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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#1
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650341/two-rheumatoid-arthritis-specific-autoantigens-correlate-microbial-immunity-with-autoimmune-responses-in-joints
#2
Annalisa Pianta, Sheila L Arvikar, Klemen Strle, Elise E Drouin, Qi Wang, Catherine E Costello, Allen C Steere
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immunological triggers at mucosal sites, such as the gut microbiota, may promote autoimmunity that affects joints. Here, we used discovery-based proteomics to detect HLA-DR-presented peptides in synovia or peripheral blood mononuclear cells and identified 2 autoantigens, N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (GNS) and filamin A (FLNA), as targets of T and B cell responses in 52% and 56% of RA patients, respectively. Both GNS and FLNA were highly expressed in synovia. GNS appeared to be citrullinated, and GNS antibody values correlated with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650274/intranasal-administration-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccine-as-a-promising-influenza-vaccine-candidate
#3
Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Tamura, Hideki Hasegawa
The effect of the current influenza vaccine, an inactivated virus vaccine administered by subcutaneous/intramuscular injection, is limited to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with seasonal influenza outbreaks. Intranasal vaccination, by contrast, mimics natural infection and induces not only systemic IgG antibodies but also local secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies found on the surface of the mucosal epithelium in the upper respiratory tract. S-IgA antibodies are highly effective at preventing virus infection...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649946/choline-transporter-immunohistochemistry
#4
Raj P Kapur, Philipp W Raess, Samuel Hwang, Conrad Winter
Acetylcholinesterase enzymatic histochemistry (AChE EHC), which highlights abnormal cholinergic nerves in the mucosa of aganglionic bowel, has been used for decades to evaluate rectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). While useful diagnostically, AChE EHC is not compatible with conventional formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and is not widely available. The choline transporter (ChT) is a putative alternative marker of cholinergic nerves. ChT immunohistochemistry (IHC) was investigated using FFPE biopsies and resections from patients with confirmed HSCR, as well as appropriate non-HSCR controls...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649870/lubricant-provides-poor-rectal-mucosal-hiv-coverage
#5
Eugenie C Shieh, Ethel D Weld, Edward J Fuchs, Hiwot Hiruy, Karen W Buckheit, Robert W Buckheit, Jennifer C Breakey, Craig W Hendrix
Given the rising HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) despite repeatedly proven effectiveness of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, behaviorally-congruent periodic dosing strategies, such as dosing microbicides as lubricants, are now in demand. Rectal microbicide gel studies largely administer gels using vaginal applicators, which have not been well-received and do not mimic lubricant use. We compared rectal gel manually dosed as lubricant to applicator dosing in five healthy, HIV-negative MSM who received 10 or 3...
June 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649762/the-usefulness-of-the-h-pouch-configuration-in-salvage-surgery-for-failed-ileal-pouches
#6
H Hande Aydinli, Colin Peirce, Erman Aytac, Feza Remzi
AIM: Abdominal salvage surgery for a failed ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is safe and feasible in experienced hands. When salvaging an ileal pouch or creating a new J, S or W-pouch may not be feasible, construction of an H-pouch may be the final option. This study reports a single colorectal surgeon's experience on H-pouch anal anastomosis in patients referred with a failed ileal pouch. METHOD: Patients undergoing transabdominal salvage surgery with H-pouch formation for a failed pouch from February 2012 to May 2016 were evaluated...
June 26, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649557/dusquetide-reduction-in-oral-mucositis-associated-with-enduring-ancillary-benefits-in-tumor-resolution-and-decreased-mortality-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#7
Mahesh Kudrimoti, Amarinthia Curtis, Samar Azawi, Francis Worden, Sanford Katz, Douglas Adkins, Marcelo Bonomi, Zack Scott, Jenna Elder, Stephen T Sonis, Richard Straube, Oreola Donini
Innate immunity is a key component in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis, a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, has demonstrated both nonclinical and clinical efficacy in ameliorating severe oral mucositis (SOM). Long term follow-up studies from the Phase 2 clinical study evaluating dusquetide as a treatment for SOM in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving CRT have now been completed. Extended analysis indicates that dusquetide therapy was well-tolerated and did not contribute to increased infection, tumor growth or mortality...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648817/modulatory-effect-of-silymarin-on-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-regulated-redox-status-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-experimental-gastric-ulcer
#8
Walaa Arafa Keshk, Samer Mahmoud Zahran, Mohamed Alaa Katary, Darin Abd El Aziz Ali
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consumption has been commonly associated with gastric mucosal lesions including gastric ulcer. Silymarin (SM) is a flavonoid mixture with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities which explain its protective role against hepatic and renal injuries. However, its impact on gastric ulcer has not yet been elucidated. Thus we went further to investigate the potential protective effects of SM against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats. Pretreatment with SM (50 mg/kg orally) attenuated the severity of gastric mucosal damage as evidenced by decreasing ulcer index (UI) and ulcer score, improvement of disturbed histopathologicl features to be insignificant with those induced by the reference anti-ulcer drug...
