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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797792/specific-status-of-echinococcus-canadensis-cestoda-taeniidae-inferred-from-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-gene-sequences
#1
Tetsuya Yanagida, Antti Lavikainen, Eric P Hoberg, Sergey Konyaev, Akira Ito, Marcello Otake Sato, Vladimir A Zaikov, Kimberlee Beckmen, Minoru Nakao
The specific status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial lineages G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain) with sylvatic or semi-domestic cycles. There is an argument whether the mitochondrial lineages should be recognised as separate species which correspond to the biological or epidemiological aggregation. In the present study, the specific status of E...
August 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795321/nkg2d-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-disease-control-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-by-dasatinib
#2
Ryujiro Hara, Makoto Onizuka, Erika Matsusita, Eri Kikkawa, Yoshihiko Nakamura, Hiromichi Matsushita, Daisuke Ohgiya, Hiromichi Murayama, Shinichiro Machida, Ken Ohmachi, Yukari Shirasugi, Yoshiaki Ogawa, Hiroshi Kawada, Kiyoshi Ando
A recent study reported that treatment-free remission (TFR) of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after dasatinib (Das) treatment was significantly associated with natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in the peripheral blood. However, biomarkers to predict lymphocytosis or successful TFR are not well characterized. In order to clarify individual differences in NK cell responses among patients treated with Das, we retrospectively analyzed the association between polymorphisms in the natural killer group 2D receptor [NKG2D; also known as killer cell lectin like receptor K1 (KLRK1)] gene and clinical outcomes in 31 patients treated with Das as first-line treatment for CML...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794482/the-white-gene-controls-copulation-success-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Chengfeng Xiao, Shuang Qiu, R Meldrum Robertson
Characteristics of male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster have been well-described, but the genetic basis of male-female copulation is largely unknown. Here we show that the white (w) gene, a classical gene for eye color, is associated with copulation success. 82.5% of wild-type Canton-S flies copulated within 60 minutes in circular arenas, whereas few white-eyed mutants mated successfully. The w (+) allele exchanged to the X chromosome or duplicated to the Y chromosome in the white-eyed genetic background rescued the defect of copulation success...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790327/natural-history-of-the-narrow-endemics-ipomoea-cavalcantei-and-i-marabaensis-from-amazon-canga-savannahs
#4
Elena Babiychuk, Sergei Kushnir, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Mariana Costa Dias, Nelson Carvalho-Filho, Gisele Lopes Nunes, Jorge Filipe Dos Santos, Lourival Tyski, Delmo Fonseca da Silva, Alexandre Castilho, Vera Lucia Imperatriz Fonseca, Guilherme Oliveira
Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790316/a-plasmodium-yoelii-hect-like-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-regulates-parasite-growth-and-virulence
#5
Sethu C Nair, Ruixue Xu, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat, Jian Wu, Yanwei Qi, Martine Zilversmit, Sundar Ganesan, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Richard T Eastman, Marlene S Orandle, John C Tan, Timothy G Myers, Shengfa Liu, Carole A Long, Jian Li, Xin-Zhuan Su
Infection of mice with strains of Plasmodium yoelii parasites can result in different pathology, but molecular mechanisms to explain this variation are unclear. Here we show that a P. yoelii gene encoding a HECT-like E3 ubiquitin ligase (Pyheul) influences parasitemia and host mortality. We genetically cross two lethal parasites with distinct disease phenotypes, and identify 43 genetically diverse progeny by typing with microsatellites and 9230 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. A genome-wide quantitative trait loci scan links parasite growth and host mortality to two major loci on chromosomes 1 and 7 with LOD (logarithm of the odds) scores = 6...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790145/inter-chromosomal-transfer-of-immune-regulation-during-infection-of-barley-with-the-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#6
Priyanka Surana, Ruo Xu, Gregory Fuerst, Antony Ve Chapman, Dan Nettleton, Roger P Wise
Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes 2HL and 1HS...
