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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820180/osteogenesis-imperfecta
#1
REVIEW
Joan C Marini, Antonella Forlino, Hans Peter Bächinger, Nick J Bishop, Peter H Byers, Anne De Paepe, Francois Fassier, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Kenneth M Kozloff, Deborah Krakow, Kathleen Montpetit, Oliver Semler
Skeletal deformity and bone fragility are the hallmarks of the brittle bone dysplasia osteogenesis imperfecta. The diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta usually depends on family history and clinical presentation characterized by a fracture (or fractures) during the prenatal period, at birth or in early childhood; genetic tests can confirm diagnosis. Osteogenesis imperfecta is caused by dominant autosomal mutations in the type I collagen coding genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) in about 85% of individuals, affecting collagen quantity or structure...
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#2
Jaime Lynn Clark, Carla Gwen Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819459/exosomes-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-exert-therapeutic-effect-in-melanoma
#3
Liya Zhu, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Objective: Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from normal and tumor cells and are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids. Although previous studies have explored exosomes released from cancer cells, little is understood regarding the functions of exosomes released by normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells display rapid immunity to metastatic or hematological malignancies, and efforts have been undertaken to clinically exploit the antitumor properties of NK cells. However, the characteristics and functions of exosomes derived from NK cells remain unknown...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819314/a-symbiotic-like-biologically-driven-regenerating-fabric
#4
Neta Raab, Joe Davis, Rachel Spokoini-Stern, Moran Kopel, Ehud Banin, Ido Bachelet
Living organisms constantly maintain their structural and biochemical integrity by the critical means of response, healing, and regeneration. Inanimate objects, on the other hand, are axiomatically considered incapable of responding to damage and healing it, leading to the profound negative environmental impact of their continuous manufacturing and trashing. Objects with such biological properties would be a significant step towards sustainable technology. In this work we present a feasible strategy for driving regeneration in fabric by means of integration with a bacterial biofilm to obtain a symbiotic-like hybrid - the fabric provides structural framework to the biofilm and supports its growth, whereas the biofilm responds to mechanical tear by synthesizing a silk protein engineered to self-assemble upon secretion from the cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819169/cd206-m2-like-macrophages-regulate-systemic-glucose-metabolism-by-inhibiting-proliferation-of-adipocyte-progenitors
#5
Allah Nawaz, Aminuddin Aminuddin, Tomonobu Kado, Akiko Takikawa, Seiji Yamamoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yoshiko Igarashi, Masashi Ikutani, Yasuhiro Nishida, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Johji Imura, Masakiyo Sasahara, Yukiko Okazaki, Kohjiro Ueki, Tadashi Okamura, Kumpei Tokuyama, Akira Ando, Michihiro Matsumoto, Hisashi Mori, Takashi Nakagawa, Norihiko Kobayashi, Kumiko Saeki, Isao Usui, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Adipose tissue resident macrophages have important roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and regulate insulin sensitivity for example by secreting pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that M2-like macrophages in adipose tissue regulate systemic glucose homeostasis by inhibiting adipocyte progenitor proliferation via the CD206/TGFβ signaling pathway. We show that adipose tissue CD206(+) cells are primarily M2-like macrophages, and ablation of CD206(+) M2-like macrophages improves systemic insulin sensitivity, which was associated with an increased number of smaller adipocytes...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819167/artificial-dnaj-protein-for-protein-production-and-conformational-diseases
#6
Akinori Hishiya, Keizo Koya
For secreted proteins, proper protein folding is essential not only for biological function but also for secretion itself. Proteins with folding problems are trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are eventually degraded in the cytoplasm. In this study, we exploited co-expression of an artificial fusion protein, based on the sequence of a DnaJ protein, which could interact as co-chaperones in the Hsp70-based protein-folding system, with target recombinant secreted proteins to enhance their production and secretion...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819126/targeted-blockade-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-jak2-stat3-pathways-inhibits-lung-cancer-growth-promoted-by-bone-marrow-derived-myofibroblasts
#7
Jindong Shi, Jingjing Feng, Juan Xie, Zhoufang Mei, Tianyun Shi, Shengmei Wang, Yong Du, Gong Yang, Yougen Wu, Xiaojiao Cheng, Shanqun Li, Liming Zhu, Chung S Yang, Shuiping Tu, Zhijun Jie
