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Built Environment

Chen Zhi-Hua, Zhu Yi-Sheng, Xue Zhi-Qiang, Li Xue-Bing, Ding Yi-Min, Bi Li-Jun, Gao Kai-Min, Zhang You
OBJECTIVE: To construct the Oncomelania hupensis snail monitoring system based on the Baidu Map. METHODS: The environmental basic information about historical snail environment and existing snail environment, etc. was collected with the monitoring data about different kinds of O. hupensis snails, and then the O. hupensis snail monitoring system was built. Geographic Information System (GIS) and the electronic fence technology and Application Program Interface (API) were applied to set up the electronic fence of the snail surveillance environments, and the electronic fence was connected to the database of the snail surveillance...
October 25, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
S Torresin, G Pernigotto, F Cappelletti, A Gasparella
The present paper reports the outcomes of a literature survey aimed at exploring how different environmental factors - i.e. acoustic, thermal, visual and air quality stimuli - interact in affecting building occupants' perception and performance. Recent laboratory studies have been collected and their methodological approaches reviewed in terms of experimental design, adopted exposures conditions, perception and performance assessment methods. Results have been summarized and compared to identify interaction patterns between environmental factors and possible practical implications for improving the design of both experimental studies and the built environment...
February 22, 2018: Indoor Air
Anirudra Parajuli, Mira Grönroos, Nathan Siter, Riikka Puhakka, Heli K Vari, Marja I Roslund, Ari Jumpponen, Noora Nurminen, Olli H Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Juho Rajaniemi, Aki Sinkkonen
Expanding urbanization is a major factor behind rapidly declining biodiversity. It has been proposed that in urbanized societies, the rarity of contact with diverse environmental microbiota negatively impacts immune function and ultimately increases the risk for allergies and other immune-mediated disorders. Surprisingly, the basic assumption that urbanization reduces exposure to environmental microbiota and its transfer indoors has rarely been examined. We investigated if the land use type around Finnish homes affects the diversity, richness, and abundance of bacterial communities indoors...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paul Jones
Sociological analysis has done much to illuminate the architectural contexts in which social life takes place. Research on care environments suggests that the built environment should not be understood as a passive backdrop to healthcare, but rather that care is conditioned by the architecture in which it happens. This article argues for the importance of going beyond the hospital walls to include the politics that underwrite the design and construction of hospital buildings. The article assesses the case of the yet-to-be-realised Liverpool Royal University Hospital, and the private finance initiative (PFI) funding that underpins the scheme, which is suggested as a salient 'external' context for understanding architecture's role in the provision of healthcare of many kinds for many years to come...
February 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Aeriel Belk, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, David O Carter, Aaron Lynne, Sibyl Bucheli, Rob Knight, Jessica L Metcalf
Death investigations often include an effort to establish the postmortem interval (PMI) in cases in which the time of death is uncertain. The postmortem interval can lead to the identification of the deceased and the validation of witness statements and suspect alibis. Recent research has demonstrated that microbes provide an accurate clock that starts at death and relies on ecological change in the microbial communities that normally inhabit a body and its surrounding environment. Here, we explore how to build the most robust Random Forest regression models for prediction of PMI by testing models built on different sample types (gravesoil, skin of the torso, skin of the head), gene markers (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS)), and taxonomic levels (sequence variants, species, genus, etc...
February 16, 2018: Genes
A E Ghenadenik, L Kakinami, A Van Hulst, M Henderson, T A Barnett
This paper examined prospective associations between built environment features assessed at baseline using direct audits and adiposity outcomes two years later in Montreal, Canada. Data stem from the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth study of 630 children aged 8-10 years with a parental history of obesity. Baseline measurements took place between 2005 and 2008. Follow-up took place between 2008 and 2011. Built environment features were assessed at baseline in up to 10 contiguous street segments around participants' residential addresses using on-site audits...
February 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Takashi Akazawa, Masahiro Ogawa, Shigeru Hayakawa, Misato Hirata, Takahiro Niwa
Chicken egg white protein ovalbumin (OVA) undergoes a conversion to a more thermostable form by alkali treatment, which is assumed to be involved in the physiological functions of OVA. Ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX), a chicken egg white protein, has 77% sequence similarity to OVA and binds to heparin. In this study, structure characteristics and heparin-binding affinity of alkali-treated OVAX were investigated. Cation-exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose resin showed that alkali treatment (pH 10, 55°C) of OVAX induces the occurrence of a distinct OVAX form with a less positive-charge (acidic OVAX)...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Marion Porcherie, Mathilde Lejeune, Marion Gaudel, Jeanine Pommier, Emmanuelle Faure, Zoé Heritage, Stéphane Rican, Jean Simos, Nicola Luca Cantoreggi, Anne Roué Le Gall, Linda Cambon, Jean-Philippe Regnaux
INTRODUCTION: Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Rich Masters, Catherine Capio, Jamie Poolton, Liis Uiga
BACKGROUND: Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs...
