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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903834/saliva-diagnostics-current-views-and-directions
#1
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893988/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#2
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890424/recent-scenario-of-microrna-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Kamla Kant Shukla, Sanjeev Misra, Puneet Pareek, Vivek Mishra, Barkha Singhal, Praveen Sharma
Prostate cancer (CaP) is a leading cause of cancer death and displays a broad range of clinical behavior from relatively indolent to aggressive metastatic disease. Due to the alteration and incomplete characterization of the CaP genomic markers, the quest for novel cellular metabolic regulatory molecules like micro RNA (miRNA) as a biomarker could be considered for the prognosis and treatment of CaP in future. In this article, we review the existing literature pertaining to CaP. Study provides a comprehensive miRNA profile expressed in CaP...
November 24, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865352/plum-polyphenols-inhibit-colorectal-aberrant-crypt-foci-formation-in-rats-potential-role-of-the-mir-143-protein-kinase-b-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-axis
#4
Nivedita Banerjee, Hyemee Kim, Stephen T Talcott, Nancy D Turner, David H Byrne, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott
The nutritional prevention of aberrant crypt foci by polyphenols may be a crucial step to dietary cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties of plum (Prunus salicina L.) polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid, in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. The hypothesis was that plum polyphenolics suppress AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation through alterations in the protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and relative micro-RNA expressions...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856248/mir-33a-suppresses-proliferation-of-nsclc-cells-via-targeting-mettl3-mrna
#5
Minjun Du, Yanjiao Zhang, Yousheng Mao, Juwei Mou, Jun Zhao, Qi Xue, Dali Wang, Jinfeng Huang, Shugeng Gao, Yushun Gao
Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) was incipiently known as a methyltransferase which was responsible for N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) methylation. METTL3 can promote the expression of several crucial oncoproteins and its high expression enhanced proliferation, survival, and invasion of human lung cancer cells. However, how METTL3 was regulated is seldom understood in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In the present study, miR-33a was suspicious to target to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of METTL3 mRNA via in silico prediction...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845906/specific-micro-rna-expression-patterns-distinguish-the-basal-and-luminal-subtypes-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#6
Andrea E Ochoa, Woonyoung Choi, Xiaoping Su, Arlene Siefker-Radtke, Bogdan Czerniak, Colin Dinney, David J McConkey
The roles of non-coding RNAs in controlling clinical and biological heterogeneity in bladder cancer remain unclear. We used TCGA's published dataset (n = 405 tumors) as a discovery cohort and created a new validation cohort to define the miRNA expression patterns in the basal and luminal molecular subtypes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We identified 63 miRNAs by PAM, which optimally identified basal and luminal tumors. The targets of the top luminal miRNAs were activators of EMT (ZEB1, ZEB2) and basal subtype transcription (IL-6, EGFR, STAT3), whereas the targets of the top basal miRNAs were involved in adipogenesis pathways and luminal breast cancer (ERBB2, ERBB3)...
November 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834745/altered-expression-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-blood-after-ischemic-stroke-and-proximity-to-putative-stroke-risk-loci
#7
Cheryl Dykstra-Aiello, Glen C Jickling, Bradley P Ander, Natasha Shroff, Xinhua Zhan, DaZhi Liu, Heather Hull, Miles Orantia, Boryana S Stamova, Frank R Sharp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although peripheral blood mRNA and micro-RNA change after ischemic stroke, any role for long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which comprise most of the genome and have been implicated in various diseases, is unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that lncRNA expression also changes after stroke. METHODS: lncRNA expression was assessed in 266 whole-blood RNA samples drawn once per individual from patients with ischemic stroke and matched with vascular risk factor controls...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834627/promotion-of-astrocytoma-cell-invasion-by-micro-rna-22-targeting-of-tissue-inhibitor-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-2
#8
Yu-Ichiro Ohnishi, Koichi Iwatsuki, Masahiro Ishihara, Toshika Ohkawa, Manabu Kinoshita, Koei Shinzawa, Yasunori Fujimoto, Toshiki Yoshimine
