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Built Environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919241/the-unbuilt-environment-culture-moderates-the-built-environment-for-physical-activity
#1
Andrew J Perrin, Neal Caren, Asheley C Skinner, Adebowale Odulana, Eliana M Perrin
BACKGROUND: While research has demonstrated a link between the built environment and obesity, much variation remains unexplained. Physical features are necessary, but not sufficient, for physical activity: residents must choose to use these features in health-promoting ways. This article reveals a role for local culture in tempering the effect of the physical environment on physical activity behaviors. METHODS: We developed Systematic Cultural Observation (SCO) to observe place-based, health-related culture in Lenoir County, NC (population ~60,000)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917028/experiences-of-visually-impaired-students-in-higher-education-bodily-perspectives-on-inclusive-education
#2
Heidi Lourens, Leslie Swartz
Although previous literature sheds light on the experiences of visually impaired students on tertiary grounds, these studies failed to provide an embodied understanding of their lives. In-depth interviews with 15 visually impaired students at one university demonstrated the ways in which they experienced their disability and the built environment in their bodies. At the same time, lost, fearful, shameful and aching bodies revealed prevailing gaps in provision for disabled students. Through this research it becomes clear how the environment is acutely felt within fleshly worlds, while bodies do not fail to tell of disabling societal structures...
2016: Disability & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916929/a-framework-to-implement-iot-network-performance-modelling-techniques-for-network-solution-selection
#3
Declan T Delaney, Gregory M P O'Hare
No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment...
December 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915403/a-simple-approach-for-the-development-of-urban-climatic-maps-based-on-the-urban-characteristics-in-tainan-taiwan
#4
Yu-Cheng Chen, Tzu-Ping Lin, Chien-Ting Lin
Motivated by the increasing thermal load in urban environment, this work established Urban Climatic map (UCmap) focusing on thermal environment issues based on urban development factors, e.g., land cover and building characteristics, representing thermal load of human body and ventilation path in the urban structures. In the established process of UCmap in this work, Tainan city, which is a highly developed city in southern Taiwan, is selected as the research area. A 50-m resolution grid is used to capture urban development factors and the climate data based on 1 year of mobile and fix-point measurements, from which the thermal load and the wind environment map are constructed...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914398/the-acoustic-environment-of-inpatient-hospital-wards-in-the-united-kingdom
#5
Bridget Shield, Nicola Shiers, Rosemary Glanville
Many hospital noise surveys have shown that patients are subject to high levels of noise, in excess of current World Health Organization guidelines. Much of the previous research has focused on areas perceived to be noisy, such as intensive care units and operating theatres. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive noise survey of five general inpatient hospital wards in the UK. The survey involved continuous noise monitoring over several days, including identification of noise sources, in 31 locations representing a range of typical patient accommodations including single rooms and multi-bed bays, and nurse stations...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913658/social-determinants-and-teen-pregnancy-prevention-exploring-the-role-of-nontraditional-partnerships
#6
Taleria R Fuller, Carla P White, Jocelyn Chu, Deborah Dean, Naomi Clemmons, Carmen Chaparro, Jessica L Thames, Anitra Belle Henderson, Pebbles King
Addressing the social determinants of health (SDOH) that influence teen pregnancy is paramount to eliminating disparities and achieving health equity. Expanding prevention efforts from purely individual behavior change to improving the social, political, economic, and built environments in which people live, learn, work, and play may better equip vulnerable youth to adopt and sustain healthy decisions. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the Office of Adolescent Health funded state- and community-based organizations to develop and implement the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative...
December 1, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910608/x-ray-transport-and-radiation-response-assessment-xtrra-experiments-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#7
K B Fournier, C G Brown, M F Yeoman, J H Fisher, S W Seiler, D Hinshelwood, S Compton, F R Holdener, G E Kemp, C D Newlander, R P Gilliam, N Froula, M Lilly, J F Davis, Maj A Lerch, B E Blue
Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility's diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910175/postanesthesia-evaluation-of-emotional-and-psychological-satisfaction-in-a-hispanic-population
#8
Angela Zauner, Alvaro Pinilla, Daniel Benitez, Alejandra Tellez, David Romero, Ana Suarez, Vanessa López, Eduardo Hermida
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction has a positive impact on clinical care. Different strategies, such as questionnaires, have been developed to evaluate and improve patient satisfaction. A validated pediatric anesthesia questionnaire previously showed the importance of perioperative care built upon a relationship of trust between healthcare providers and children and parents, and a comfortable environment in which satisfactory answers are provided. However, the questionnaire was validated in English, and no research exists on the use of satisfaction questionnaires in Spanish...
December 2, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#9
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902960/optimising-measurement-of-health-related-characteristics-of-the-built-environment-comparing-data-collected-by-foot-based-street-audits-virtual-street-audits-and-routine-secondary-data-sources
#10
Triantafyllos Pliakas, Sophie Hawkesworth, Richard J Silverwood, Kiran Nanchahal, Chris Grundy, Ben Armstrong, Juan Pablo Casas, Richard W Morris, Paul Wilkinson, Karen Lock
The role of the neighbourhood environment in influencing health behaviours continues to be an important topic in public health research and policy. Foot-based street audits, virtual street audits and secondary data sources are widespread data collection methods used to objectively measure the built environment in environment-health association studies. We compared these three methods using data collected in a nationally representative epidemiological study in 17 British towns to inform future development of research tools...
