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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931869/a-genetic-overview-of-atlantic-coastal-populations-from-europe-and-north-west-africa-based-on-a-17-x-str-panel
#1
Endika Prieto-Fernández, Ana Díaz-de Usera, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Faiza Chbel, Sellama Nadifi, Karen Rouault, Claude Férec, Orla Hardiman, Fátima Pinheiro, Marian M de Pancorbo
The forensic use of X-STRs requires the creation of allele and haplotype frequency databases in the populations where they are going to be used. Recently, an updated Spanish allele and haplotype frequency database for the new 17 X-STR panel has been created, being the only database available up to now for this new multiplex. In order to broaden the forensic applicability of the 17 X-STR panel, 513 individuals from four different populations located on the Atlantic Coast of Europe and North-West Africa have been studied, i...
November 30, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907066/b-cell-based-seamless-engineering-of-antibody-fc-domains
#2
Koji Hashimoto, Kohei Kurosawa, Akiho Murayama, Hidetaka Seo, Kunihiro Ohta
Engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enables us to obtain mAbs with additional functions. In particular, modifications in antibody's Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region can provide multiple benefits such as added toxicity by drug conjugation, higher affinity to Fc receptors on immunocytes, or the addition of functional modules. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies requires multiple laborious bioengineering steps. We previously developed a technology that enables rapid in vitro screening and isolation of specific mAb-expressing cells from the libraries constructed with chicken B-cell line DT40 (referred to as the 'ADLib system')...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884809/construction-of-a-streptococcus-agalactiae-phob-mutant-and-evaluation-of-its-potential-as-an-attenuated-modified-live-vaccine-in-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus
#3
Xiaohui Cai, Bei Wang, Yinhui Peng, Yuan Li, Yishan Lu, Yucong Huang, Jichang Jian, Zaohe Wu
Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive pathogen that can survive inside professional phagocytes and nonphagocytic cells to cause septicemia and meningoencephalitis in freshwater and marine fish. However, vaccines based on extracellular products (ECP) and formalin-killed whole S. agalactiae cells, as well as subunit vaccine are unable to protect fish from infection by variant serotypes S. agalactiae. The search for live attenuated vaccine with highly conserved and virulent-related genes is essential for producing a vaccine to help understand and control streptococcosis In this study, the phoB gene was cloned from pathogenic S...
November 21, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879314/genetic-variation-in-the-slc8a1-calcium-signaling-pathway-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-kawasaki-disease-and-coronary-artery-abnormalities
#4
Chisato Shimizu, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Victoria J Wright, Jihoon Kim, Martin P Alphonse, James C Perry, Rolando Cimaz, David Burgner, Nagib Dahdah, Long T Hoang, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Andrea Salgado, Adriana H Tremoulet, Sonia Davila, Taco W Kuijpers, Martin L Hibberd, Todd A Johnson, Atsushi Takahashi, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Michiaki Kubo, Toshihiro Tanaka, Yoshihiro Onouchi, Rae S M Yeung, Lachlan J M Coin, Michael Levin, Jane C Burns
BACKGROUND: -Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute pediatric vasculitis in which host genetics influence both susceptibility to KD and the formation of coronary artery aneurysms. Variants discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage studies only partially explain the influence of genetics on KD susceptibility. METHODS AND RESULTS: -To search for additional functional genetic variation, we performed pathway and gene stability analysis on a GWAS dataset...
November 21, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836845/development-of-a-high-efficiency-transformation-method-and-implementation-of-rational-metabolic-engineering-for-the-industrial-butanol-hyper-producer-clostridium-saccharoperbutylacetonicum-strain-n1-4
#5
Nicolaus A Herman, Jeffrey Li, Ripika Bedi, Barbara Turchi, Xiaoji Liu, Michael J Miller, Wenjun Zhang
: While a majority of academic studies concerning acetone, butanol, ethanol (ABE)-production by Clostridium have focused on C. acetobutylicum, other members of this genus have proven to be effective industrial workhorses despite the inability to perform genetic manipulations on many of these strains. To further improve the industrial performance of these strains in areas such as substrate usage, solvent production, and end-product versatility, transformation methods and genetic tools are needed to overcome the genetic intractability displayed by these species...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833122/re-visiting-the-protamine-2-locus-deletion-but-not-haploinsufficiency-renders-male-mice-infertile
#6
Simon Schneider, Melanie Balbach, Jan F Jikeli, Daniela Fietz, Daniel Nettersheim, Sina Jostes, Rovenna Schmidt, Monika Kressin, Martin Bergmann, Dagmar Wachten, Klaus Steger, Hubert Schorle
Protamines are arginine-rich DNA-binding proteins that replace histones in elongating spermatids. This leads to hypercondensation of chromatin and ensures physiological sperm morphology, thereby protecting DNA integrity. In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio. In humans, alterations of this PRM1/PRM2 ratio is associated with subfertility. By applying CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene-editing in oocytes, we established Prm2-deficient mice...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827392/mhc-class-ii-complexes-sample-intermediate-states-along-the-peptide-exchange-pathway
#7
Marek Wieczorek, Jana Sticht, Sebastian Stolzenberg, Sebastian Günther, Christoph Wehmeyer, Zeina El Habre, Miguel Álvaro-Benito, Frank Noé, Christian Freund
The presentation of peptide-MHCII complexes (pMHCIIs) for surveillance by T cells is a well-known immunological concept in vertebrates, yet the conformational dynamics of antigen exchange remain elusive. By combining NMR-detected H/D exchange with Markov modelling analysis of an aggregate of 275 microseconds molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that a stable pMHCII spontaneously samples intermediate conformations relevant for peptide exchange. More specifically, we observe two major peptide exchange pathways: the kinetic stability of a pMHCII's ground state defines its propensity for intrinsic peptide exchange, while the population of a rare, intermediate conformation correlates with the propensity of the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827008/homologous-recombination-and-xylella-fastidiosa-host-pathogen-associations-in-south-america
#8
Helvecio Coletta-Filho, Carolina Francisco, Joao Lopes, Christiane Muller, Rodrigo Almeida
Homologous recombination impacts the evolution of bacteria such as Xylella fastidiosa, a naturally competent plant pathogen that requires insect vectors for dispersal. This bacterial species is taxonomically divided into subspecies, with phylogenetic clusters within subspecies that are host specific. One subspecies, pauca, is primarily limited to South America, with the exception of recently reported strains in Europe and Costa Rica. Despite the economic importance of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in South America, little is known about its genetic diversity...
