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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935901/sodium-supply-influences-plasma-sodium-concentration-and-the-risks-of-hyper-and-hyponatremia-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#1
Cornelia Späth, Elisabeth Stoltz Sjöström, Fredrik Ahlsson, Johan Ågren, Magnus Domellöf
BackgroundHyper- and hyponatremia occur frequently in extremely preterm (EPT) infants. Our purpose was to investigate plasma sodium (P-Na) concentrations, the incidence of hyper- and hyponatremia, and the impact of possible predisposing factors in EPT infants.MethodsIn this observational study, we analysed data from the EXtremely PREterm (< 27wks.) infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS, n=707). Detailed nutritional, laboratory and weight data were collected retrospectively from patient records.ResultsMean ± SD P-Na increased from 135...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935152/intellectual-outcomes-of-extremely-preterm-infants-at-school-age
#2
Maya Asami, Atsushi Kamei, Misato Nakakarumai, Satoko Shirasawa, Manami Akasaka, Nami Araya, Sachiko Tanifuji, Shoichi Chida
BACKGROUND: The survival rate of extremely preterm (EP) infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has improved dramatically, and there is great interest in their long-term prognoses. This study aims to elucidate the influence of prenatal and postnatal care on long-term intellectual outcomes in EP infants. METHODS: Subjects were EP infants who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit from 1982 to 2005. The survival rate and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6 years of age were analyzed for the periods of 1982-1991 (period 1) and 1992-2005 (period 2)...
December 9, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934657/the-importance-of-quality-specifications-in-safety-assessments-of-amino-acids-the-cases-of-l-tryptophan-and-l-citrulline
#3
REVIEW
Hellen A Oketch-Rabah, Amy L Roe, Bill J Gurley, James C Griffiths, Gabriel I Giancaspro
The increasing consumption of amino acids from a wide variety of sources, including dietary supplements, natural health products, medical foods, infant formulas, athletic and work-out products, herbal medicines, and other national and international categories of nutritional and functional food products, increases the exposure to amino acids to amounts far beyond those normally obtained from the diet, thereby necessitating appropriate and robust safety assessments of these ingredients. Safety assessments of amino acids, similar to all food constituents, largely rely on the establishment of an upper limit [Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)] considered to be a guide for avoiding high intake, above which adverse or toxic effects might occur...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931248/postpartum-depression-and-infant-feeding-practices-in-a-low-income-urban-settlement-in-nairobi-kenya
#4
Beatrice A Madeghe, Violet N Kimani, Ann Vander Stoep, Semret Nicodimos, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression can compromise caregiving activities, including infant feeding practices, resulting in child malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of postpartum depression on infant feeding practices and malnutrition among women in an urban low income settlement in Nairobi-Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study based in Kariobangi North Health Centre in Nairobi County. The study sample included 200 mother-infant pairs visiting the Maternal and Child Health clinics for infant immunization at 6-14 weeks postpartum...
