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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161615/more-than-a-tad-spatiotemporal-control-of-caulobacter-pili
#1
REVIEW
Johann Mignolet, Gaël Panis, Patrick H Viollier
The Type IV pilus (T4P) is a powerful and sophisticated bacterial nanomachine involved in numerous cellular processes, including adhesion, DNA uptake and motility. Aside from the well-described subtype T4aP of the Gram-negative genera, including Myxococcus, Pseudomonas and Neisseria, the Tad (tight adherence) pilus secretion system re-shuffles homologous parts from other secretion systems along with uncharacterized components into a new type of protein translocation apparatus. A representative of the Tad apparatus, the Caulobacter crescentus pilus assembly (Cpa) machine is built exclusively at the newborn cell pole once per cell cycle...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161274/bacillus-spp-a-bio-control-agent-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-defense-enzymes-in-rice-against-pyricularia-oryzae
#2
Afroz Rais, Zahra Jabeen, Faluk Shair, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem Hassan
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are found to control the plant diseases by adopting various mechanisms. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is an important defensive strategy manifested by plants against numerous pathogens especially infecting at aerial parts. Rhizobacteria elicit ISR by inducing different pathways in plants through production of various metabolites. In the present study, potential of Bacillus spp. KFP-5, KFP-7, KFP-17 was assessed to induce antioxidant enzymes against Pyricularia oryzae infection in rice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160594/leptin-action-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Ayelén Toro, Teresa Vilariño-García, Julieta Maymó, Pilar Guadix, José L Dueñas, Manuel Fernández-Sánchez, Cecilia Varone, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is now considered an important signalling molecule of the reproductive system, as it regulates the production of gonadotrophins, the blastocyst formation and implantation, the normal placentation, as well as the foeto-placental communication. Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, and the placenta is the second leptin-producing tissue in humans. Placental leptin is an important cytokine which regulates placental functions in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Leptin seems to play a crucial role during the first stages of pregnancy as it modulates critical processes such as proliferation, protein synthesis, invasion and apoptosis in placental cells...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160061/a-dual-macrophage-targeting-nanovector-for-delivery-of-oligodeoxynucleotides-to-overcome-cancer-associated-immunosuppression
#4
Xiao-Yan He, Bo-Ya Liu, Jin-Long Wu, Shu-Lun Ai, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Si-Xue Cheng
To overcome cancer-associated immunosuppression, we prepared a dual-targeting vector to deliver CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to macrophages. The dual-targeting system composed of mannosylated carboxymethyl chitosan (MCMC)/hyaluronan (HA) for macrophage targeting and protamine sulfate (PS) for ODN complexation was prepared by self-assembly. The effects of ODN delivery on immune cells was studied in J774A.1 cells. Due to the enhanced delivery efficiency, the dual-targeting delivery system exhibits a higher immune stimulatory activity compared with the mono-targeting delivery system containing either MCMC or HA, resulting in dramatically enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a successful shift to activated macrophages (M1)...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159853/the-use-of-cell-conditioned-medium-for-musculoskeletal-tissue-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Francesca Veronesi, Veronica Borsari, Maria Sartori, Monia Orciani, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte Cima, Milena Fini
Tissue regenerative medicine combines the use of cells, scaffolds and molecules to repair damaged tissues. Different cell types are employed for musculoskeletal diseases, both differentiated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In recent years, the hypothesis that cell-based therapy is guided principally by cell-secreted factors has become increasingly popular. The aim of the present literature review was to evaluate preclinical and clinical studies that used conditioned medium (CM), rich in cell-factors, for musculoskeletal regeneration with a cell-free approach...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159527/melatonin-ameliorates-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-in-a-5-6-nephrectomy-rat-model
#6
Sayaka Ishigaki, Naro Ohashi, Takashi Matsuyama, Shinsuke Isobe, Naoko Tsuji, Takamasa Iwakura, Tomoyuki Fujikura, Takayuki Tsuji, Akihiko Kato, Hiroaki Miyajima, Hideo Yasuda
BACKGROUND: Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important components of intrarenal RAS activation. Melatonin is recognized as a powerful antioxidant, and we recently reported that impaired nighttime melatonin secretion correlates negatively with urinary angiotensinogen excretion, the surrogate marker of intrarenal RAS activity in patients with CKD...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158817/extracellular-vesicles-in-cardiovascular-theranostics
#7
REVIEW
Yihua Bei, Saumya Das, Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Marta Chagas Monteiro, Valter Vinicius Silva Monteiro, Jana Radosinska, Monika Bartekova, Felix Jansen, Qian Li, Johnson Rajasingh, Junjie Xiao