OBJECTIVE Diffuse astrocytomas (DAs) have a high recurrence rate due to diffuse infiltration into the brain and spinal cord. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences of target messenger RNA (mRNA). It has been reported that miRNA-22 (miR-22) is involved in the invasion of some cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to identify the biological effects of miR-22 in regard to the invasion of human DAs. METHODS The authors evaluated whether the level of miR-22 is elevated in human spinal DAs by using miRNA chips...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817745/cell-free-circulating-epigenomic-signatures-non-invasive-biomarker-for-cardiovascular-and-other-age-related-chronic-diseases
#9
Arpit Bhargava, Naveen Kumar Khare, Neha Bunkar, Koel Chaudhury, Kailash Chand Pandey, Subodh Kumar Jain, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
The burden of cardio-vascular and other age-related non-communicable diseases are rapidly increasing worldwide. Majority of these chronic ailments are curable, if diagnosed at early stages. Candidate biomarkers of early detection are therefore essential for identification of high-risk individuals, prompt and accurate disease diagnosis, and to monitor therapeutic response. The functional significance of circulating nucleic acids that recapitulate specific disease profiles is now well established. But subtle changes in DNA sequence may not solely reflect the differentiation of gene expression patterns observed in diverse set of diseases as epigenetic phenomena play a larger role in aetiology and patho-physiology...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816395/-alport-syndrome-hereditary-nephropathy-associated-with-mutations-in-genes-coding-for-type-iv-collagen-chains
#10
Laurence Heidet, Marie-Claire Gubler
Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by the association of a progressive haematuric nephropathy with ultrastructural abnormalities of the glomerular basement membranes, a progressive sensorineural hearing loss and sometimes ocular involvement. Its incidence is less than 1 per 5000 individuals and the disease is the cause of about 2% of end stage renal disease in Europe and the United States. Alport syndrome is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. It is related to mutations in the genes encoding one of three chains, α3, α4 α5 of type IV collagen, the main component of basement membranes, expressed in the glomerular basement membrane...
November 2, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816361/genetic-variants-in-cd44-and-mat1a-confer-susceptibility-to-acute-skin-reaction-in-breast-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiation-therapy
#11
Kamalesh Dattaram Mumbrekar, Satish Rao Bola Sadashiva, Shama Prasada Kabekkodu, Donald Jerard Fernandes, Bejadi Manjunath Vadhiraja, Tomo Suga, Yoshimi Shoji, Fumiaki Nakayama, Takashi Imai, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
PURPOSE: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage-repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816236/elevated-circulating-micro-ribonucleic-acid-mirna-200b-and-mirna-429-levels%C3%A2-in-anovulatory-women
#12
Iris Eisenberg, Neta Nahmias, Michal Novoselsky Persky, Caryn Greenfield, Debra Goldman-Wohl, Arye Hurwitz, Ronit Haimov-Kochman, Simcha Yagel, Tal Imbar
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of micro-RNA (miRNA)-200b and miRNA-429 in human ovulation and to measure their expression levels in ovulatory and anovulatory patients. DESIGN: Micro-RNA-200b and miRNA-429 expression analysis in human serum and granulosa cells at different phases of the ovulation cycle in normal cycling women and women undergoing assisted reproductive technology cycles. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital and academic research laboratory...
November 2, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807680/genetics-of-congenital-heart-disease-past-and-present
#13
REVIEW
Iolanda Muntean, Rodica Togănel, Theodora Benedek
Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital anomaly, representing an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Congenital heart disease represents a group of heart anomalies that include septal defects, valve defects, and outflow tract anomalies. The exact genetic, epigenetic, or environmental basis of congenital heart disease remains poorly understood, although the exact mechanism is likely multifactorial. However, the development of new technologies including copy number variants, single-nucleotide polymorphism, next-generation sequencing are accelerating the detection of genetic causes of heart anomalies...
November 2, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792215/an-up-todate-on-the-methabolic-syndrome-s-epigenomic-risk
#14
Rosanna Perricone, Antonio Pizzuti
The primitive genome's and the individual phenotype's modifications by epygenesys surveyes are crucial to evaluate the methabolic syndrome risk and its prevention. Through the most recent surveys, this analysis is aimed to several processes by which the various epigenetic types who are different from one to another subject may act on the methabolism key-genes, like that they even indirectly arouse the straight onset of one or more methabolic syndromes: the risk of passing this syndrome to next offsprings is more or less high...
