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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244221/routes-of-transmission-of-influenza-a-h1n1-sars-cov-and-norovirus-in-air-cabin-comparative-analyses
#1
Hao Lei, Yuguo Li, Shenglan Xiao, Chao-Hsin Lin, Sharon L Norris, Daniel Wei, Zhongmin Hu, Shengcheng Ji
Identifying the exact transmission route(s) of infectious diseases in indoor environments is a crucial step in developing effective intervention strategies. In this study, we proposed a comparative analysis approach and built a model to simulate outbreaks of three different inflight infections in a similar cabin environment, i.e., influenza A H1N1, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), and norovirus. The simulation results seemed to suggest that the close contact route was probably the most significant route (contributes 70%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 67%-72%) in the inflight transmission of influenza A H1N1 transmission; as a result, passengers within two rows of the index case had a significantly higher infection risk than others in the outbreak (relative risk (RR): 13...
December 15, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243506/macrocognition-in-the-healthcare-built-environment-mhcbe-a-focused-ethnographic-study-of-neighborhoods-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#2
Susan O'Hara, Robin Toft Klar, Emily S Patterson, Nancy Morris, Judy Ascenzi, James C Fackler, Donna J Perry
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to describe the interactions (formal and informal), in which macrocognitive functions occur and their location on a pediatric intensive care unit, to describe challenges and facilitators of macrocognition using space syntax constructs (openness, connectivity, and visibility), and to analyze the healthcare built environment (HCBE) using those constructs to explicate influences on macrocognition. BACKGROUND: In high reliability, complex industries, macrocognition is an approach to develop new knowledge among interprofessional team members...
January 1, 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241723/intrapersonal-and-environmental-correlates-of-bicycling-in-u-s-adults
#3
Anna K Porter, Deborah Salvo, Adriana Pérez, Belinda Reininger, Harold W Kohl
INTRODUCTION: Bicycling is a health-promoting physical activity, but little is known about the factors that influence this behavior in the U.S. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify multilevel ecologic correlates of bicycling behaviors in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: This analysis, conducted in 2016-2017, utilized data from the 2012 National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behaviors (n=7,509; N=246,155,593)...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240837/the-impact-of-self-avatars-on-trust-and-collaboration-in-shared-virtual-environments
#4
Ye Pan, Anthony Steed
A self-avatar is known to have a potentially significant impact on the user's experience of the immersive content but it can also affect how users interact with each other in a shared virtual environment (SVE). We implemented an SVE for a consumer virtual reality system where each user's body could be represented by a jointed self-avatar that was dynamically controlled by head and hand controllers. We investigated the impact of a self-avatar on collaborative outcomes such as completion time and trust formation during competitive and cooperative tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240791/cross-sectional-interactions-between-quality-of-the-physical-and-social-environment-and-self-reported-physical-activity-in-adults-living-in-income-deprived-communities
#5
Alexia D M Sawyer, Russell Jones, Marcella Ucci, Lee Smith, Ade Kearns, Abi Fisher
BACKGROUND: Understanding the environmental determinants of physical activity in populations at high risk of inactivity could contribute to the development of effective interventions. Socioecological models of activity propose that environmental factors have independent and interactive effects of physical activity but there is a lack of research into interactive effects. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore independent and interactive effects of social and physical environmental factors on self-reported physical activity in income-deprived communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238751/tree-leaf-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-differ-along-a-gradient-of-urban-intensity
#6
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Christian Messier, Steven W Kembel
Tree leaf-associated microbiota have been studied in natural ecosystems but less so in urban settings, where anthropogenic pressures on trees could impact microbial communities and modify their interaction with their hosts. Additionally, trees act as vectors spreading bacterial cells in the air in urban environments due to the density of microbial cells on aerial plant surfaces. Characterizing tree leaf bacterial communities along an urban gradient is thus key to understand the impact of anthropogenic pressures on urban tree-bacterium interactions and on the overall urban microbiome...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238327/transmission-of-airborne-bacteria-across-built-environments-and-its-measurement-standards-a-review
#7
