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Motivation and radiography

Julia Gresky, Elena Batieva, Alexandra Kitova, Alexey Kalmykov, Andrey Belinskiy, Sabine Reinhold, Nataliya Berezina
OBJECTIVES: It is a big challenge to diagnose the motives behind trepanations in prehistoric crania. Surgical-therapeutic attempts may be apparent by the presence of fractures, however, ritual or nonmedical motives are rarely supported by visible evidence in the bones. This article presents data on the trepanations of several individuals from South Russia dating to the Eneolitic and Bronze Age that may indicate a ritual procedure. In these crania an operation was performed in the identical location, the midline, furthermore in one of the most dangerous places, on the obelion...
August 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
F Boussema, S Karma, L Lamouchi, S Slaoui
OBJECTIFS: La surveillance clinique et bio-radiologique des cas d'HTA nécessaire en fonction des ATCD, du contexte clinique, du retentissement viscéral. MéTHODES: On a étudié les paramètres démographiques, la rythmicité et la qualité du suivi et des contrôles. Ce contrôle (1/3 mois) comportait un examen clinique avec l'interrogatoire : le régime et l'activité sportive pratiquée, la surveillance du poids et des chiffres tensionnels, la radiographie du thorax, l'ECG, le bilan rénal, la glycémie, le taux de lipides, le FO (fond d'œil), et enfin les complications éventuelles...
December 2015: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Guilherme Giacomini, José R A Miranda, Ana Luiza M Pavan, Sérgio B Duarte, Sérgio M Ribeiro, Paulo C M Pereira, Allan F F Alves, Marcela de Oliveira, Diana R Pina
The purpose of this work was to develop a quantitative method for evaluating the pulmonary inflammatory process (PIP) through the computational analysis of chest radiography exams in posteroanterior (PA) and lateral views. The quantification procedure was applied to patients with tuberculosis (TB) as the motivating application.A study of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examinations of patients with TB was developed to establish a relation between the inflammatory process and the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) measured in the PA projection...
July 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elyse R Park, Ilana F Gareen, Sandra Japuntich, Inga Lennes, Kelly Hyland, Sarah DeMello, JoRean D Sicks, Nancy A Rigotti
IMPORTANCE: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown...
September 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
Melissa A Clark, Jeremy J Gorelick, JoRean D Sicks, Elyse R Park, Amanda L Graham, David B Abrams, Ilana F Gareen
INTRODUCTION: Lung screening is an opportunity for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, but smoking behaviors may differ across screening results. Changes in smoking were evaluated among 18 840 current and former smokers aged 55-74 scheduled to receive three annual lung screenings. METHODS: Participants were randomized to low-dose computed tomography or single-view chest radiography in the American College of Radiology/National Lung Screening Trial. Outcome measures included point and sustained (6-month) abstinence and motivation to quit among smokers; and relapse among smokers who quit during follow-up, recent quitters (quit < 6 months), and long-term former smokers (quit ≥ 6 months)...
January 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Marco Marozzi
A class of multivariate tests for case-control studies with high-dimensional low sample size data and with complex dependence structure, which are common in medical imaging and molecular biology, is proposed. The tests can be applied when the number of variables is much larger than the number of subjects and when the underlying population distributions are heavy-tailed or skewed. As a motivating application, we consider a case-control study where phase-contrast cinematic cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compare many cardiovascular characteristics of young healthy smokers and young healthy non-smokers...
April 30, 2015: Statistics in Medicine
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