December 8, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931034/historical-perspective-on-clinical-trials-of-carnitine-in-children-and-adults
#5
Neil R M Buist
The metabolic roles of carnitine have been greatly clarified over the past 50 years, and it is now well established that carnitine is a key player in mitochondrial generation of energy and metabolism of acetyl coenzyme A. A therapeutic role for carnitine in treatment of nutritional deficiencies in infants and children was first demonstrated in 1958, and since that time it has been used to treat a number of inborn errors of metabolism. Carnitine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985 for treatment of 'primary carnitine deficiency', and later in 1992 for treatment of 'secondary carnitine deficiency', a definition that included the majority of relevant metabolic disorders associated with low or abnormal plasma carnitine levels...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#6
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922335/nutritional-rickets-around-the-world-an-update
#7
Ana L Creo, Tom D Thacher, John M Pettifor, Mark A Strand, Philip R Fischer
Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and current treatment and preventive measures...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922230/consensus-statement-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-follow-up-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-among-infants-and-children-in-turkey
#8
Aydan Kansu, Aysel Yüce, Buket Dalgıç, Bülent Enis Şekerel, Fügen Çullu-Çokuğraş, Haluk Çokuğraş
The present paper aims to provide experts' consensus on diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) among infants and children in Turkey, based on review of available evidence-based guidelines, publications and experts' clinical experience. The experts agreed that CMPA diagnosis should be based on symptomatic evaluation and diagnostic elimination diet as followed by implementation of an open challenge test after disappearance of symptoms and confirmation of CMPA diagnosis in re-appearance of symptoms...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916815/changes-in-biochemical-parameters-of-the-calcium-phosphorus-homeostasis-in-relation-to-nutritional-intake-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#9
Viola Christmann, Charlotte J W Gradussen, Michelle N Körnmann, Nel Roeleveld, Johannes B van Goudoever, Arno F J van Heijst
Preterm infants are at significant risk to develop reduced bone mineralization based on inadequate supply of calcium and phosphorus (Ca-P). Biochemical parameters can be used to evaluate the nutritional intake. The direct effect of nutritional intake on changes in biochemical parameters has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of Ca-P supplementation on biochemical markers as serum (s)/urinary (u) Ca and P; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); tubular reabsorption of P (TrP); and urinary ratios for Ca/creatinin (creat) and P/creatinin in Very-Low-Birth-Weight infants on Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14...
November 29, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914518/delta-6-desaturase-activity-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-preterm-infants
#10
Nobuhiko Nagano, Tomoo Okada, Kazunori Kayama, Shigeharu Hosono, Yohei Kitamura, Shigeru Takahashi
Term neonates have high delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity, which is important for regulating polyunsaturated fatty acid's (PUFA) nutritional status. The aim was to investigate D6D activity in preterm infants and its postnatal changes. Forty-three appropriate-for-gestational-age infants were included. PUFA in red blood cells was analyzed at birth and at one, six, and 12 months of age. D6D activity was estimated by 20:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio. At birth, preterm infants had D6D activity as high as that of term infants; D6D activity declined to about one-third at one month, then further decreased to about one-sixth at six months and remained stable until 12 months...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914189/analysis-of-experiences-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-among-hiv-positive-mothers-in-lusaka-zambia
#11
Alice Ngoma-Hazemba, Busisiwe Purity Ncama
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months offers protection from postnatal HIV infection but remains low in resource-poor settings. Documentation of experiences with exclusive breastfeeding is needed to strengthen infant feeding counselling by health care workers. OBJECTIVE: To explore HIV-positive mothers' experiences with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of the infant's life. DESIGN: A health facility- and community-based exploratory qualitative study was conducted among 30 HIV-positive mothers practising exclusive breastfeeding and meeting the selection criteria...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914187/enhanced-nutrition-improves-growth-and-increases-blood-adiponectin-concentrations-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#12
Elin W Blakstad, Sissel J Moltu, Britt Nakstad, Marit B Veierød, Kenneth Strømmen, Pétur B Júlíusson, Astrid N Almaas, Arild E Rønnestad, Kristin Brække, Christian A Drevon, Per O Iversen
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g) infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. DESIGN: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913122/-postnatal-growth-at-hospital-discharge-in-extremely-premature-newborns-in-spain
#13
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Josep Figueras Aloy, Pedro Saavedra Santana, Alfredo García-Alix
INTRODUCTION: Postnatal growth restriction is considered a universal problem in extremely premature infants (EPI), and causes great concern due to the possible relationship between nutrition, sub-optimal postnatal growth, and neurodevelopment delay. OBJECTIVES: To describe the weight gain in EPI and to determine the changes in the length and head circumference (HC) at hospital discharge in survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 4,520 Caucasian EPI from single pregnancies and without severe malformations, born in the centres participating in the Spanish SEN1500 network (2002-2011)...