REVIEW
So Fujiyoshi, Daisuke Tanaka, Fumito Maruyama
Human health is influenced by various factors including microorganisms present in built environments where people spend most of their lives (approximately 90%). It is therefore necessary to monitor and control indoor airborne microbes for occupational safety and public health. Most studies concerning airborne microorganisms have focused on fungi, with scant data available concerning bacteria. The present review considers papers published from 2010 to 2017 approximately and factors affecting properties of indoor airborne bacteria (communities and concentration) with respect to temporal perspective and to multiscale interaction viewpoint...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237823/examining-the-correlates-and-drivers-of-human-population-distributions-across-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Jeremiah J Nieves, Forrest R Stevens, Andrea E Gaughan, Catherine Linard, Alessandro Sorichetta, Graeme Hornby, Nirav N Patel, Andrew J Tatem
Geographical factors have influenced the distributions and densities of global human population distributions for centuries. Climatic regimes have made some regions more habitable than others, harsh topography has discouraged human settlement, and transport links have encouraged population growth. A better understanding of these types of relationships enables both improved mapping of population distributions today and modelling of future scenarios. However, few comprehensive studies of the relationships between population spatial distributions and the range of drivers and correlates that exist have been undertaken at all, much less at high spatial resolutions, and particularly across the low- and middle-income countries...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233722/county-level-contextual-factors-associated-with-diabetes-incidence-in-the-united-states
#9
Solveig A Cunningham, Shivani A Patel, Gloria L Beckles, Linda S Geiss, Neil Mehta, Hui Xie, Giuseppina Imperatore
PURPOSE: Health and administrative systems are facing spatial clustering in chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study explores how geographic distribution of diabetes in the United States is associated with socioeconomic and built environment characteristics and health-relevant policies. METHODS: We compiled nationally representative county-level data from multiple data sources. We standardized characteristics to a mean = 0 and a SD = 1 and modeled county-level age-adjusted diagnosed diabetes incidence in 2013 using 2-level hierarchical linear regression...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230070/assessing-climate-change-impacts-on-the-stability-of-small-tidal-inlets-part-2-data-rich-environments
#10
Trang Minh Duong, Roshanka Ranasinghe, Marcus Thatcher, Sarith Mahanama, Zheng Bing Wang, Pushpa Kumara Dissanayake, Mark Hemer, Arjen Luijendijk, Janaka Bamunawala, Dano Roelvink, Dirkjan Walstra
Climate change (CC) is likely to affect the thousands of bar-built or barrier estuaries (here referred to as Small tidal inlets - STIs) around the world. Any such CC impacts on the stability of STIs, which governs the dynamics of STIs as well as that of the inlet-adjacent coastline, can result in significant socio-economic consequences due to the heavy human utilisation of these systems and their surrounds. This article demonstrates the application of a process based snap-shot modelling approach, using the coastal morphodynamic model Delft3D, to 3 case study sites representing the 3 main STI types; Permanently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 1), Permanently open, alongshore migrating inlets (Type 2) and Seasonally/Intermittently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 3)...
January 1, 2018: Marine Geology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227431/faculty-development-for-continuing-interprofessional-education-and-collaborative-practice
#11
Ivan L Silver, Karen Leslie
This article proposes a framework for faculty development in continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) and collaborative practice. The framework is built on best practices in faculty development and CIPE. It was informed by local experience in the development, delivery, and evaluation of a faculty development program to promote capacity for dissemination of concepts relating to interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in health care environments. Interprofessional education has been demonstrated in clinical contexts to enhance interprofessional collaboration, patient care, and health outcomes...
October 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225961/land-use-climate-and-water-resources-global-stages-of-interaction
#12
Sujay S Kaushal, Arthur J Gold, Paul M Mayer
Land use and climate change can accelerate the depletion of freshwater resources that support humans and ecosystem services on a global scale. Here, we briefly review studies from around the world, and highlight those in this special issue. We identify stages that characterize increasing interaction between land use and climate change. During the first stage, hydrologic modifications and the built environment amplify overland flow via processes associated with runoff-dominated ecosystems (e.g., soil compaction, impervious surface cover, drainage, and channelization)...