November 9, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818890/genetic-diversity-and-population-differentiation-of-small-giant-clam-tridacna-maxima-in-comoros-islands-assessed-by-microsatellite-markers
#9
Nadjim Ahmed Mohamed, Qian Yu, Mohamed Ibrahim Chanfi, Yangping Li, Shi Wang, Xiaoting Huang, Zhenmin Bao
Small giant clam, Tridacna maxima, widely distributed from French Polynesia to East Africa, has faced population declines due to over-exploitation. Comoros islands are an important biogeographic region due to potential richness of marine species, but no relevant information is available. In order to facilitate devising effective conservation management plan for T. maxima, nine microsatellite markers were used to survey genetic diversity and population differentiation of 72 specimens collected from three Comoros islands, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817190/high-frequency-targeted-mutagenesis-in-pseudomonas-stutzeri-using-a-vector-free-allele-exchange-protocol
#10
Ahmed E Gomaa, Zhiping Deng, Zhimin Yang, Liguo Shang, Yuhua Zhan, Wei Lu, Min Lin, Yongliang Yan
The complexity of the bacterial recombination system is a barrier for the construction of bacterial mutants for the further functional investigation of specific genes. Several protocols have been developed to inactivate genes from the genus Pseudomonas. Those protocols are complicated and time-consuming and mostly do not enable easy construction of multiple knock-ins/outs. The current study describes a single and double crossover-recombination system using an optimized Vector-Free Allele Exchange (VFAE) protocol for gene disruption and gene replacement in a single species of the family Pseudomonadaceae...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791990/a-meta-analytic-evaluation-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-cetp-c-629a-polymorphism-in-association-with-coronary-heart-disease-risk-and-lipid-changes
#11
Shouwei Lin, Ruozhu Dai, Rong Lin
Lipid metabolism plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, a major cause for coronary heart disease (CHD). Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is an important glycoprotein involved in lipid metabolism by transferring cholesteryl esters to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in exchange for triglycerides. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association of CETP C-629A polymorphism with CHD risk and lipid changes. Four public databases were searched, and data from 17 qualified articles were extracted in duplicate and analyzed by STATA software...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767102/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-kidney-anion-exchanger-1-gene-is-associated-with-incomplete-type-1-renal-tubular-acidosis
#12
Takumi Takeuchi, Mami Hattori-Kato, Yumiko Okuno, Atsushi Kanatani, Masayoshi Zaitsu, Koji Mikami
Various conditions including distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can induce stone formation in the kidney. dRTA is characterized by an impairment of urine acidification in the distal nephron. dRTA is caused by variations in genes functioning in intercalated cells including SLC4A1/AE1/Band3 transcribing two kinds of mRNAs encoding the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger in erythrocytes and that expressed in α-intercalated cells (kAE1). With the acid-loading test, 25% of urolithiasis patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757703/staphylococcus-epidermidis-%C3%AE-sortase-a-strain-elicits-protective-immunity-against-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#13
Chao Tan, Jun Wang, Yifang Hu, Peng Wang, Lili Zou
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two of the most significant opportunistic human pathogens, causing medical implant and nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria contain surface proteins that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It has become apparent that they have evolved a number of unique mechanisms by which they can immobilise proteins on their surface. Notably, a conserved cell membrane-anchored enzyme, sortase A (SrtA), can catalyse the covalent attachment of precursor bacterial cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754303/lbos-02-04-blood-pressure-associated-polymorphisms-in-slc4a7%C3%A2-sodium-bicarbonate-co-transporter-nbcn1-are-linked-to-gene-expression-and-intracellular-ph-regulation
#14
Fu Liang Ng, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Shu Ye, Mark Caulfield
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 3p24.1 containing the SLC4A7 gene has been identified by genome-wide association studies as one of the genomic loci that influence blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes electroneutral Na/HCO3 co-transporter (NBCn1) which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) in various tissues including vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, with knockout models demonstrating an altered blood pressure phenotype. We conducted a functional study of blood pressure-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms at the SLC4A7 locus in primary cultures of human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713475/recent-origin-and-semi-permeable-species-boundaries-in-the-scleractinian-coral-genus-stylophora-from-the-red-sea
