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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550295/effects-of-protein-corona-on-iapp-amyloid-aggregation-fibril-remodelling-and-cytotoxicity
#1
Emily H Pilkington, Yanting Xing, Bo Wang, Aleksandr Kakinen, Miaoyi Wang, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a peptide hormone co-synthesized and co-stored with insulin in pancreatic cells and also co-secreted to the circulation, is associated with beta-cell death in type-2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D patients IAPP is found aggregating in the extracellular space of the islets of Langerhans. Although the physiological environments of these intra- and extra-cellular compartments and vascular systems significantly differ, the presence of proteins is ubiquitous but the effects of protein binding on IAPP aggregation are largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549061/central-hypothyroidism-a-neglected-thyroid-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Giulia Rodari, Claudia Giavoli, Andrea Lania
Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546915/label-free-and-regenerative-electrochemical-microfluidic-biosensors-for-continual-monitoring-of-cell-secretomes
#3
Su Ryon Shin, Tugba Kilic, Yu Shrike Zhang, Huseyin Avci, Ning Hu, Duckjin Kim, Cristina Branco, Julio Aleman, Solange Massa, Antonia Silvestri, Jian Kang, Anna Desalvo, Mohammed Abdullah Hussaini, Su-Kyoung Chae, Alessandro Polini, Nupura Bhise, Mohammad Asif Hussain, HeaYeon Lee, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Ali Khademhosseini
Development of an efficient sensing platform capable of continual monitoring of biomarkers is needed to assess the functionality of the in vitro organoids and to evaluate their biological responses toward pharmaceutical compounds or chemical species over extended periods of time. Here, a novel label-free microfluidic electrochemical (EC) biosensor with a unique built-in on-chip regeneration capability for continual measurement of cell-secreted soluble biomarkers from an organoid culture in a fully automated manner without attenuating the sensor sensitivity is reported...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546549/restimulation-induced-t-cell-death-through-ntb-a-sap-signaling-pathway-is-impaired-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-depressed-immune-responses
#5
Rodrigo E Hernández Del Pino, Joaquín M Pellegrini, Ana I Rovetta, Delfina Peña, Guadalupe I Álvarez, Agustín Rolandelli, Rosa M Musella, Domingo J Palmero, Alejandro Malbran, Virginia Pasquinelli, Verónica E García
Production of IFN-γ contributes to host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We previously demonstrated that Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) expression on cells from tuberculosis (TB) patients was inversely correlated with IFN-γ production. Here we first investigated the role of NK, T and B cell antigen (NTB-A)/SAP pathway in the regulation of Th1 response against Mtb. Upon antigen stimulation, NTB-A phosphorylation rapidly increases and afterwards modulates IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion...
May 26, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546153/impact-of-ventilation-induced-lung-injury-on-the-structure-and-function-of-lamellar-bodies
#6
Scott Milos, Reza Khazaee, Lynda A McCaig, Karen Nygard, Richard B Gardiner, Yi Y Zuo, Cory M Yamashita, Ruud A W Veldhuizen
Alterations to the pulmonary surfactant system have been observed consistently in ventilation-induced lung injury including composition changes and impairments in the surface tension reducing ability of the isolated extracellular surfactant. However, there is limited information about the effects of VILI on the intracellular form of surfactant, the lamellar body. It is hypothesized that VILI leads to alterations of lamellar bodies numbers and function. To test this hypothesis, rats were randomized to one of three groups, non-ventilated controls, control ventilation and high tidal volume ventilation (VILI)...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546052/status-report-from-norway-implementation-of-patient-involvement-in-norwegian-health-care
#7
Jürgen Kasper, Anne Regine Lager, Markus Rumpsfeld, Simone Kienlin, Kristine Hoel Smestad, Tone Bråthen, Holly Ankell, Tore Knutsen, Rune Kløvtveit, Pål Gulbrandsen, Per Olav Vandvik, Anja Fog Heen, Signe Flottorp, Geir Tollåli, Øystein Eiring
Norway has traditionally high standards regarding civil rights particularly emphasizing equal access to societal resources including health care. This background and the health care system's centralized national organization make it perfectly suited for implementation of shared decision making (SDM). In recent years, great efforts have been made by policy- makers, regional health authorities and not least the patients to facilitate a process of change in health communication culture. SDM is currently even given highest priority in health care strategies on all system levels...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546009/bioactivity-of-the-putative-apelin-proprotein-expands-the-repertoire-of-apelin-receptor-ligands
#8
Kyungsoo Shin, Nigel A Chapman, Muzaddid Sarker, Calem A Kenward, Shuya K Huang, Nathan Weatherbee-Martin, Aditya Pandey, Denis J Dupré, Jan K Rainey
BACKGROUND: Apelin is a peptide ligand for a class A G-protein coupled receptor called the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) that regulates angiogenesis, the adipoinsular axis, and cardiovascular functions. Apelin has been shown to be bioactive as 13, 17, and 36 amino acid isoforms, C-terminal fragments of the putatively inactive 55-residue proprotein (proapelin or apelin-55). Although intracellular proprotein processing has been proposed, isolation of apelin-55 from colostrum demonstrates potential for secretion prior to processing and the possibility of proapelin-AR interaction...
