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Flavia Lobo Maza, Doris Grumelli, Pilar Carro, Carolina Vericat, Klaus Kern, Roberto C Salvarezza
Well-ordered molecular films play an important role in nanotechnology, from device fabrication to surface patterning. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) on the Au(100)-(1 × 1) and Au(111)-(1 × 1) have been used to understand the interplay of molecule-substrate interactions for heterocyclic thiols capable of binding to the surface by two anchors, which spontaneously form a highly disordered film on Au(111). Our results reveal that for the same surface coverage the simple change of the substrate from Au(111)-(1 × 1) to Au(100)-(1 × 1) eliminates molecular disorder and yields well-ordered SAMs...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Wiem Chaabane, Malin Lindqvist Appell
Thiopurines (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine) are a class of genotoxic drugs extensively used in the treatment of various illnesses including leukemia. Their underlying molecular mechanism of action involves the activation of apoptosis and autophagy but remains widely unclear. Here we present evidence that autophagy induction by thiopurines is a survival mechanism that antagonizes apoptosis and is involved in degrading damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. On the other hand, apoptosis is the main cell death mechanism by thiopurines as its inhibition prohibited cell death...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Einar S Björnsson, Jiezhun Gu, David E Kleiner, Naga Chalasani, Paul H Hayashi, Jay H Hoofnagle
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to define the clinical, biochemical, and histologic features of liver injury from thiopurines. BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) can cause liver injury, but no large series exist. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and 6-month outcomes of patients with thiopurine hepatotoxicity from the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were identified, 12 due to Aza and 10 due to 6-MP, with a median age of 55 years; the majority were female (68%)...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
O V Knyazev, A I Parfenov, A V Kagramanova, I N Ruchkina, P L Shcherbakov, N K Shakhpazyan, K K Noskova, T I Ivkina, S G Khomeriki
AIM: to retrospectively evaluate the efficiency of long-term infliximab (INF) therapy in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 48 patients with refractory UC who had taken IFL in 2008 to 2014. Steroid-dependent or steroid-refractory UC was established in 40 (83.3%) patients; 8 (16.7%) were noted to be refractory to therapy with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Cytomegalovirus DNA was identified in the biopsy specimens of the large intestinal mucosa (LIM) from 7 patients...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Stine Nygaard Nielsen, Kathrine Grell, Jacob Nersting, Thomas Leth Frandsen, Lisa Lyngsie Hjalgrim, Kjeld Schmiegelow
PURPOSE: Normal white blood cell counts (WBC) are unknown in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Accordingly, 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy is adjusted by a common WBC target of 1.5-3.0 × 10(9)/L. Consequently, the absolute degree of myelosuppression is unknown for the individual child and we wanted to evaluate this. METHODS: A median of 22 (range 8-27) 6MP/MTX metabolite samples and 100 (range 25-130) blood counts during therapy and 10 (range 2-15) off therapy were collected in 50 children with ALL...
September 6, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Zhihong Li, Shuyun Bi, Tianjiao Wang, Yu Wang, Huifeng Zhou, Jun Wu
A highly sensitive method for the detection of 6-mercaptopurine (MP) by resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) method was developed. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by a modified seed method and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AuNPs were bound to MP via covalent bonding to form the MP-AuNPs complex, which increased the RLS intensity of MP at 347 nm (increased by 65.7%). Under optimum conditions, the magnitude of the enhanced RLS intensity for MP-AuNPs was proportional to MP concentration in the range 0...
September 4, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Nathalie K Zgheib, Reem Akika, Rami Mahfouz, Carol Al Aridi, Khaled M Ghanem, Raya Saab, Miguel R Abboud, Nidale Tarek, Hassan El Solh, Samar A Muwakkit
BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in thiopurine-related toxicity could not be completely explained by thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphisms, as a number of patients who are homozygous wild type or normal for TPMT still develop toxicity that necessitates 6-mercaptopurine (MP) dose reduction or protocol interruption. Recently, few studies reported on an inherited nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X motif 15 (NUDT15) c.415C>T low-function variant that is associated with decreased thiopurine metabolism and leukopenia in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other diseases...
