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Built Environment

Haseong Kim, Gui Hwan Han, Yaoyao Fu, Jongsik Gam, Seung Goo Lee
Recent improvements in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors have enabled their use to detect various small molecules including ions and amino acids. However, the innate weak signal intensity of FRET sensors is a major challenge that prevents their application in various fields and makes the use of expensive, high-end fluorometers necessary. Previously, we built a cost-effective, high-performance FRET analyzer that can specifically measure the ratio of two emission wavelength bands (530 and 480 nm) to achieve high detection sensitivity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gavin R McCormack, Taryn M Graham, Hayley Christian, Ann M Toohey, Melanie J Rock
OBJECTIVES: Our study objectives were to: 1) estimate differences in perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment among non-dog-owners, owners who walk their dogs (dog-walkers) and owners who do not walk their dogs (non-dog-walkers), and 2) estimate associations between perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment and dog-walking frequency. METHOD: A random cross-section of Calgary adults completed telephone interviews during August-October 2007 (n = 2,199, response rate = 33...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Alastair I Ward, Jason K Finney, Sarah E Beatham, Richard J Delahay, Peter A Robertson, David P Cowan
Increasing urbanisation and growth of many wild animal populations can result in a greater frequency of human-wildlife conflicts. However, traditional lethal methods of wildlife control are becoming less favoured than non-lethal approaches, particularly when problems involve charismatic species in urban areas. Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) excavate subterranean burrow systems (setts), which can become large and complex. Larger setts within which breeding takes place and that are in constant use are known as main setts...
2016: PeerJ
Eric T Lofgren, Andrea M Egizi, Nina H Fefferman
The modern healthcare system involves complex interactions among microbes, patients, providers, and the built environment. It represents a unique and challenging setting for control of the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. We examine an extension of the perspectives and methods from ecology (and especially urban ecology) to address these unique issues, and we outline 3 examples: (1) viewing patients as individual microbial ecosystems; (2) the altered ecology of infectious diseases specifically within hospitals; and (3) ecosystem management perspectives for infection surveillance and control...
October 20, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Terri Peters, Stephen Verderber
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, architectural and allied designers, engineers, and healthcare facility administrators are being challenged to demonstrate success in adroitly identifying and contextualizing ever-shifting and expanding spheres of knowledge with respect to the role of energy conservation and carbon neutrality in healthcare treatment environments and their immediate exterior environs. AIM: This calls for making sense of an unprecedented volume of information on building energy usage and interdigitizing complex and at times contradictory goals with the daily requirements of building occupants...
October 17, 2016: HERD
Alexandra L Nowak, Carmen Giurgescu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to report findings of published studies of the relationships between poor-quality built environments and negative birth outcomes. METHOD: Quantitative studies measuring various aspects of the built environment including property damage, housing damage, physical disorder, physical incivilities, nuisance, vacancy, tenure, occupancy, and structural deterioration and their effects on birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight, and small for gestational age were identified using Scopus, PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO databases...
October 13, 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Jinho Shin
Arterial pulsation which had long been studied for estimation of blood pressure or mean blood pressure was replaced by the measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure using Korotkoff sound detected by stethoscope in the beginning of the previous century. In the meantime, vast of modern knowledge of human hypertension from epidemiology to randomized clinical trial had been built on the Korotkoff sound and stethoscope methodology. Hypertension is very special clinical entity in terms of the diagnosis is solely dependent on the manual blood pressure measurement by a physician or nurse...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ivy Shiue
There has been a growing interest in how the built environment affects health and well-being. Housing characteristics are associated with human health while environmental chemicals could have mediated the effects. However, it is unclear if and how residence duration might have a role in health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the associations among residence duration, common chronic diseases, and cognitive function in older adults in a national and population-based setting...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Candace I J Nykiforuk, Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Katelynn Crick, Jeffrey A Johnson
Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Alexandre Lebel, Pascale Morin, Éric Robitaille, Benoit Lalonde, Ramona Florina Fratu, Sherri Bisset
The purpose of the research was to explore the associations between the characteristics of schools' vicinity and the risk of sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in elementary students. Findings exposed an important variation in student's SSB consumption between schools. Schools with a lower socioeconomic status or in a densely built environment tend to have higher proportion of regular SSB drinkers. These characteristics of the school's vicinity partly explained the variation observed between them. We estimated that a student moving to a school with a higher proportion of SSB drinkers may increase his/her chances by 52% of becoming a daily consumer...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
M L Head, R J Fox, I Barber
Sexual cues, including extended phenotypes, are expected to be reliable indicators of male genetic quality and/or provide information on parental quality. However, the reliability of these cues may be dependent on stability of the environment, with heterogeneity affecting how selection acts on such traits. Here we test how environmental change mediates mate choice for multiple sexual traits, including an extended phenotype - the structure of male-built nests - in stickleback fish. First, we manipulated the dissolved oxygen (DO) content of water to create high or low DO environments in which male fish built nests...