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small bilayer lipid membrane vesicles that can be released by most cell types and detected in most body fluids. EVs exert key functions for intercellular communication via transferring their bioactive cargos to recipient cells or activating signaling pathways in target cells. Increasing evidence has shown the important regulatory effects of EVs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). EVs secreted by cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem cells play essential roles in pathophysiological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte survival and apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and angiogenesis in relation to CVDs...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158777/combined-genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-to-investigate-the-plant-cell-wall-degrading-enzyme-system-in-the-thermophilic-fungus-malbranchea-cinnamomea
#8
Silvia Hüttner, Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Zoraide Granchi, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Dag Ahrén, Johan Larsbrink, Vu Nguyen Thanh, Lisbeth Olsson
Background: Genome and transcriptome sequencing has greatly facilitated the understanding of biomass-degrading mechanisms in a number of fungal species. The information obtained enables the investigation and discovery of genes encoding proteins involved in plant cell wall degradation, which are crucial for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass in second-generation biorefinery applications. The thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea is an efficient producer of many industrially relevant enzymes and a detailed analysis of its genomic content will considerably enhance our understanding of its lignocellulolytic system and promote the discovery of novel proteins...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158739/human-admc-derived-adipocyte-thermogenic-capacity-is-regulated-by-il-4-receptor
#9
Fernando Lizcano, Diana Vargas, Ángela Gómez, Astrid Torrado
Type two innate immune system is anti-inflammatory and may play an important role as the means whereby "browning" is induced in subcutaneous adipocytes. It was shown that IL-4 may influence the fate of adipose cell precursors by promoting differentiation towards more thermogenic adipocytes in mice. Here, we investigated the influence of IL-4 and IL-4 receptor, a type two immune cytokine pathway, on the metabolic activity and thermogenic potential of human adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) obtained from subcutaneous samples of healthy women undergoing abdominoplasty...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158316/role-for-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#10
REVIEW
Ana O'Loghlen
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small-membrane vesicles secreted by most cells types with the role to provide intercellular communication both locally and systemically. The transfer of their content between cells, which includes nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, confers the means for these interactions and induces significant cellular behaviour changes in the receiving cell. EVs are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes, including development and neurological and cardiovascular diseases...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158314/tumour-adipose-tissue-crosstalk-fuelling-tumour-metastasis-by-extracellular-vesicles
#11
REVIEW
Lucía Robado de Lope, Olwen Leaman Alcíbar, Ana Amor López, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado
During metastasis, tumour cells must communicate with their microenvironment by secreted soluble factors and extracellular vesicles. Different stromal cell types (e.g. bone marrow-derived cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts) influence the growth and progression of tumours. In recent years, interest has extended to other cell types in the tumour microenvironment such as adipocytes and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Indeed, obesity is becoming pandemic in some developing countries and it is now considered to be a risk factor for cancer progression...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158242/mutations-in-sugar-nucleotide-synthesis-genes-restore-holdfast-polysaccharide-anchoring-to-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast-anchor-mutants
#12
Gail G Hardy, Evelyn Toh, Cécile Berne, Yves V Brun
Attachment is essential for microorganisms to establish interactions with both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Stable attachment of Caulobacter crescentus to surfaces requires an adhesive polysaccharide holdfast, but the exact composition of holdfast is unknown. The holdfast is anchored to the cell envelope by outer membrane proteins HfaA, HfaB and HfaD. Holdfast anchor gene mutations result in holdfast shedding and reduced cell adherence. Translocation of HfaA and HfaD to the cell surface requires HfaB. The Wzx homolog, HfsF, is predicted to be a bacterial polysaccharide flippase...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158199/male-rat-exposure-to-low-dose-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-during-pre-pubertal-pubertal-and-post-pubertal-periods-impact-on-sperm-count-gonad-histology-and-testosterone-secretion
#13
Malha Oudir, Henni Chader, Bachir Bouzid, Kheira Bendisari, Batoul Latreche, Sofiane Boudalia, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor in the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the low dose effects of DEHP on the male reproductive system of rats exposed during the pre-pubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal periods. Male Wistar rats were daily gavaged by DEHP from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND 120 with 0.5, 50 and 5000μg/kg BW/d. A decrease in sperm count of 41%, 24% and 46% was observed at 0.5, 50 and 5000μg/kg BW/d respectively. A decrease of Sertoli cells number was observed at 50 and 5000μg/kg BW/d (22% and 42%, respectively)...