August 31, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Yoichi Tanaka
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic drugs can greatly vary among individuals. For example, it is sometimes necessary to alter the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia from the standard protocol. Genetic variation is one important factor, which can exert a wide range of effects on sensitivities and responses to therapeutic agents. Thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) is a useful test for predicting 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) sensitivity in Caucasians. However, it is not effective for predicting the 6-MP therapeutic responses of Japanese patients because the frequency of TPMT deficiency is lower in the Japanese population (approximately 1% versus approximately 10% in Caucasians)...
July 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
D Zochowska, J Zegarska, E Hryniewiecka, E Samborowska, R Jazwiec, W Tszyrsznic, A Borowiec, M Dadlez, L Paczek
BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine (AZA) are used in many autoimmune diseases and after solid-organ transplantation. Their properties are mediated by active metabolites, 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN), and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). The most common adverse effects are myelo- and hepato-toxicity. The aim of the study was quantification of 6-TG and 6-MMP, with the use of liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in solid-organ transplant recipients...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Hassan Karimi-Maleh, Abdollah Fallah Shojaei, Khalil Tabatabaeian, Fatemeh Karimi, Shahryar Shakeri, Reza Moradi
6-Mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and dasatinib are three important anticancer drugs with high adverse effects in human body. In this study, a Pt/MWCNTs-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate-modified carbon paste electrode was developed for the simultaneously determination of 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and dasatinib for the first time. The Pt/MWCNTs synthesized by polyol method and have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The obtained data revealed that the electro-oxidation of 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and dasatinib is facilitated as a novel voltammetric sensor...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Katarzyna Klimczak, Liliana Łykowska-Szuber, Iwona Krela-Kaźmierczak, Piotr Eder, Aleksandra Szymczak, Kamila Stawczyk-Eder, Krzysztof Linke
M ethotrexate (MTX) as an immunomodulatory drug has numerous applications in autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune patomechanism is one of the factors responsible for development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). MTX is an alternative therapy in the treatment of IBD. Over the past several years clinical trials has confirmed the efficacy of MTX in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). Data concerning use of MTX in ulcerative colitis (UC) are not as numerous as in the CD. Currently, MTX is recommended for the induction treatment and maintenance therapy in CD patients, especially in steroid-dependent patients, disease refractory to corticosteroids, no improvement after treatment with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, or in case of intolerance to these drugs...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
B M Nørgård, B Magnussen, M D Larsen, S Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Information on the safety of paternal use of azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) prior to conception is limited. Based on nationwide data from the Danish health registries, we examined the association between paternal use of AZA/6-MP within 3 months before conception and adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: This nationwide cohort study is based on data from all singletons born in Denmark from 1 January 1997 through 2013. Children fathered by men who used AZA/6-MP within 3 months before conception constituted the exposed cohort (N=699), and children fathered by men who did not use AZA/6-MP 3 months prior to conception constituted the unexposed cohort (N=1 012 624)...