June 22, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648739/g-protein-coupled-receptor-35-contributes-to-mucosal-repair-in-mice-via-migration-of-colonic-epithelial-cells
#9
Takuya Tsukahara, Nahla Hamouda, Daichi Utsumi, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kikuko Amagase, Shinichi Kato
G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), a receptor for lysophosphatidic acid, is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, GPR35 has been implicated in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but its role in physiological and pathological processes in the colon remains undefined. In this study, we investigated the contribution of GPR35-mediated signalling to mucosal repair of colonic epithelium in IBD. GPR35 function was examined in a wound healing model, using young adult mouse colon epithelium (YAMC) cells, and in a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648577/impact-of-cap-assisted-colonoscopy-on-learning-curve-and-quality-in-colonoscopy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Zhouwen Tang, Daniel S Zhang, Aaron P Thrift, Kalpesh K Patel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy competency assessment in trainees have traditionally been informal. Comprehensive metrics such as the Assessment of Competency in Endoscopy (ACE) tool suggest competency thresholds are higher than assumed. cap-assisted colonoscopy (CAC) may improve competency but data in novice trainees are lacking. We compare CAC versus standard colonoscopy (SC) among novice trainees in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: All colonoscopies performed by 3 gastroenterology fellows without prior experience were eligible for enrollment...
June 22, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647899/value-of-contrast-enhanced-mri-in-the-differentiation-between-nasopharyngeal-lymphoid-hyperplasia-and-t1-stage-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#11
Ming-Liang Wang, Xiao-Er Wei, Meng-Meng Yu, Wen-Bin Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced MRI in differentiation between benign nasopharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (NPLH) and T1 stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: Eighty-six NPLH patients and 38 T1 stage NPC patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced MRI and an endoscopic biopsy were included. The patients' symptoms and MRI features of nasopharyngeal mucosal thickening like location, symmetry, nasopharyngeal bubble, superficial mucus, nasopharyngeal retention cysts, serrated protrusions, contrast-enhancement type were documented...
June 24, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647817/molecular-characterization-of-the-cd79a-and-cd79b-and-its-role-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection-in-chinese-sucker-myxocyprinus-asiaticus
#12
Huan Li, Yujin Li, Xiaoping Zhang, Yafeng Wang, Wufeng Zhang, Xia Wu, Zhijian Wang
CD79a and CD79b heterodimers are the important signaling components of B cell receptor (BCR) complex which plays a crucial role in B cell development and antibody production. In the present study, CD79a and CD79b homologues from Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), namely MaCD79a and MaCD79b, were identified and their expression at early developmental stages and under constitutive and stimulated conditions were investigated. The cDNA sequences for MaCD79a and MaCD79b contained open reading frame of 678 and 636 bp in length for 225 and 211 amino acid residues, respectively...