October 17, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jack A Gilbert
It is now well accepted that our modern lifestyle has certain implications for our health (Schaub et al., ), mainly as a result of our willingness to remove ourselves from the biological diversity of our natural environments (Roduit et al., ), while still being drawn inextricably to interact with it (Kellert and Wilson, ). Much of our interaction with the biological world is shaped by our interaction with the microbiological world. The bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea and protists that comprise the microbiome of this planet, are also key to the development and normal functioning of our bodies...
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Charles DiMaggio, Joanne Brady, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) is a federally funded transportation program for facilitating physically active commuting to and from school in children through improvements of the built environment, such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and safe crossings. Although it is evident that SRTS programs increase walking and bicycling in school-age children, their impact on pedestrian and bicyclist injury has not been adequately examined. METHODS: We analyzed quarterly traffic crash data between January 2008 and June 2013 in Texas to assess the effect of the SRTS program implemented after 2009 on school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injuries...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Yong Yang
Recently, research on utilitarian walking has gained momentum due to its benefits on both health and the environment. However, our overall understanding of how built and social environments affect travel mode choice (walking or not) is still limited, and most existing frameworks on travel mode choice lack dynamic processes. After a review of several mainstream theories and a number of frameworks, we propose an integrated framework. The basic constructs in the travel mode choice function are utilities, constraints, attitudes, and habits...
September 2016: Journal of Transport & Health
Lan Wang, Xiaojing Zhao, Wangyue Xu, Jian Tang, Xiji Jiang
BACKGROUND: The density of particulate matter (PM) in mega-cities in China such as Beijing and Shanghai has exceeded basic standards for health in recent years. Human exposure to PMs has been identified as traceable and controllable factor among all complicated risk factors for lung cancer. While the improvement of air quality needs tremendous efforts and time, certain revision of PM's density might happen associated with the adjustment of built environment. It is also proved that urban built environment is directly relevant to respiratory disease...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Wenyu Liang, Sunan Huang, Silu Chen, Kok Kiong Tan
The disturbance observer is one of the useful tools for estimating the contact force between the subject body and the environment in robotic and mechatronic systems. This paper introduced a novel automatic office-based ear surgical device for the treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) under the guidance of force sensing information. Since the force sensing information must be reliable so as to ensure the safety of the device, a contact force estimation method based on the disturbance observer is proposed...
October 13, 2016: ISA Transactions
Shan Jiang, Stephen Verderber
OBJECTIVE: This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. BACKGROUND: Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature...
October 14, 2016: HERD
Dilip V Jeste, Dan G Blazer, Kathleen C Buckwalter, Keri-Leigh K Cassidy, Len Fishman, Lisa P Gwyther, Saul M Levin, Christopher Phillipson, Ramesh R Rao, Ellen Schmeding, William A Vega, Julie A Avanzino, Danielle K Glorioso, John Feather
Older adults consistently prefer aging in place, which requires a high level of community support and services that are currently lacking. With a rapidly aging population, the present infrastructure for healthcare will prove even more inadequate to meet seniors' physical and mental health needs. A paradigm shift away from the sole focus on delivery of interventions at an individual level to more prevention-focused, community-based approaches will become essential. Recent initiatives have been proposed to promote healthy lifestyles and preventive care to enable older adults to age in place...
July 28, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Matthew A Richards, Thomas J Lie, Juan Zhang, Stephen W Ragsdale, John A Leigh, Nathan D Price
: Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis occurs in multiple environments ranging from the intestinal tracts of animals to anaerobic sediments and hot springs. Energy conservation in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was long a mystery; only within the last decade, it was reported that net energy conservation for growth depends on electron bifurcation. In this work we focus on Methanococcus maripaludis, a well-studied hydrogenotrophic marine methanogen. To better understand hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and compare it with methylotrophic methanogenesis that utilizes oxidative phosphorylation rather than electron bifurcation, we have built iMR539, a genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for 539 of the 1722 protein-coding genes of M...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
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