November 27, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901600/the-role-of-the-built-environment-how-decentralized-nurse-stations-shape-communication-patient-care-processes-and-patient-outcomes
#11
Kevin Real, Shoshana H Bardach, David R Bardach
Increasingly, health communication scholars are attending to how hospital built environments shape communication, patient care processes, and patient outcomes. This multimethod study was conducted on two floors of a newly designed urban hospital. Nine focus groups interviews were conducted with 35 health care professionals from 10 provider groups. Seven of the groups were homogeneous by profession or level: nursing (three groups), nurse managers (two groups), and one group each of nurse care technicians ("techs") and physicians...
November 30, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898023/older-adults-outdoor-walking-inequalities-in-neighbourhood-safety-pedestrian-infrastructure-and-aesthetics
#12
Razieh Zandieh, Javier Martinez, Johannes Flacke, Phil Jones, Martin van Maarseveen
Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults' outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults' outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896664/molecular-interactions-structural-transitions-and-alterations-in-soxb-protein-due-to-soxyz-interaction-from-two-distinct-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-an-in-silico-approach-towards-the-thiosulfate-oxidation-and-recycling-of-soxy-protein
#13
Sujay Ray, Semanti Ghosh, Angshuman Bagchi
Microbial oxidation-reduction reactions utilizing the environmental thiosulfate ions and mediated mainly by the sox operon are very much essential to maintain the sulfur balance in the environment. Majority of the previously documented wet laboratory studies show genetics behind the functionality of Sox proteins encoded by the sox operon. However, the molecular details of the involvements of the essential SoxB, SoxY and SoxZ proteins in the beta-proteobacteria have not yet been elucidated. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze the interaction profiles of the aforementioned SoxB, SoxY and SoxZ proteins to predict their roles in biological sulfur oxidation process...
November 28, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896464/a-hypergravity-environment-increases-chloroplast-size-photosynthesis-and-plant-growth-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#14
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895256/a-sr2-metal-organic-framework-with-high-chemical-stability-synthesis-crystal-structure-and-photoluminescence-property
#15
Yan-Yuan Jia, Xiao-Ting Liu, Wen-He Wang, Li-Zhu Zhang, Ying-Hui Zhang, Xian-He Bu
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are typically built by assembly of metal centres and organic linkers, and have emerged as promising crystalline materials in a variety of fields. However, the stability of MOFs is a key limitation for their practical applications. Herein, we report a novel Sr 2+: -MOF [Sr4(Tdada)2(H2O)3(DMF)2] (denoted as NKU- 105: , NKU = Nankai University; H4Tdada = 5,5'-((thiophene-2,5-dicar bonyl)bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid; DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) featuring an open square channel of about 6 Å along the c-axis...
January 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881173/walkability-and-walking-for-transport-characterizing-the-built-environment-using-space-syntax
#16
Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Ester Cerin, Billie Giles-Corti, Takemi Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be associated with walking behavior. However, the availability of geographical data necessary to construct it remains a limitation. Building on the concept of space syntax, we propose an alternative walkability index, space syntax walkability (SSW). This study examined associations of the full walkability index and SSW with walking for transport (WT). METHODS: Data were collected in 2003-2004 from 2544 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCD) in Adelaide, Australia...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880835/built-environment-selected-risk-factors-and-major-cardiovascular-disease-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#17
Pasmore Malambo, Andre P Kengne, Anniza De Villiers, Estelle V Lambert, Thandi Puoane
INTRODUCTION: Built environment attributes have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, identifying built environment attributes that are associated with CVD risk is relevant for facilitating effective public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of literature to examine the influence of built environmental attributes on CVD risks. DATA SOURCE: Multiple database searches including Science direct, CINAHL, Masterfile Premier, EBSCO and manual scan of reference lists were conducted...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878078/cool-habitats-support-darker-and-bigger-butterflies-in-australian-tropical-forests
#18
Shuang Xing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Chin Cheung Tang, Evan J Pickett, Wenda Cheng, Sasha E Greenspan, Stephen E Williams, Brett R Scheffers
Morphology mediates the relationship between an organism's body temperature and its environment. Dark organisms, for example, tend to absorb heat more quickly than lighter individuals, which could influence their responses to temperature. Therefore, temperature-related traits such as morphology may affect patterns of species abundance, richness, and community assembly across a broad range of spatial scales. In this study, we examined variation in color lightness and body size within butterfly communities across hot and cool habitats in the tropical woodland-rainforest ecosystems of northeast Queensland, Australia...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876480/noise-dosimetry-for-tactical-environments
#19
Christopher J Smalt, Joe Lacirignola, Shakti K Davis, Paul T Calamia, Paula P Collins
Noise exposure and the subsequent hearing loss are well documented aspects of military life. Numerous studies have indicated high rates of noise-induced hearing injury (NIHI) in active-duty service men and women, and recent statistics from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs indicate a population of veterans with hearing loss that is growing at an increasing rate. In an effort to minimize hearing loss, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) updated its Hearing Conservation Program in 2010, and also has recently revised the DoD Design Criteria Standard Noise Limits (MIL-STD-1474E) which defines allowable noise levels in the design of all military acquisitions including weapons and vehicles...
November 20, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876038/parental-perception-of-built-environment-characteristics-and-built-environment-use-among-latino-families-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
William J Heerman, Stephanie J Mitchell, Jessica Thompson, Nina C Martin, Evan C Sommer, Margaret van Bakergem, Julie Lounds Taylor, Maciej S Buchowski, Shari L Barkin
BACKGROUND: Perception of undesirable features may inhibit built environment use for physical activity among underserved families with children at risk for obesity. METHODS: To examine the association of perceived availability, condition, and safety of the built environment with its self-reported use for physical activity, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis on baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Adjusted Poisson regression was used to test the association between the primary independent variables (perceived availability, physical condition, and safety) with the primary outcome of self-reported use of built environment structures...
November 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
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