July 25, 2016: Gut
Alenka Smid, Natasa Karas-Kuzelicki, Janez Jazbec, Irena Mlinaric-Rascan
Adequate maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with 6-mercaptopurine as an essential component, is necessary for retaining durable remission. Interruptions or discontinuations of the therapy due to drug-related toxicities, which can be life threatening, may result in an increased risk of relapse. In this retrospective study including 305 paediatric ALL patients undergoing maintenance therapy, we systematically investigated the individual and combined effects of genetic variants of folate pathway enzymes, as well as of polymorphisms in PACSIN2 and ITPA, on drug-induced toxicities by applying a multi-analytical approach including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jacob Nersting, Stine Nygaard Nielsen, Mats Heyman, Finn Wesenberg, Jon Kristinsson, Kim Vettenranta, Henrik Schrøeder, Richard Weinshilboum, Katrine Lykke Jensen, Kathrine Grell, Susanne Rosthoej
BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. PROCEDURE: To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Amine Benmassaoud, Xuanqian Xie, Motaz AlYafi, Yves Theoret, Alain Bitton, Waqqas Afif, Talat Bessissow
Background and Aims. Thiopurines are used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity can guide thiopurine dosing to avoid adverse events. This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of starting thiopurines at low dose versus full dose in patients with CD and normal TPMT. Methods. This was a single center retrospective study including adult CD patients with normal TPMT levels (≥25 nmol/hr/g Hgb) who were followed for 1 year. Patients started at full dose of azathioprine (2-2...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Alexey Maschan, Galina Novichkova, Natalia Miakova, Marina Persiantseva
An 11-year-old male was diagnosed with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in 1998 and received therapy with interferon-α2b and low-dose cytarabine. In 6 years, he progressed to lymphoid blast crisis and received induction chemotherapy with prednisolone, vincristine, daunorubicin, and l-asparaginase concomitantly with imatinib 400 mg/day, and continuation with vincristine + prednisolone, cytarabine + etoposide, vincristine + l-asparaginase, cyclophosphamide + etoposide, and 6-mercaptopurine + methotrexate...
July 19, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Cristina Martínez Faci, Ignacio Ros Arnal, José M Martínez de Zabarte Fernández, Jordi Sorribes Estorch, Mónica López Campos, Carmen Rodríguez-Vigil Iturrate
Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive drug that has shown effectiveness in inflammatory bowel disease treatment. Its metabolite, 6-mercaptopurine, is metabolized through thiopurine methyltransferase. Patients with low enzyme activity may have more frequent and severe side effects. The most common is leukopenia, and rarely pancytopenia. The thiopurine methyltransferase activity monitoring shows an individualized profile of enzymatic activity but it should not replace monitoring by performing serial blood counts...
August 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Shunsuke Kimura, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuri Yoshimoto, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Yosuke Hosoya, Hiroki Yoshihara, Tadashi Kumamoto, Yoichi Tanaka, Atsushi Manabe
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X-type motif 15 (NUDT15) variants are considered to be genes responsible for severe myelotoxicity induced by 6-mercaptopurine (6MP). We report a 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed the complication of severe 6MP-induced myelotoxicity due to homozygous NUDT15 variant alleles. In early consolidation therapy containing 6MP, her course was complicated by severe neutropenia (Grade 4) and chemotherapy had to be discontinued for 33 days...
June 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Xingjie Wu, Linzhu Zhou, Yue Su, Chang-Ming Dong
To integrate cocktail chemotherapy with photothermal therapy into one biocompatible and biodegradable nanocarrier, the plasmonic, lactose-targeted, and dual anticancer drugs-loaded polypeptide composite nanoparticles were for the first time fabricated under mild conditions. The glyco-PEGylated polypeptide micelles that self-assembled from the lactose (LAC) and PEG grafted polycysteine terpolymer were used as templates to generate the plasmonic composite nanoparticles, as mainly characterized by DLS, TEM, SEM, and XPS...
July 11, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Pawel Borun, Anna Bartkowiak-Kaczmarek, Oliwia Zakerska-Banaszak, Michal Walczak, Agnieszka Dobrowolska, Mateusz Kurzawski, Malgorzata Waszak, Daniel Lipinski, Andrzej Plawski, Ryszard Slomski
Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) are crucial enzymes involved in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs: azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, used in the treatment of leukemia or inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The activity in these enzymes correlates with the genetic polymorphism of the TPMT and ITPA genes, respectively, which determines an individual reaction and dosing of thiopurines. Three main TPMT alleles: TPMT*2 (c.238G>C), TPMT*3A (c.460G>A, c.719A>G) and TPMT*3C (c...
October 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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