#15
Roberto Arrigoni, Francesca Benzoni, Tullia I Terraneo, Annalisa Caragnano, Michael L Berumen
Reticulate evolution, introgressive hybridisation, and phenotypic plasticity have been documented in scleractinian corals and have challenged our ability to interpret speciation processes. Stylophora is a key model system in coral biology and physiology, but genetic analyses have revealed that cryptic lineages concealed by morphological stasis exist in the Stylophora pistillata species complex. The Red Sea represents a hotspot for Stylophora biodiversity with six morphospecies described, two of which are regionally endemic...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700100/proteolysis-by-granzyme-b-enhances-presentation-of-autoantigenic-peptidylarginine-deiminase-4-epitopes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Erika Darrah, AeRyon Kim, Xi Zhang, Tatiana Boronina, Robert N Cole, Andrea Fava, Jon T Giles, Clifton O Bingham Iii, Michael J Chalmers, Patrick R Griffin, Scheherazade Sadegh-Nasseri, Antony Rosen
Proteolysis of autoantigens can alter normal MHC class II antigen processing and has been implicated in the induction of autoimmune diseases. Many autoantigens are substrates for the protease granzyme B (GrB), but the mechanistic significance of this association is unknown. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a frequent target of autoantibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a substrate for GrB. RA is strongly associated with specific MHC class II alleles, and elevated levels of GrB and PAD4 are found in the joints of RA patients, suggesting that GrB may alter presentation of PAD4 by RA-associated class II alleles...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696643/genomic-diversification-of-marine-cyanophages-into-stable-ecotypes
#17
Marcia F Marston, Jennifer B H Martiny
Understanding the structure and origin of natural bacteriophage genomic diversity is important in elucidating how bacteriophages influence the mortality rates and composition of their host communities. Here, we examine the genetic structure and genomic diversification of naturally occurring bacteriophages by analyzing the full genomic sequences of over 100 isolates of Synechococcus-infecting cyanophages collected over 15 years from coastal waters of Southern New England, USA. Our analysis revealed well-supported cyanophage genomic clusters (genome-wide average nucleotide identity (ANI) >93%) and subclusters (genome-wide ANI >98%) that remained consistent for a decade or longer...
November 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678523/x-chromosome-crossover-formation-and-genome-stability-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-independently-regulated-by-xnd-1
#18
T Brooke McClendon, Rana Mainpal, Francis Raj Gandhi Amrit, Michael W Krause, Arjumand Ghazi, Judith L Yanowitz
The germ line efficiently combats numerous genotoxic insults to ensure the high fidelity propagation of unaltered genomic information across generations. Yet, germ cells in most metazoans also intentionally create double-strand breaks (DSBs) to promote DNA exchange between parental chromosomes, a process known as crossing over. Homologous recombination is employed in the repair of both genotoxic lesions and programmed DSBs and many of the core DNA repair proteins function in both processes. In addition, DNA repair efficiency and crossover distribution are both influenced by local and global differences in chromatin structure, yet the interplay between chromatin structure, genome integrity, and meiotic fidelity is still poorly understand...
October 5, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672195/the-self-identity-protein-idsd-is-communicated-between-cells-in-swarming-proteus-mirabilis-colonies
#19
Christina C Saak, Karine A Gibbs
: Proteus mirabilis is a social bacterium that is capable of self (kin) versus nonself recognition. Swarming colonies of this bacterium expand outward on surfaces to centimeter-scale distances due to the collective motility of individual cells. Colonies of genetically distinct populations remain separate, while those of identical populations merge. Ids proteins are essential for this recognition behavior. Two of these proteins, IdsD and IdsE, encode identity information for each strain...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671831/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-trem-1-and-cytokine-gene-variants-in-complicated-and-uncomplicated-malaria
#20
Selorme Adukpo, Ben A Gyan, Michael F Ofori, Daniel Dodoo, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Christian G Meyer
BACKGROUND: Malaria elicits inflammatory responses, which, if not well regulated, may exert detrimental effects. When activated, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) enhances inflammatory responses by increasing secretion of IL-8 and other Th1 cytokines. In contrast, TREM-like transcript 1 (TREML-1) promotes anti-inflammatory responses by binding to TREM-1 ligands and competing with TREM-1, thus antagonizing TREM-1 activation to reduce inflammation. Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) also mediates anti-inflammatory responses by activating endothelial protein C (PC)...
December 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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