoniae and the serotype replacement observed since the introduction of conjugate vaccines, little is known about pneumococcal strain dependency in the enhanced susceptibility to severe secondary S...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645948/first-successful-clinical-application-of-the-in-vivo-tissue-engineered-autologous-vascular-graft
#19
Nobuyasu Kato, Masaaki Yamagishi, Keiichi Kanda, Takako Miyazaki, Yoshinobu Maeda, Masashi Yamanami, Taiji Watanabe, Hitoshi Yaku
PURPOSE: The ideal material for pediatric pulmonary artery (PA) augmentation is autologous pericardium. However, its utility for multistaged operations is limited. In this study, we applied an in vivo tissue-engineered autologous Biotube graft to a patient with congenital heart disease for the first time. DESCRIPTION: For molds of the Biotubes, two silicone 19F drain tubes were embedded in the subcutaneous spaces of a 2-year-old girl with a diagnosis of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries during palliative surgical procedures...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627661/protein-observed-fluorine-nmr-is-a-complementary-ligand-discovery-method-to-1-h-cpmg-ligand-observed-nmr
#20
Andrew K Urick, Luis Pablo Calle, Juan F Espinosa, Haitao Hu, William C K Pomerantz
To evaluate its potential as a ligand discovery tool, we compare a newly developed 1D protein-observed fluorine NMR (PrOF NMR) screening method with the well-characterized ligand-observed (1)H CPMG NMR screen. We selected the first bromodomain of Brd4 as a model system to benchmark PrOF NMR because of the high ligandability of Brd4 and the need for small molecule inhibitors of related epigenetic regulatory proteins. We compare the two methods' hit sensitivity, triaging ability, experiment speed, material consumption, and the potential for false positives and negatives...
October 5, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
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