October 28, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782767/consensus-paper-of-the-wfsbp-task-force-on-biological-markers-criteria-for-biomarkers-and-endophenotypes-of-schizophrenia-part-iii-molecular-mechanisms
#15
Andrea Schmitt, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Schahram Akbarian, Juliana S Cassoli, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Andre Fischer, Alfred Fonteh, Wagner F Gattaz, Michael Gawlik, Manfred Gerlach, Edna Grünblatt, Tobias Halene, Alkomiet Hasan, Kenij Hashimoto, Yong-Ku Kim, Sophie-Kathrin Kirchner, Johannes Kornhuber, Theo F J Kraus, Berend Malchow, Juliana M Nascimento, Moritz Rossner, Markus Schwarz, Johann Steiner, Leda Talib, Florence Thibaut, Peter Riederer, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite progress in identifying molecular pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, valid biomarkers are lacking for both the disease and treatment response. METHODS: This comprehensive review summarises recent efforts to identify molecular mechanisms on the level of protein and gene expression and epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro RNA expression. Furthermore, it summarises recent findings of alterations in lipid mediators and highlights inflammatory processes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765601/mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-in-drug-therapy-new-perspective
#16
Lauren S Sherman, Maran Shaker, Veronica Mariotti, Pranela Rameshwar
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) have emerged as a class of cells suitable for cellular delivery of nanoparticles, drugs and micro-RNA cargo for targeted treatments such as tumor and other protective mechanisms. The special properties of MSC underscore the current use for various clinical applications. Examples of applications include but are not limited to regenerative medicine, immune disorders and anti-cancer therapies. In recent years, there has been intense research in modifying MSC to achieve targeted and efficient clinical outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765464/cigarette-smoking-represses-expression-of-cytokine-il-12-and-its-regulator-mir-21-an-observational-study-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#17
T B Opstad, B S Brusletto, H Arnesen, A Å Pettersen, I Seljeflot
RATIONALE: The heterodimer IL-12 is an inducer of Th1 responses and stimulates INFƴ production. Micro-RNA-21 (miR-21) is described as a key regulator of the pro-inflammatory response and has IL-12p35 mRNA as one of its main targets. The IL-12p40 1188A/C genetic variant located in 3'untranslated region (UTR), thus environmentally exposed, has further been reported to modify IL-12 levels. We have previously reported on the lowering effect of cigarette smoke on circulating IL-12 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)...
October 13, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760486/micro-rna-320-as-a-novel-potential-biomarker-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion
#18
Aydın Güçlü, Cengiz Koçak, Fatma Emel Koçak, Raziye Akçılar, Yavuz Dodurga, Aydın Akçılar, Mücahit Seçme
AIM: MicroRNAs (miR) are important diagnostic and treatment targets due to their different tissue expressions and their central position in the regulation of gene expressions. miR studies might pioneer emerging of new diagnostic tools and treatment goals in kidney diseases. Captopril (CAP) and telmisartan (TEL) were shown to be effective in ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. There is not any study about the effect of TEL and CAP over miR-21-320-146a. Our aim was to study the effects of CAP and TEL over miR on renal IR model...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749230/characterisation-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-microrna-in-early-onset-psoriatic-arthritis
#19
Giovanni Ciancio, Manuela Ferracin, Elena Saccenti, Valentina Bagnari, Ilaria Farina, Federica Furini, Elisa Galuppi, Barbara Zagatti, Francesco Trotta, Massimo Negrini, Marcello Govoni
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the micro-RNA (miRNA) expression profile in patients with early psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in order to assess the role of miRNAs as potential PsA biomarkers. METHODS: The expression of 723 mature miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of early PsA patients in comparison with early-rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients and healthy controls (HC) was evaluated using a miRNA microarray. All patients had active disease and were naïve from treatment...
October 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742570/contribution-of-pericyte-paracrine-regulation-of-the-endothelium-to-angiogenesis
#20
A Caporali, A Martello, V Miscianinov, D Maselli, R Vono, G Spinetti
During physiological development and after a stressor event, vascular cells communicate with each other to evoke new vessel formation - a process known as angiogenesis. This communication occurs via direct contact and via paracrine release of proteins and nucleic acids, both in a free form or encapsulated into micro-vesicles. In diseases with an altered angiogenic response, such as cancer and diabetic vascular complications, it becomes of paramount importance to tune the cell communication process. Endothelial cell growth and migration are essential processes for new vessel formation, and pericytes, together with some classes of circulating monocytes, are important endothelial regulators...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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