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Type 6 secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434698/effect-of-clostridium-butyricum-supplementation-on-the-development-of-intestinal-flora-and-the-immune-system-of-neonatal-mice
#1
Rui-Xue Miao, Xin-Xin Zhu, Chao-Min Wan, Zhi-Ling Wang, Yang Wen, Yi-Yuan Li
The objective of the present study was to examine whether Clostridium butyricum supplementation has a role in the regulation of the intestinal flora and the development of the immune system of neonatal mice. A total of 30 pregnant BALB/c mice, including their offspring, were randomly divided into three groups: In the maternal intervention group (Ba), maternal mice were treated with Clostridium butyricum from birth until weaning at postnatal day 21 (PD21) followed by administration of saline to the offspring at PD21-28; in the offspring intervention group (Ab), breast-feeding maternal mice were supplemented with saline and offspring were directly supplemented with Clostridium butyricum from PD21-28; in the both maternal and offspring intervention group (Bb), both maternal mice and offspring were supplemented with Clostridium butyricum at PD 0-21 and at PD21-28...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434073/placental-growth-factor-plgf-is-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#2
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433940/n-glycan-sialylation-in-a-silkworm-baculovirus-expression-system
#3
Masatoshi Suganuma, Tsuyoshi Nomura, Yukiko Higa, Yukiko Kataoka, Shunsuke Funaguma, Hironobu Okazaki, Takeo Suzuki, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Hideki Sezutsu, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Toshiki Tamura
A silkworm-baculovirus system is particularly effective for producing recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins. However, N-glycan structures in silkworm differ from those in mammals. Glycoproteins in silkworm are secreted as pauci-mannose type N-glycans without sialic acid or galactose residues. Sialic acid on N-glycans plays important roles in protein functions. Therefore, we developed pathways for galactosylation and sialylation in silkworm. Sialylated N-glycans on proteins were successfully produced in silkworm by co-expressing galactosyltransferase and sialyltransferase and providing an external supply of a sialylation-related substrate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432810/characterization-of-the-role-of-global-regulator-flia-in-the-pathophysiology-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#4
Yi-Ling Lo, Chyi-Liang Chen, Lunda Shen, Ying-Ching Chen, Yi-Hsin Wang, Chung-Chan Lee, Lian-Chen Wang, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hwan-You Chang
FliA is known to be a sigma factor that regulates bacterial flagella gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that FliA is involved in bacterial behavior other than motility. To elucidate the contribution of FliA to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathophysiology, we analyzed the biological properties and gene expression profiles of a ΔfliA mutant. Transcriptome analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of flagella biogenesis genes decreased dramatically in the mutant; consequently, the ΔfliA mutant failed to synthesize flagella and exhibited reduced motility...
February 9, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398650/tracking-vibrio-cholerae-cell-cell-interactions-during-infection-reveals-bacterial-population-dynamics-within-intestinal-microenvironments
#5
Yang Fu, Brian T Ho, John J Mekalanos
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Although many V. cholerae virulence factors have been studied, the role of interbacterial interactions within the host gut and their influence on colonization are poorly understood. Here, we utilized the conjugative properties of a Vibrio-specific plasmid to serve as a quantifiable genetic marker for direct contact among V. cholerae cells in the infant rabbit model for cholera. In conjunction, we also quantified contact-dependent type 6 secretion system (T6SS)-mediated killing of co-infecting V...
February 1, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380670/a-type-6-secretion-system-t6ss-encoded-gene-within-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-contributes-to-virulence
#6
Bryan Troxell
Bacteria interact with their host through protein secretion systems and surface structures. Pathogenic bacteria encode protein secretion systems that promote the invasion of the host's tissue, the evasion of the host's immune response, the thwarting microbial competitors, and ultimately survival within the host. For motile bacteria, the presence of extracellular flagella provides the host with a structural motif used for activation of the immune system. Within this issue of Virulence, the article "Identification of a novel gene in ROD9 island of Salmonella Enteritidis involved in the alteration of virulence-associated protein expression" describes the contribution of a gene, SEN1005, toward host-pathogen interaction...