To investigate the role of TGF-β and IL-6 in myofibroblasts (MFs) - lung cancer cell interactions, lung cancer cells (Lewis and CTM-167 cell lines) were stimulated by IL-6, MF-conditioned medium (MF-CM) or MFs, with or without TGF-β signaling inhibitor - SB431542 and/or JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor - JSI-124. MFs were stimulated by TGF-β, cancer cell-CM or cancer cells, with or without SB431542 and JSI-124. Cell proliferation, the levels of cytokines, expression of mRNA and protein were determined. Mice bearing xenograft tumors were intraperitoneally treated with SB431542 or JSI-124 and monitored for up to 45 days...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818949/in-situ-architecture-function-and-evolution-of-a-contractile-injection-system
#8
Désirée Böck, João M Medeiros, Han-Fei Tsao, Thomas Penz, Gregor L Weiss, Karin Aistleitner, Matthias Horn, Martin Pilhofer
Contractile injection systems mediate bacterial cell-cell interactions by a bacteriophage tail-like structure. In contrast to extracellular systems, the type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is defined by intracellular localization and attachment to the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we used cryo-focused ion beam milling, electron cryotomography, and functional assays to study a T6SS in Amoebophilus asiaticus The in situ architecture revealed three modules, including a contractile sheath-tube, a baseplate, and an anchor...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818620/secrets-from-immortal-worms-what-can-we-learn-about-biological-ageing-from-the-planarian-model-system
#9
REVIEW
Sounak Sahu, Anish Dattani, A Aziz Aboobaker
Understanding how some animals are immortal and avoid the ageing process is important. We currently know very little about how they achieve this. While research in genetic model systems has revealed the existence of conserved genetic pathways and molecular processes that affect longevity. Most of these studies have been performed in established model organisms, amenable to both classical and molecular genetic approaches, with relatively short lifespans. Here we consider the use of planarians, with an immortal life-history that is able to entirely avoid the ageing process...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818567/a-protein-chimera-including-pspa-in-fusion-with-potd-is-protective-against-invasive-pneumococcal-infection-and-reduces-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-mice
#10
T R Converso, C Goulart, M Darrieux, L C C Leite
Despite the success of the available polysaccharide-based vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae in preventing invasive diseases, this bacterium remains a major cause of death in many parts of the world. New vaccine strategies are needed in order to increase protection. Thus, the utilization of fusion proteins is being investigated as an alternative to the current formulations. In the present work, we demonstrate that a chimeric protein, composed of PspA and PotD in fusion is able to maintain the protective characteristics of both parental proteins, providing protection against systemic infection while reducing nasal colonization...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818038/role-of-the-type-vi-secretion-systems-during-disease-interactions-of-erwinia-amylovora-with-its-plant-host
#11
Tim Kamber, Joël F Pothier, Cosima Pelludat, Fabio Rezzonico, Brion Duffy, Theo H M Smits
BACKGROUND: Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria and have a potential role as essential virulence factors or to maintain symbiotic interactions. Three T6SS gene clusters were identified in the genome of E. amylovora CFBP 1430, of which T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 represent complete T6SS machineries, while T6SS-2 is reduced in its gene content. RESULTS: To assess the contribution of T6SSs to virulence and potential transcriptomic changes of E...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817599/anguillicola-crassus-infection-affects-mrna-expression-levels-in-gas-gland-tissue-of-european-yellow-and-silver-eel
#12
Gabriel Schneebauer, Ron P Dirks, Bernd Pelster
Using Illumina sequencing, we investigated transcriptional changes caused by the nematode Anguillicola crassus within yellow and silver eels by comparing swimbladder samples of uninfected yellow with infected yellow eels, and uninfected silver with infected silver eels, respectively. In yellow eel gas gland, the infection caused a modification of steady state mRNA levels of 1675 genes, most of them being upregulated. Functional annotation analysis based on GO terms was used to categorize identified genes with regard to swimbladder metabolism or response to the infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817192/tssa-the-cap-protein-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-tail
#13
REVIEW
Abdelrahim Zoued, Eric Durand, Yoann G Santin, Laure Journet, Alain Roussel, Christian Cambillau, Eric Cascales
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein and mosaic apparatus that delivers protein effectors into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. Recent data on the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) T6SS have provided evidence that the TssA protein is a key component during T6SS biogenesis. The T6SS comprises a trans-envelope complex that docks the baseplate, a cytoplasmic complex that represents the assembly platform for the tail. The T6SS tail is structurally, evolutionarily and functionally similar to the contractile tails of bacteriophages...