August 8, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769970/genetic-diversity-within-a-global-panel-of-durum-wheat-triticum-durum-landraces-and-modern-germplasm-reveals-the-history-of-alleles-exchange
#7
Hafssa Kabbaj, Amadou T Sall, Ayed Al-Abdallat, Mulatu Geleta, Ahmed Amri, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Bouchra Belkadi, Rodomiro Ortiz, Filippo M Bassi
Durum wheat is the 10th most important crop in the world, and its use traces back to the origin of agriculture. Unfortunately, in the last century only part of the genetic diversity available for this species has been captured in modern varieties through breeding. Here, the population structure and genetic diversity shared among elites and landraces collected from 32 countries was investigated. A total of 370 entries were genotyped with Axiom 35K array to identify 8,173 segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769912/xanthomonas-citri-minc-oscillates-from-pole-to-pole-to-ensure-proper-cell-division-and-shape
#8
André S G Lorenzoni, Giordanni C Dantas, Tessa Bergsma, Henrique Ferreira, Dirk-Jan Scheffers
Xanthomonas citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker, a disease that affects citrus crops and causes economic impact worldwide. To further characterize cell division in this plant pathogen, we investigated the role of the protein MinC in cell division, chromosome segregation, and peptidoglycan incorporation by deleting the gene minC using allele exchange. Xac with minC deleted exhibited the classic Δmin phenotype observed in other bacteria deleted for min components: minicells and short filamentation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768685/genetic-dissection-of-early-endosomal-recycling-highlights-a-torc1-independent-role-for-rag-gtpases
#9
Chris MacDonald, Robert C Piper
Endocytosed cell surface membrane proteins rely on recycling pathways for their return to the plasma membrane. Although endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling is critical for many cellular processes, much of the required machinery is unknown. We discovered that yeast has a recycling route from endosomes to the cell surface that functions efficiently after inactivation of the sec7-1 allele of Sec7, which controls transit through the Golgi. A genetic screen based on an engineered synthetic reporter that exclusively follows this pathway revealed that recycling was subject to metabolic control through the Rag GTPases Gtr1 and Gtr2, which work downstream of the exchange factor Vam6...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744965/expression-of-brpa-in-streptococcus-mutans-is-regulated-by-fnr-box-mediated-repression
#10
Sumei Liao, Arpan De, Tatyana Thompson, Lynne Chapman, Jacob P Bitoun, Xin Yao, Qingzhao Yu, Fangrui Ma, Zezhang T Wen
Our previous studies showed that brpA in S. mutans, which encodes a member of the LytR-CpsA-Psr family of proteins, can be cotranscribed with brpB upstream as a bicistronic operon, while the intergenic region also has strong promoter activity. To elucidate how brpA expression is regulated, the promoter regions were analyzed using PCR-based deletions and site-directed mutagenesis and a promoterless luciferase gene as a reporter. Allelic exchange mutagenesis was also used to examine genes encoding putative trans-acting factors, and the impact of such mutations on brpA expression was analyzed by reporter assays...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743812/horizontal-gene-transfer-of-functional-type-vi-killing-genes-by-natural-transformation
#11
Jacob Thomas, Samit S Watve, William C Ratcliff, Brian K Hammer
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can have profound effects on bacterial evolution by allowing individuals to rapidly acquire adaptive traits that shape their strategies for competition. One strategy for intermicrobial antagonism often used by Proteobacteria is the genetically encoded contact-dependent type VI secretion system (T6SS), a weapon used to kill heteroclonal neighbors by direct injection of toxic effectors. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that Vibrio cholerae can acquire new T6SS effector genes via horizontal transfer and utilize them to kill neighboring cells...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743762/mitotic-gene-conversion-tracts-associated-with-repair-of-a-defined-double-strand-break-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Yee Fang Hum, Sue Jinks-Robertson
Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes leads to the uncovering of recessive alleles through loss of heterozygosity. In the current study, a defined double-strand break was used to initiate reciprocal loss of heterozygosity between diverged homologs of chromosome IV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae These events resulted from the repair of two broken chromatids, one of which was repaired as a crossover and the other as a noncrossover. Associated gene conversion tracts resulting from the donor-directed repair of mismatches formed during strand exchange (heteroduplex DNA) were mapped using microarrays...