June 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647590/differences-in-the-coronal-proteome-acquired-by-particles-depositing-in-the-lungs-of-asthmatic-versus-healthy-humans
#13
Abhinav Kumar, Elif Melis Bicer, Paul Pfeffer, Marco P Monopoli, Kenneth A Dawson, Jonny Eriksson, Katarina Edwards, Steven Lynham, Matthew Arno, Annelie F Behndig, Anders Blomberg, Graham Somers, Dave Hassall, Lea Ann Dailey, Ben Forbes, Ian Mudway
Most inhaled nanomedicines in development are for the treatment of lung disease, yet little is known about their interaction with the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLF). Here we combined the use of nano-silica, as a protein concentrator, with label-free snapshot proteomics (LC-MS/MS; key findings confirmed by ELISA) to generate a quantitative profile of the RTLF proteome and provided insight into the evolved corona; information that may be used in future to improve drug targeting to the lungs by inhaled medicines...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647455/comparison-of-mucosal-lining-fluid-sampling-methods-and-influenza-specific-iga-detection-assays-for-use-in-human-studies-of-influenza-immunity
#14
Thushan I de Silva, Victoria Gould, Nuredin I Mohammed, Alethea Cope, Adam Meijer, Ilse Zutt, Johan Reimerink, Beate Kampmann, Katja Hoschler, Maria Zambon, John S Tregoning
We need greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying protection against influenza virus to develop more effective vaccines. To do this, we need better, more reproducible methods of sampling the nasal mucosa. The aim of the current study was to compare levels of influenza virus A subtype-specific IgA collected using three different methods of nasal sampling. Samples were collected from healthy adult volunteers before and after LAIV immunization by nasal wash, flocked swabs and Synthetic Absorptive Matrix (SAM) strips...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647362/farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-gw4064-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-ileocolitis-through-tlr4-myd88-pathway-related-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-mice
#15
Hsuan-Miao Liu, Jyh-Fe Liao, Tzung-Yan Lee
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex and relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastro intestinal tract characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in enteroprotection and mucosal injury by regulating inflammatory responses and barrier function in the intestinal tract. Here we show the mechanisms of FXR agonist, GW4064, inhibits mucosal injury in ileum caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Ileum injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS in Wild-type (WT) and FXR knockout (KO) mice...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647348/pivotal-role-of-lesional-and-perilesional-t-b-lymphocytes-in-pemphigus-pathogenesis
#16
Huijie Yuan, Shengru Zhou, Zhicui Liu, Weiting Cong, Xiaochun Fei, Weihong Zeng, Haiqin Zhu, Renchao Xu, Ying Wang, Jie Zheng, Meng Pan
Pemphigus is a skin and mucosal membrane-targeting autoimmune bullous disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that circulating anti-desmoglein1/3 antibodies are pathogenic and mediate blister formation. However, the role of infiltrated immune cells in the lesional skin has not been fully investigated. In this study we showed that there existed a large number of B, T lymphocytes and plasma cells in the skin lesions by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. In addition, a significantly increased number of Dsg1 and Dsg3-specific B cells could be identified by flow cytometric analysis or ELISPOT assay...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647136/polypectomy-for-the-complete-endoscopic-resection-of-small-colorectal-polyps
#17
Qisheng Zhang, Peng Gao, Bin Han, Jianhua Xu, Yucui Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Small colorectal polyps are frequently encountered and may be incompletely removed during colonoscopy. The optimal technique for removal of small colorectal polyps is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the incomplete resection rate (IRR) using endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or cold snare polypectomy (CSP) for the removal of small adenomatous polyps. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized controlled study from a tertiary referral center...
June 21, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646342/a-case-of-malignant-peritoneal-mesothelioma-suggesting-the-utility-of-combining-double-contrast-radiography-and-endoscopy-with-computed-tomography-for-diagnosis
#18
Hirokazu Saito, Shota Hasuda, Jiro Nasu, Mitsuhiko Kitaoka, Ikuo Matsushita
A 68-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain, weight loss, and vomiting. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed slightly increased density in the mesentery and edema of the third portion of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Little ascites, but no primary lesion, lymph node metastases, or distant metastases, were observed. Endoscopic findings included erythema and edema in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum without epithelial lesions. Double-contrast radiography revealed transverse ridging with convergence, suggesting a serosal lesion...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#19
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645307/aberrant-intestinal-microbiota-due-to-il-1-receptor-antagonist-deficiency-promotes-il-17-and-tlr4-dependent-arthritis
#20
Rebecca Rogier, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jos Boekhorst, Harm Wopereis, Jose U Scher, Julia Manasson, Sanne J C M Frambach, Jan Knol, Johan Garssen, Peter M van der Kraan, Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
BACKGROUND: Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn (-/-) mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn (-/-) mice...
June 23, 2017: Microbiome
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