November 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158033/resident-fibroblast-expansion-during-cardiac-growth-and-remodeling
#14
Malina J Ivey, Jill T Kuwabara, Jonathan T Pai, Richard E Moore, Zuyue Sun, Michelle D Tallquist
Cardiac fibrosis, denoted by the deposition of extracellular matrix, manifests with a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial infarction. Underlying this pathological extracellular matrix secretion is an expansion of fibroblasts. The mouse is now a common experimental model system for the study of cardiovascular remodeling and elucidation of fibroblast responses to cardiac growth and stress is vital for understanding disease processes. Here, using diverse but fibroblast specific markers, we report murine fibroblast distribution and proliferation in early postnatal, adult, and injured hearts...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157976/loading-dendritic-cells-with-gold-nanoparticles-gnps-bearing-hiv-peptides-and-mannosides-enhance-hiv-specific-t-cell-responses
#15
Núria Climent, Isabel García, Marco Marradi, Fabrizio Chiodo, Laia Miralles, María José Maleno, José María Gatell, Felipe García, Soledad Penadés, Montserrat Plana
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) decorated with glycans ameliorate dendritic cells (DC) uptake, antigen-presentation and T-cells cross-talk, which are important aspects in vaccine design. GNPs allow for high antigen loading, DC targeting, lack of toxicity and are straightforward prepared and easy to handle. The present study aimed to assess the capacity of DC to process and present HIV-1-peptides loaded onto GNPs bearing high-mannoside-type oligosaccharides (P1@HM) to autologous T-cells from HIV-1 patients. The results showed that P1@HM increased HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and induced highly functional cytokine secretion compared with HIV-peptides alone...
November 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157488/l%C3%A2-hypophyse-et-ses-traitements-comment-peuvent-ils-influer-sur-le-comportement-the-pituitary-and-its-treatments-how-can-they-influence-behaviour
#16
C Mouly, F Borson-Chazot, P Caron
Behaviour may be influenced by pituitary hormones or treatments. Dopamine agonist (DA) indicated in prolactinomas treatment can cause side effects, and especially impulse control disorders. In the context of prolactinomas treatment, impulse control disorders (ICD) have been reported like gambling, compulsive shopping, but mostly hypersexuality. These ICD can occur with low AD doses, and seem to be independent of type of molecule and psychiatric medical history. The main pathophysiologic hypothesis is a dysregulation of dopaminergic pathway involved in reward system...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157295/single-cell-multiplexed-cytokine-profiling-of-cd19-car-t-cells-reveals-a-diverse-landscape-of-polyfunctional-antigen-specific-response
#17
Qiong Xue, Emily Bettini, Patrick Paczkowski, Colin Ng, Alaina Kaiser, Timothy McConnell, Olja Kodrasi, Máire F Quigley, James Heath, Rong Fan, Sean Mackay, Mark E Dudley, Sadik H Kassim, Jing Zhou
BACKGROUND: It remains challenging to characterize the functional attributes of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cell product targeting CD19 related to potency and immunotoxicity ex vivo, despite promising in vivo efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies. METHODS: We employed a single-cell, 16-plex cytokine microfluidics device and new analysis techniques to evaluate the functional profile of CD19 CAR-T cells upon antigen-specific stimulation. CAR-T cells were manufactured from human PBMCs transfected with the lentivirus encoding the CD19-BB-z transgene and expanded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads...
November 21, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157101/expression-and-function-of-protein-a-in-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius
#18
Manasi Balachandran, David A Bemis, Stephen A Kania
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen in dogs and the most frequent cause of canine pyoderma. Protein A, a potent virulence factor in S. aureus is encoded by the spa gene. S. pseudintermedius possesses genes seemingly analogous to spa, but the expression and the characteristics of their products have not been directly determined. The purpose of this study was to test isolates from major clonal groups for the presence of spa gene orthologs, quantitate their expression levels, and to characterize protein A in S...
November 20, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155899/subtle-variation-within-conserved-effector-operon-gene-products-contributes-to-t6ss-mediated-killing-and-immunity
#19
Christopher J Alteri, Stephanie D Himpsl, Kevin Zhu, Haley L Hershey, Ninette Musili, Jessa E Miller, Harry L T Mobley
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155217/neutrophil-elastase-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
Irina Lerman, Stephen R Hammes
Myeloid cell production within the bone marrow is accelerated in the setting of cancer, and the numbers of circulating and infiltrating neutrophils and granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) correlate with tumor progression and patient survival. Cancer is therefore able to hijack the normally host-protective immune system and use it to further fuel growth and metastasis. Myeloid cells secrete neutrophil elastase and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to cues within the tumor microenvironment, thereby leading to enhanced activity in a variety of cancer types...
November 16, 2017: Steroids
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