July 25, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728588/genetic-structure-and-gene-flow-of-the-flea-xenopsylla-cheopis-in-madagascar-and-mayotte
#13
Mireille Harimalala, Sandra Telfer, Hélène Delatte, Phillip C Watts, Adélaïde Miarinjara, Tojo Rindra Ramihangihajason, Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sébastien Boyer
BACKGROUND: The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. RESULTS: We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719641/inversion-of-the-imprinting-control-region-of-the-peg3-domain
#14
Joomyeong Kim, Hongzhi He, Hana Kim
The imprinting of the mouse Peg3 domain is controlled through a 4-kb genomic region encompassing the bidirectional promoter and 1st exons of Peg3 and Usp29. In the current study, this ICR was inverted to test its orientation dependency for the transcriptional and imprinting control of the Peg3 domain. The inversion resulted in the exchange of promoters and 1st exons between Peg3 and Usp29. Paternal transmission of this inversion caused 10-fold down-regulation of Peg3 and 2-fold up-regulation of Usp29 in neonatal heads, consistent with its original promoter strength in each direction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692664/a-functional-approach-to-understanding-the-role-of-nckx5-in-xenopus-pigmentation
#15
Ruth M Williams, Robert J Winkfein, Rebecca S Ginger, Martin R Green, Paul P Schnetkamp, Grant N Wheeler
NCKX5 is an ion exchanger expressed mostly in pigment cells; however, the functional role for this protein in melanogenesis is not clear. A variant allele of SLC24A5, the gene encoding NCKX5, has been shown to correlate with lighter skin pigmentation in humans, indicating a key role for SLC24A5 in determining human skin colour. SLC24A5 expression has been found to be elevated in melanoma. Knockdown analyses have shown SLC24A5 to be important for pigmentation, but to date the function of this ion exchanger in melanogenesis has not been fully established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687645/deficiency-of-rgpg-causes-major-defects-in-cell-division-and-biofilm-formation-and-deficiency-of-lcp-proteins-leads-to-accumulation-of-cell-wall-antigens-in-culture-medium-by-streptococcus-mutans
#16
Arpan De, Sumei Liao, Jacob P Bitoun, Randy Roth, Wandy L Beatty, Hui Wu, Zezhang T Wen
S. mutans is known to possess rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP), a major cell wall antigen. S. mutans strains deficient of rgpG, encoding the first enzyme of the RGP biosynthesis pathway, were constructed by allelic exchange. The rgpG deficiency had no effect on growth rate, but caused major defects in cell division and altered cell morphology. Unlike the coccoid wild-type, the rgpG mutant existed primarily in chains of swollen, squarish dividing cells. Deficiency of rgpG also causes significant reduction in biofilm formation (P<0...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684706/biomphalaria-glabrata-metallothionein-lacking-metal-specificity-of-the-protein-and-missing-gene-upregulation-suggest-metal-sequestration-by-exchange-instead-of-through-selective-binding
#17
Michael Niederwanger, Sara Calatayud, Oliver Zerbe, Sílvia Atrian, Ricard Albalat, Mercè Capdevila, Òscar Palacios, Reinhard Dallinger
The wild-type metallothionein (MT) of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata and a natural allelic mutant of it in which a lysine residue was replaced by an asparagine residue, were recombinantly expressed and analyzed for their metal-binding features with respect to Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu⁺, applying spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric methods. In addition, the upregulation of the Biomphalaria glabrataMT gene was assessed by quantitative real-time detection PCR. The two recombinant proteins revealed to be very similar in most of their metal binding features...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677370/neuronal-vacuolation-and-spinocerebellar-degeneration-associated-with-altered-neurotransmission
#18
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou
<i>Inherited neurodegenerative disorders are debilitating diseases that occur across different species, such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), and many are caused by mutations in the same genes as corresponding human conditions. In the present study, we report an inherited neurodegenerative condition, termed 'neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration' (NVSD) which affects neonatal or young dogs, mainly Rottweilers, which recently has been linked with the homozygosity for the RAB3GAP1:c...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660361/establishment-of-a-markerless-gene-deletion-system-in-chromohalobacter-salexigens-dsm-3043
#19
Ya-Hui Shao, Li-Zhong Guo, Hao Yu, Bai-Suo Zhao, Wei-Dong Lu
Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM 3043 can grow over a wide range of salinity, which makes it as an excellent model organism for understanding the mechanism of prokaryotic osmoregulation. Functional analysis of C. salexigens genes is an essential way to reveal their roles in cellular osmoregulation. However, the lack of an effective markerless gene deletion system has prevented construction of multiple gene deletion mutants for the members in the genus. Here, we report the development of a markerless gene deletion system in C...
June 28, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659481/hepatitis-c-virus-strain-dependent-usage-of-apolipoprotein-e-modulates-assembly-efficiency-and-specific-infectivity-of-secreted-virions
#20
Romy Weller, Kathrin Hueging, Richard J P Brown, Daniel Todt, Sebastian Joecks, Florian W R Vondran, Thomas Pietschmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is extraordinarily diverse and uses entry factors in a strain-specific manner. Virus particles associate with lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is critical for HCV assembly and infectivity. However, whether ApoE-dependency is common to all HCV genotypes remains unknown. Therefore, we compared the role of ApoE utilizing ten virus strains from genotypes 1 through 7. ApoA and ApoC also support HCV assembly, so they may contribute to virus production in a strain-dependent fashion...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
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