February 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
Yuqiang Liu, Na Sun, Jiawei Liu, Zhen Wen, Xuhui Sun, Shuit-Tong Lee, Baoquan Sun
Solar cells, as promising devices for converting light into electricity, dramatically reduce its performance in rainy day. Here, an energy harvesting structure that integrates a solar cell and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) device is built to realize power generation from both sunlight and raindrop. A heterojunction silicon (Si) solar cell is integrated with a TENG by a mutual electrode of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film. Regarding to the solar cell, imprinted PEDOT:PSS is used to reduce the light reflection, which leads to an enhanced short current density...
February 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Brett M Seymoure
Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1) anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution); and (2) deforestation and the built environment...
February 12, 2018: Insects
Juan Aznar-Poveda, Jose Antonio Lopez-Pastor, Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, Joan Garcia-Haro, Toribio Fernández Otero
Traditionally, electrochemical procedures aimed at determining substance concentrations have required a costly and cumbersome laboratory environment. Specialized equipment and personnel obtain precise results under complex and time-consuming settings. Innovative electrochemical-based sensors are emerging to alleviate this difficulty. However, they are generally scarce, proprietary hardware and/or software, and focused only on measuring a restricted range of substances. In this paper, we propose a portable, flexible, low-cost system, built from commercial off-the-shelf components and easily controlled, using open-source software...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
Pengxiang Zhao, Mei-Po Kwan, Suhong Zhou
Traditionally, static units of analysis such as administrative units are used when studying obesity. However, using these fixed contextual units ignores environmental influences experienced by individuals in areas beyond their residential neighborhood and may render the results unreliable. This problem has been articulated as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). This study investigates the UGCoP through exploring the relationships between the built environment and obesity based on individuals' activity space...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kathryn E Schertz, Sonya Sachdeva, Omid Kardan, Hiroki P Kotabe, Kathleen L Wolf, Marc G Berman
Prior research has shown that the physical characteristics of one's environment have wide ranging effects on affect and cognition. Other research has demonstrated that one's thoughts have impacts on mood and behavior, and in this three-part research program we investigated how physical features of the environment can alter thought content. In one study, we analyzed thousands of journal entries written by park visitors to examine how low-level and semantic visual features of the parks correlate with different thought topics...
February 9, 2018: Cognition
James F Sallis, Terry L Conway, Kelli L Cain, Jordan A Carlson, Lawrence D Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz, James E Chapman, Brian E Saelens
INTRODUCTION: The study examined the association of neighborhood walkability to multiple activity-related outcomes and BMI among adolescents and evaluated socioeconomic status as an effect modifier. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, with adolescents recruited from neighborhoods that met criteria for a 2 × 2 matrix defined by high/low GIS-defined walkability and high/low median income. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n = 928) were recruited from selected neighborhoods in Maryland and King County, Washington regions in 2009-2011...
February 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Vural Özdemir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Carlos Siordia, Lori A Hoepner, Allen N Lewis
The United States (US) federal government allocates hundreds of billions of dollars to provide resources to Americans with disabilities, older adults, and the poor. The American Community Survey (ACS) influences the distribution of those resources. The specific aim of the project is to introduce health researchers to Public Use Microdata Sample file from 2009 to 2011. The overall goal of our paper is to promote the use of ACS data relevant to disability status. This study provides prevalence estimates of three disability related items for the population at or over the age of 15 years who reside in one of the continental states...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Hui-Ying Tung, Evan Li, Cameron Landers, An Nguyen, Farrah Kheradmand, J Morgan Knight, David B Corry
Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that defies a unanimously acceptable definition, but is generally recognized through its highly characteristic clinical expression of dyspnea and cough accompanied by clinical data that document reversible or exaggerated airway constriction and obstruction. The generally rising prevalence of asthma in highly industrialized societies despite significant therapeutic advances suggests that the fundamental cause(s) of asthma remain poorly understood. Detailed analyses of both the indoor (built) and outdoor environments continue to support the concept that not only inhaled particulates, especially carbon-based particulate pollution, pollens, and fungal elements, but also many noxious gases and chemicals, especially biologically derived byproducts such as proteinases, are essential to asthma pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Li'na Qiao, Sihua Qian, Yuhui Wang, Hengwei Lin
Pesticides play a critical role in improving crop yield in modern agriculture, but their residues significantly harm the environment and human health. Herein, a novel and simple colorimetric sensor array built on sulfuric acid assisted KMnO4 fading strategy has been developed for pesticides detection and discrimination. This sensor array is facilely fabricated by KMnO4 and sulfuric acid through simply adjusting their concentrations and ratios. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) demonstrates that the as-fabricated colorimetric sensor array has a high dimensionality, and shows excellent capability to recognize common kinds of pesticides from potential interferants...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Hamdi Lemamsha, Chris Papadopoulos, Gurch Randhawa
Background: There is a lack of research pertaining to the links between built environment attributes and obesity in adults in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In the Libyan context, no previous studies have been conducted to investigate this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighbourhood built environmental attributes and obesity among Libyan men and women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was also assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used for the population-based survey in Benghazi, Libya...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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