August 17, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817114/trauma-informed-care-in-the-newborn-intensive-care-unit-promoting-safety-security-and-connectedness
#14
M R Sanders, S L Hall
Both babies and their parents may experience a stay in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) as a traumatic or a 'toxic stress,' which can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and ultimately to poorly controlled cortisol secretion. Toxic stresses in childhood or adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are strongly linked to poor health outcomes across the lifespan and trauma-informed care is an approach to caregiving based on the recognition of this relationship. Practitioners of trauma-informed care seek to understand clients' or patients' behaviors in light of previous traumas they have experienced, including ACEs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816565/dacryocystectomy-as-a-treatment-of-chronic-dacryocystitis-in-the-elderly
#15
Mariana N Meireles, Magda Mh Viveiros, Roberta Lfs Meneghin, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Mariângela Ea Marques, Silvana A Schellini
To evaluate the dacryocystectomy (DCT) outcomes for chronic dacryocystitis in an elderly population over 70 years old. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients over 70 years old who were diagnosed with chronic dacryocystitis and underwent DCT at the Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP, Brazil, from 2007 to July 2014. Data were collected about patient demographics, age, gender, previous nasal, or ophthalmic diseases, symptoms related to the lacrimal drainage system preoperatively and postoperatively, signs of enlargement of the lacrimal sac (regurgitation of secretion), and histopathologic evaluation...
August 17, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816564/cytotoxicity-screening-and-cytokine-profiling-of-nineteen-nanomaterials-enables-hazard-ranking-and-grouping-based-on-inflammogenic-potential
#16
Kunal Bhattacharya, Gözde Kiliç, Pedro M Costa, Bengt Fadeel
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being produced for an increasing number of applications. Therefore, it is important to assess and categorize ENMs on the basis of their hazard potential. The immune system is the foremost defence against foreign bodies. Here we performed cytokine profiling of a panel of nineteen representative ENMs procured from the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and commercial sources. Physicochemical characterization was performed using dynamic light scattering. The ENMs were all shown to be endotoxin content free...
August 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816207/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-various-sound-pressure-levels-on-the-level-of-serum-aldosterone-concentration-in-rats
#17
Parvin Nassiri, Sajad Zare, Mohammad R Monazzam, Akram Pourbakht, Kamal Azam, Taghi Golmohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs) on the serum aldosterone level among rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three...
July 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815724/secreted-products-of-fasciola-hepatica-inhibit-the-induction-of-t-cell-responses-that-mediate-allergy
#18
Conor M Finlay, Anna M Stefanska, Michelle M Coleman, Hanne Jahns, Joseph P Cassidy, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kingston H G Mills
There is evidence from epidemiology studies of a negative association between infection with helminth parasites and the development of allergy and asthma. Here we demonstrate that the excretory/secretory products of the helminth Fasciola hepatica (FHES) protected mice against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma when administered at time of allergen sensitisation. FHES reduced the accumulation of mucus, eosinophils and lymphocytes into the airways of allergen-challenged mice. Furthermore, FHES treatment suppressed Th2 responses in the airways...
August 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815595/sigma-1-receptor-ligands-inhibit-catecholamine-secretion-from-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-due-to-block-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#19
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Nolan D Hartley, Kyle J Horning, Kevin P M Currie
Adrenal chromaffin cells (ACCs) are the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system and key mediators of the physiological stress response. Acetylcholine (ACh) released from preganglionic splanchnic nerves activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on chromaffin cells causing membrane depolarization, opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC), and exocytosis of catecholamines and neuropeptides. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is expressed in ACCs and interacts with 5-HT1A receptors to control secretion...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815565/generation-of-animal-form-by-the-chordin-tolloid-bmp-gradient-100%C3%A2-years-after-d-arcy-thompson
#20
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
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