January 30, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378818/carbonic-anhydrase-expression-in-the-branchial-ionocytes-of-rainbow-trout
#7
Michael Brannen, Kathleen M Gilmour
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to acid-base challenges activate branchial mechanisms for the excretion of acid-base equivalents. Current models of branchial acid-base excretion in freshwater rainbow trout propose two main ionocyte types; the peanut lectin agglutinin-positive (PNA+) mitochondrion-rich cell or ionocyte is believed to secrete HCO3- in exchange for Cl-, whereas H+ secretion is thought to occur across PNA- ionocytes in exchange for Na+ Both HCO3- and H+ are supplied by intracellular hydration of CO2 catalyzed by cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CAc)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363724/effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-the-polarization-of-macrophages
#8
Yuan Hua Zheng, Yi Yu Deng, Wen Lai, Shao Yi Zheng, Hui Ning Bian, Zu An Liu, Zhi Feng Huang, Chuan Wei Sun, Han Hua Li, Hong Min Luo, Liang Hua Ma, Han Xi Chen, Bing Xiong
Inflammation is a defensive response in the living tissue of the vascular system that acts against damage factors and involves various types of immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, endothelial cells and other associated immune molecules. If the release of inflammatory mediators is excessive, systemic inflammatory response syndrome may develop. Sepsis is the most common complication of severe burns and is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is caused by infectious factors and is capable of leading to multiple organ dysfunction and potentially death...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355056/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-trans-cinnamaldehyde-on-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-macrophage-activation-via-mapks-pathway-regulation
#9
Mi Eun Kim, Ju Yong Na, Jun Sik Lee
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is a primary response of the innate immune system against various infections. Macrophages are a type of immune cell that have a critical role in the inflammation. Recent studies reported that various natural compounds could regulate immune responses such as inflammation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) is a natural compound from cinnamon, especially abundant in cinnamon bark. Previous studies reported that TCA has anti-biofilm, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities...
January 22, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341450/characterization-of-a-novel-papain-inducible-murine-model-of-eosinophilic-rhinosinusitis
#10
Anuj Tharakan, Alex Dobzanski, Nyall R London, Syed M Khalil, Nitya Surya, Andrew P Lane, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and a local type 2 cytokine milieu. Current animal models fail to recapitulate many of the innate and adaptive immunologic hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering the development of effective therapeutics. In the present study, mice were exposed intranasally to the cysteine protease papain, which shares functional similarities with parasitic proteases and aeroallergens, to generate a rapidly inducible murine model of eosinophilic rhinosinusitis...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340960/higher-levels-of-progranulin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-lymphoma-and-carcinoma-with-cns-metastasis
#11
Akio Kimura, Masao Takemura, Ginette Serrero, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Yuichi Hayashi, Kuniaki Saito, Takashi Inuzuka
Assessing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with lymphoma or carcinoma is important in determining therapy and prognosis. Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycosylated protein with roles in cancer growth and survival; it is highly expressed in aggressive cancer cell lines and specimens from many cancer types. We examined PRGN levels by Enzyme Immuno-Assay (EIA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 230 patients, including 18 with lymphoma [12 with CNS metastasis (CNS+); 6 without CNS metastasis (CNS-)], 21 with carcinomas (10 CNS+; 11 CNS-), and 191 control patients with non-cancer neurological diseases, and compared PRGN levels among these disease groups...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324769/impaired-resolution-of-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice-lacking-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-myeloid-cells
#12
Garrit K Meers, Hanibal Bohnenberger, Holger M Reichardt, Fred Lühder, Sybille D Reichardt
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a highly prevalent intestinal disorder for which no cure exists. Currently, the standard first-line treatment of IBD consists of systemic glucocorticoid (GC) application, even though therapy can be complicated by unresponsiveness or adverse effects. In view of the importance of macrophages and neutrophils for the pathogenesis of IBD we set out to define the relevance of these cell types as targets of GC using the mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. We found that the disease did not resolve in GRlysM mice lacking the GC receptor (GR) in myeloid cells after removal of the chemical insult...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324739/mansonella-perstans-microfilaremic-individuals-are-characterized-by-enhanced-type-2-helper-t-and-regulatory-t-and-b-cell-subsets-and-dampened-systemic-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#13
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322219/sirt6-mediated-transcriptional-suppression-of-txnip-is-critical-for-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-and-survival-in-mice
#14
Kunhua Qin, Ning Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Michael Nipper, Zhenxin Zhu, Jake Leighton, Kexin Xu, Nicolas Musi, Pei Wang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Better understanding of how genetic and epigenetic components control beta cell differentiation and function is key to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to prevent beta cell dysfunction and failure in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Our goal was to elucidate the role of histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) in beta cell development and homeostasis. METHODS: Sirt6 endocrine progenitor cell conditional knockout and beta cell-specific knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system...