November 29, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906557/barriers-to-human-milk-feeding-at-discharge-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants-maternal-goal-setting-as-a-key-social-factor
#14
Erin Fleurant, Michael Schoeny, Rebecca Hoban, Ifeyinwa V Asiodu, Brittany Riley, Paula P Meier, Harold Bigger, Aloka L Patel
BACKGROUND: While black mothers initiate human milk (HM) provision at lower rates than non-black mothers in the United States, some neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) report similar initiation rates regardless of race/ethnicity for mothers of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. However, racial disparity frequently becomes evident in the proportion of black infants who continue to receive HM feedings at NICU discharge. Since social factors have been associated with differences in HM provision for term infants, we sought to identify differences in social factors associated with HM feeding at discharge based on race/ethnicity...
December 1, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905218/optimization-of-the-malting-process-for-nutritional-improvement-of-finger-millet-and-amaranth-flours-in-the-infant-weaning-food-industry
#15
Sara Najdi Hejazi, Valérie Orsat
Malting is a beneficial approach to improve the nutritional value of cereals used in infant preparations. Malted finger millet and amaranth might be considered as potentially appropriate gluten-free alternatives for common wheat-based weaning products, especially in case of those suffering from celiac disease. In this study, the effects of germination temperature and duration on the main nutrients of malted finger millet and amaranth, are evaluated and optimized. Grains were germinated for 24, 36 and 48 h at 22, 26 and 30 °C...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903832/predictors-of-the-size-of-the-exchangeable-zinc-pool-differ-between-children-and-adults
#16
Leland V Miller, K Michael Hambidge, Janet C King, Jamie E Westcott, Nancy F Krebs
BACKGROUND: The size of the rapidly exchanging pool of body zinc has been suggested as having potential utility as a biomarker of zinc status. Knowledge of the relations of exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size to relevant variables is necessary to adequately evaluate its use as a biomarker. OBJECTIVE: We used regression analysis to investigate associations of EZP with age, sex, body size, and zinc nutrition variables. METHODS: Data were compiled from 18 isotope tracer studies of zinc absorption in 247 children and adults (248 observations) in which EZP and relevant variables (e...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#17
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902503/bedside-placement-of-the-postpyloric-tube-in-infants
#18
Patricia Clifford, Elizabeth Ely, Lauren Heimall
BACKGROUND: Patients in the neonatal intensive care unit are a vulnerable population with specific nutritional requirements, which include increased protein and caloric needs for adequate growth. Some infants cannot tolerate gastric feeds and need to have postpyloric feeds to grow. Placement of a postpyloric tube can be done by gastric insufflation. Gastric insufflation is a technique where air is inserted into the stomach as a nasogastric tube is advanced through the pylorus to the duodenum...
November 29, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901039/early-factors-related-to-carbohydrate-and-fat-intake-at-8-and-12-months-results-from-the-eden-mother-child-cohort
#19
W L Yuan, S Nicklaus, S Lioret, C Lange, A Forhan, B Heude, M-A Charles, B de Lauzon-Guillain
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined the factors explaining the variability in fat and carbohydrate intake during infancy. We aimed to describe infants' fat and carbohydrate intake and analyse the associations with infant and maternal characteristics and feeding practices. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 1275 infants aged 8 months from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Carbohydrate intake, fat intake, added fat (vegetable oils and animal fats) and added sugar (honey, white sugar, brown sugar, jam and sweetened beverages) consumption were calculated at 8 and 12 months...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897979/breastmilk-production-in-the-first-4-weeks-after-birth-of-term-infants
#20
Jacqueline C Kent, Hazel Gardner, Donna T Geddes
Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous studies indicate that milk production should reach the lower limit of normal for established lactation (440 mL per day) by day 11 after birth. We have used test-weighing of term infants before and after each breastfeed over 24 h to measure milk production in the first 4 weeks of lactation in mothers with and without perceived breastfeeding problems to provide information on how often milk production is inadequate...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
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