October 24, 2017: Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222631/an-advanced-simulator-for-orthopedic-surgical-training
#13
J Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz
PURPOSE: The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222610/characterizing-the-neighborhood-obesogenic-environment-in-the-multiethnic-cohort-a-multi-level-infrastructure-for-cancer-health-disparities-research
#14
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219101/health-effects-of-milder-winters-a-review-of-evidence-from-the-united-kingdom
#15
REVIEW
Shakoor Hajat
Cold-related mortality and morbidity remains an important public health problem in the UK and elsewhere. Health burdens have often reported to be higher in the UK compared to other countries with colder climates, however such assessments are usually based on comparison of excess winter mortality indices, which are subject to biases. Daily time-series regression or case-crossover studies provide the best evidence of the acute effects of cold exposure. Such studies report a 6% increase in all-cause deaths in England & Wales for every 1 °C fall in daily mean temperature within the top 5% of the coldest days...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216300/impacts-of-active-school-design-on-school-time-sedentary-behavior-and-physical-activity-a-pilot-natural-experiment
#16
Jeri Brittin, Leah Frerichs, John R Sirard, Nancy M Wells, Beth M Myers, Jeanette Garcia, Dina Sorensen, Matthew J Trowbridge, Terry Huang
BACKGROUND: Children spend a significant portion of their days in sedentary behavior (SB) and on average fail to engage in adequate physical activity (PA). The school built environment may influence SB and PA, but research is limited. This natural experiment evaluated whether an elementary school designed to promote movement impacted students' school-time SB and PA. METHODS: Accelerometers measured SB and PA at pre and post time-points in an intervention group who moved to the new school (n = 21) and in a comparison group experiencing no school environmental change (n = 20)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216291/correction-interactive-and-independent-associations-between-the-socioeconomic-and-objective-built-environment-on-the-neighbourhood-level-and-individual-health-a-systematic-review-of-multilevel-studies
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214118/the-plasma-environment-inside-geostationary-orbit-a-van-allen-probes-hope-survey
#18
Philip A Fernandes, Brian A Larsen, Michelle F Thomsen, Ruth M Skoug, Geoffrey D Reeves, Michael H Denton, Reinhard H W Friedel, Herbert O Funsten, Jerry Goldstein, Michael G Henderson, Jörg-Micha Jahn, Elizabeth A MacDonald, David K Olson
The two full precessions in local time completed by the Van Allen Probes enable global specification of the near-equatorial inner magnetosphere plasma environment. Observations by the Helium-Oxygen-Proton-Electron (HOPE) mass spectrometers provide detailed insight into the global spatial distribution of electrons, H+, He+, and O+. Near-equatorial omnidirectional fluxes and abundance ratios at energies 0.1-30 keV are presented for 2 ≤ L ≤ 6 as a function of L shell, magnetic local time (MLT), and geomagnetic activity...
September 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212385/living-environment-and-its-relationship-to-depressive-mood-a-systematic-review
#19
Nina Rautio, Svetlana Filatova, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jouko Miettunen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The notion that environment affects mental health has a long history; in this systematic review, we aimed to study whether the living environment is related to depressive mood. METHODS: We searched databases of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for population-based original studies prior to October 2016. We included studies that measured depressive symptoms or depression and had measures of urbanization, population density, aesthetics of living environment, house/built environment, green areas, walkability, noise, air pollution or services...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211504/usefulness-of-the-mobile-virtual-reality-self-training-for-overcoming-a-fear-of-heights
#20
Yeon-Ju Hong, Hesun Erin Kim, Young Hoon Jung, Sunghyon Kyeong, Jae-Jin Kim
A mobile virtual reality system, equipped with built-in variables such as heart rate (HR), gaze-down data, and subjective fear rating, can allow individuals with a fear of heights to overcome it by self-training. This study aimed to verify the efficacy and safety of the training program. Forty-eight volunteers completed the four-session self-training program over 2 weeks. They were allocated into either low- or high-fear group by the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ)-anxiety scores, and then the changes of the built-in variables and AQ-anxiety scores were analyzed between the groups...
December 6, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
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