May 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545467/expression-of-deleted-atoxic-atypical-recombinant-beta2-toxin-in-a-baculovirus-system-and-production-of-polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies
#9
Anna Serroni, Chiara Francesca Magistrali, Giovanni Pezzotti, Luca Bano, Martina Pellegrini, Giulio Severi, Chiara Di Pancrazio, Mirella Luciani, Manuela Tittarelli, Silvia Tofani, Antonio De Giuseppe
BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens is an important animal and human pathogen that can produce more than 16 different major and minor toxins. The beta-2 minor toxin (CPB2), comprising atypical and consensus variants, appears to be involved in both human and animal enterotoxaemia syndrome. The exact role of CPB2 in pathogenesis is poorly investigated, and its mechanism of action at the molecular level is still unknown because of the lack of specific reagents such as monoclonal antibodies against the CPB2 protein and/or the availability of a highly purified antigen...
May 25, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545386/evolutionary-radiations-in-the-species-rich-mountain-genus-saxifraga-l
#10
J Ebersbach, J Schnitzler, A Favre, A N Muellner-Riehl
BACKGROUND: A large number of taxa have undergone evolutionary radiations in mountainous areas, rendering alpine systems particularly suitable to study the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that have shaped diversification patterns in plants. The species-rich genus Saxifraga L. is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with high species numbers in the regions adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in particular the Hengduan Mountains and the Himalayas. Using a dataset of 297 taxa (representing at least 60% of extant Saxifraga species), we explored the variation of infrageneric diversification rates...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545364/bright-light-delights-effects-of-daily-light-exposure-on-emotions-rest-activity-cycles-sleep-and-melatonin-secretion-in-severely-demented-patients
#11
Mirjam Münch, Michael Schmieder, Katharina Bieler, Rolf Goldbach, Timo Fuhrmann, Naomi Zumstein, Petra Vonmoos, Jean-Louis Scartezzini, Anna Wirz-Justice, Christian Cajochen
We tested whether the effects of a dynamic lighting system are superior to conventional lighting on emotions, agitation behaviour, quality of life, melatonin secretion and circadian rest-activity cycles in severely demented patients. As a comparison, an age matched control patient group was exposed to conventional lighting. For none of the output measures, significant differences between the two lighting conditions were found during the 8 study weeks in fall/winter. Thus, we divided the patient cohort (n = 89) into two groups, solely based on the median of their daily individual light exposure...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544881/mammalian-systems-biotechnology-reveals-global-cellular-adaptations-in-a-recombinant-cho-cell-line
#12
Faraaz Noor Khan Yusufi, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Ying Swan Ho, Bernard Liat Wen Loo, Pramila Ariyaratne, Yuansheng Yang, Say Kong Ng, Tessa Rui Min Tan, Hock Chuan Yeo, Hsueh Lee Lim, Sze Wai Ng, Ai Ping Hiu, Chung Ping Chow, Corrine Wan, Shuwen Chen, Gavin Teo, Gao Song, Ju Xin Chin, Xiaoan Ruan, Ken Wing Kin Sung, Wei-Shou Hu, Miranda Gek Sim Yap, Muriel Bardor, Niranjan Nagarajan, Dong-Yup Lee
Effective development of host cells for therapeutic protein production is hampered by the poor characterization of cellular transfection. Here, we employed a multi-omics-based systems biotechnology approach to elucidate the genotypic and phenotypic differences between a wild-type and recombinant antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. At the genomic level, we observed extensive rearrangements in specific targeted loci linked to transgene integration sites. Transcriptional re-wiring of DNA damage repair and cellular metabolism in the antibody producer, via changes in gene copy numbers, was also detected...
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544771/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-host-epithelial-cells-infected-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#13
Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Jiaqi Fu, Yanhua Liu, Mei Wu, Kaiwen Yu, Xiaoyun Liu
Systems-level analyses have the capability to offer new insight into host-pathogen interactions on the molecular level. Using Salmonella infection of host epithelial cells as a model system, we previously analyzed intracellular bacterial proteome as a window into pathogens' adaptations to their host environment (Infect. Immun. 2015; J. Proteome Res. 2017). Herein we extended our efforts to quantitatively examine protein expression of host cells during infection. In total, we identified more than 5,000 proteins with 194 differentially regulated proteins upon bacterial infection...