January 10, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321331/germline-igm-is-sufficient-but-not-required-for-antibody-mediated-alphavirus-clearance-from-the-central-nervous-system
#15
Voraphoj Nilaratanakul, Jie Chen, Oanh Tran, Victoria K Baxter, Elizabeth M Troisi, Jane X Yeh, Diane E Griffin
Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of neurons in the brain and spinal cord in mice provides a model system for investigating recovery from encephalomyelitis and antibody-mediated clearance of virus from the central nervous system (CNS). To determine the roles of IgM and IgG in recovery, we compared the responses of immunoglobulin-deficient activation-induced adenosine deaminase (AID)-/-, secretory IgM (sIgM)-/- and AID-/- sIgM-/- double knock out (DKO) mice with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice for disease, clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from brain and spinal cord, antibody responses and B cell infiltration into the CNS...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288199/comparison-of-t-cell-activities-mediated-by-human-tcrs-and-cars-that-use-the-same-recognition-domains
#16
Daniel T Harris, Marlies V Hager, Sheena N Smith, Qi Cai, Jennifer D Stone, Philipp Kruger, Melissa Lever, Omer Dushek, Thomas M Schmitt, Philip D Greenberg, David M Kranz
Adoptive T cell therapies have achieved significant clinical responses, especially in hematopoietic cancers. Two types of receptor systems have been used to redirect the activity of T cells, normal heterodimeric TCRs or synthetic chimeric Ag receptors (CARs). TCRs recognize peptide-HLA complexes whereas CARs typically use an Ab-derived single-chain fragments variable that recognizes cancer-associated cell-surface Ags. Although both receptors mediate diverse effector functions, a quantitative comparison of the sensitivity and signaling capacity of TCRs and CARs has been limited due to their differences in affinities and ligands...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260646/epidemiology-of-campylobacter-infections-among-children-in-egypt
#17
Rebecca Sainato, Atef ElGendy, Frédéric Poly, Janelle Kuroiwa, Patricia Guerry, Mark S Riddle, Chad K Porter
Campylobacter is a frequently isolated bacterial pathogen among children with diarrhea. Data are lacking on the distribution and spectrum of disease associated with Campylobacter species and Campylobacter jejuni capsular polysaccharide (CPS) types. This information is essential because current vaccine research seeks to target specific CPS types. An effective CPS-conjugate vaccine will need to cover CPS types that are both common and associated with severe disease. The US Naval Medical Research Unit-3 conducted several prospective cohort studies researching diarrheal disease in Egypt from 1995 to 2003...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259700/neuroprotective-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-periventricular-leukomalacia-like-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#18
Chikako Morioka, Motohiro Komaki, Atsuko Taki, Izumi Honda, Naoki Yokoyama, Kengo Iwasaki, Sachiko Iseki, Tomohiro Morio, Ikuo Morita
Background: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of multifactorial brain injury that causes cerebral palsy in premature infants. To date, effective therapies for PVL have not been available. In this study, we examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess neuroprotective property in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neonatal rat PVL-like brain injury. Methods: Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs) were used in this study. Four-day-old rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (15 mg/kg) to cause the PVL-like brain injury and were treated immediately after the LPS-injection with UCMSCs, conditioned medium prepared from MSCs (UCMSC-CM) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-pretreated MSC (IFN-γ-UCMSC-CM)...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236056/the-potential-of-frog-skin-derived-peptides-for-development-into-therapeutically-valuable-immunomodulatory-agents
#19
REVIEW
Jelena M Pantic, Ivan P Jovanovic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Nebojsa N Arsenijevic, J Michael Conlon, Miodrag L Lukic
The aim of this article is to review the immunoregulatory actions of frog skin-derived peptides in order to assess their potential as candidates for immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory therapy. Frog skin peptides with demonstrable immunomodulatory properties have been isolated from skin secretions of a range of species belonging to the families Alytidae, Ascaphidae, Discoglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Pipidae and Ranidae. Their effects upon production of inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines by target cells have been evaluated ex vivo and effects upon cytokine expression and immune cell activity have been studied in vivo by flow cytometry after injection into mice...
December 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230364/complete-genome-sequence-and-comparative-genomics-of-the-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-pathogen-vibrio-harveyi-strain-qt520
#20
Zhigang Tu, Hongyue Li, Xiang Zhang, Yun Sun, Yongcan Zhou
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium that is an opportunistic pathogen of commercially farmed marine vertebrate species. To understand the pathogenicity of this species, the genome of V. harveyi QT520 was analyzed and compared to that of other strains. The results showed the genome of QT520 has two unique circular chromosomes and three endogenous plasmids, totaling 6,070,846 bp with a 45% GC content, 5,701 predicted ORFs, 134 tRNAs and 37 rRNAs. Common virulence factors, including ACF, IlpA, OmpU, Flagellin, Cya, Hemolysin and MARTX, were detected in the genome, which are likely responsible for the virulence of QT520...
2017: PeerJ
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