May 25, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543786/immunohistochemical-colocalization-of-g-protein-alpha-subunits-and-5-ht-in-the-rectal-gland-of-the-cartilaginous-fish-scyliorhinus-canicula
#14
E R Lauriano, S Pergolizzi, J Gangemi, M Kuciel, G Capillo, M Aragona, C Faggio
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is an important neuromodulator involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The effects of serotonin are mediated by an extended family of receptors coupled to multiple heterotrimeric G-proteins, associated with cellular membrane. G proteins connect receptors to effectors and thus trigger intracellular signaling pathways. These cellular processes several regulate systemic functions such as embryonic development, gonadal development, learning and memory, and organismal homeostasis...
May 22, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543283/targeting-pp2a-and-proteasome-activity-ameliorates-features-of-allergic-airway-disease-in-mice
#15
Prema M Nair, Malcolm R Starkey, Tatt Jhong Haw, Gang Liu, Jay C Horvat, Jonathan C Morris, Nikki M Verrills, Andrew R Clark, Alaina J Ammit, Philip M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. We assessed if enhancing PP2A activity with Fingolimod (FTY720) or 2-amino-4-(4-(heptyloxy) phenyl)-2-methylbutan-1-ol (AAL(S) ), or inhibiting proteasome activity with Bortezomib (BORT) could suppress experimental AAD...
May 24, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542539/a-leishmania-secretion-system-for-the-expression-of-major-ampullate-spidroin-mimics
#16
Todd A Lyda, Elizabeth L Wagner, Andre X Bourg, Congyue Peng, Golnaz Najaf Tomaraei, Delphine Dean, Marian S Kennedy, William R Marcotte
Spider major ampullate silk fibers have been shown to display a unique combination of relatively high fracture strength and toughness compared to other fibers and show potential for tissue engineering scaffolds. While it is not possible to mass produce native spider silks, the potential ability to produce fibers from recombinant spider silk fibers could allow for an increased innovation rate within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this pilot study, we improved upon a prior fabrication route by both changing the expression host and additives to the fiber pulling precursor solution to improve the performance of fibers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542292/development-of-a-versatile-oncolytic-virus-platform-for-local-intra-tumoural-expression-of-therapeutic-transgenes
#17
Nalini Marino, Sam Illingworth, Prithvi Kodialbail, Ashvin Patel, Hugo Calderon, Rochelle Lear, Kerry D Fisher, Brian R Champion, Alice C N Brown
Oncolytic viruses which infect and kill tumour cells can also be genetically modified to express therapeutic genes that augment their anti-cancer activities. Modifying oncolytic viruses to produce effective cancer therapies is challenging as encoding transgenes often attenuates virus activity or prevents systemic delivery in patients due to the risk of off-target expression of transgenes in healthy tissues. To overcome these issues we aimed to generate a readily modifiable virus platform using the oncolytic adenovirus, enadenotucirev...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542222/differential-expression-of-islet-glutaredoxin-1-and-5-with-high-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabesity
#18
Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Heinrich Sauer, Thomas Linn
The onset and progression of diabetes mellitus type 2 is highly contingent on the amount of functional beta-cell mass. An underlying cause of beta-cell decay in diabetes is oxidative stress, which markedly affects the insulin producing pancreatic cells due to their poor antioxidant defence capacity. Consequently, disturbances of cellular redox signaling have been implicated to play a major role in beta-cell loss in diabetes mellitus type 2. There is evidence suggesting that the glutaredoxin (Grx) system exerts a protective role for pancreatic islets, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541182/chemotactic-network-responses-to-live-bacteria-show-independence-of-phagocytosis-from-chemo-receptor-sensing
#19
Netra Pal Meena, Alan R Kimmel
Aspects of innate immunity derive from characteristics inherent to phagocytes, including chemotaxis toward and engulfment of unicellular organisms or cell debris. Ligand chemotaxis has been biochemically investigated using mammalian and model systems, but precision of chemotaxis towards ligands being actively secreted by live bacteria is not well studied, nor has there been systematic analyses of interrelationships between chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The genetic/molecular model Dictyostelium and mammalian phagocytes share mechanistic pathways for chemotaxis and phagocytosis; Dictyostelium chemotax toward bacteria and phagocytose them as food sources...
May 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540946/zinc-transporters-ybtx-and-znuabc-are-required-for-the-virulence-of-yersinia-pestis-in-bubonic-and-pneumonic-plague-in-mice
#20
Alexander G Bobrov, Olga Kirillina, Marina Y Fosso, Jacqueline D Fetherston, M Clarke Miller, Tiva T VanCleave, Joseph A Burlison, William K Arnold, Matthew B Lawrenz, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Robert D Perry
A number of bacterial pathogens require the ZnuABC Zinc (Zn(2+)) transporter and/or a second Zn(2+) transport system to overcome Zn(2+) sequestration by mammalian hosts. Previously we have shown that in addition to ZnuABC, Yersinia pestis possesses a second Zn(2+) transporter that involves components of the yersiniabactin (Ybt), siderophore-dependent iron transport system. Synthesis of the Ybt siderophore and YbtX, a member of the major facilitator superfamily, are both critical components of the second Zn(2+) transport system...
May 25, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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