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Type 6 secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668757/actin-polymerization-in-the-endosomal-pathway-but-not-on-the-coxiella-containing-vacuole-is-essential-for-pathogen-growth
#1
Heather E Miller, Charles L Larson, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the importance of actin in CCV fusion. Filamentous actin patches formed around the CCV membrane that were preferred sites of vesicular fusion. Accordingly, the mediators of endolysosomal fusion Rab7, VAMP7, and syntaxin 8 were concentrated in CCV actin patches...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662488/subretinal-injection-of-hy-peptides-induces-systemic-antigen-specific-inhibition-of-effector-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#2
Julie Vendomèle, Safa Dehmani, Quentin Khebizi, Anne Galy, Sylvain Fisson
Purpose: Injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye induces a peripheral antigen-specific immune modulation mechanism, known as anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID). Delayed-type hypersensitivity experiments argue that the subretinal space (SR) of the eye displays properties similar to ACAID. However, no investigation was performed regarding the differential impact of a subretinal antigen injection on peripheral CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells, on the potential immune deviation regarding Th profiles, and on the antigen-specificity of the inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550635/participation-of-the-ikk-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complex-in-the-inhibition-of-the-tnf-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-by-glycine-possible-involvement-of-a-membrane-receptor-specific-to-adipocytes
#3
Erika Contreras-Nuñez, Gerardo Blancas-Flores, Miguel Cruz, Julio Cesar Almanza-Perez, Jaime H Gomez-Zamudio, Jose Luis Ventura-Gallegosc, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Roberto-Lazzarini, Ruben Roman-Ramos, Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar
Glycine modulates inflammatory processes mediated by macrophages and adipocytes through decreasing the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and leptin, while increasing adiponectin. These effects have been associated with the inactivation of NF-κB in response to TNF-α, across an increase of its inhibitor IκB-α in adipocytes. However, glycine upstream mainly influences the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, a multi-protein kinase complex considered a critical point in regulation of the NF-κB pathway; whether that is responsible for the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IkB has not been explored...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535187/the-hcp-like-protein-hile-inhibits-homodimerization-and-dna-binding-of-the-virulence-associated-transcriptional-regulator-hild-in-salmonella
#4
Claudia C Paredes-Amaya, Gilberto Valdés-García, Víctor R Juárez-González, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Víctor H Bustamante
HilD is an AraC-like transcriptional regulator that plays a central role in Salmonella virulence. HilD controls the expression of the genes within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and of several genes located outside SPI-1, which are mainly required for Salmonella invasion of host cells. The expression, amount and activity of HilD are tightly controlled by the activities of several factors. The HilE protein represses the expression of the SPI-1 genes through its interaction with HilD; however, the mechanism by which HilE affects HilD is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500263/identification-and-characterization-of-bacterial-enzymes-catalyzing-the-synthesis-of-1-8-dihydroxynaphthalene-a-key-precursor-of-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin-from-sorangium-cellulosum
#5
Yusuke Sone, Shuto Nakamura, Makoto Sasaki, Fumihito Hasebe, Seung-Young Kim, Nobutaka Funa
1,8-Dihydroxynaphthalene (1,8-DHN) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of DHN melanin, which is specific to fungi. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of the gene products of an operon consisting of soceCHS1 , bdsA , and bdsB from the gram-negative bacterium, Sorangium cellulosum Heterologous expression of soceCHS1 , bdsA , and bdsB in Streptomyces coelicolor caused secretion of a dark-brown pigment into the broth. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the broth revealed that the recombinant strain produced 1,8-DHN, indicating that the operon encoded a novel enzymatic system for the synthesis of 1,8-DHN...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493404/mycobacterium-marinum-infection-in-fish-and-man-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-management-a-review
#6
Emad Hashish, Abdallah Merwad, Shimaa Elgaml, Ali Amer, Huda Kamal, Ahmed Elsadek, Ayman Marei, Mahmoud Sitohy
Mycobacterium marinum is an opportunistic pathogen inducing infection in fresh and marine water fish. This pathogen causes necrotizing granuloma like tuberculosis, morbidity and mortality in fish. The cell wall-associated lipid phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIM), phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) and ESAT-6 secretion system 1 (ESX-1) are the conserved virulence determinant of the organism. Human infections with Mycobacterium marinum hypothetically are classified into four clinical categories (type I-type IV) and have been associated with the exposure of damaged skin to polluted water from fish pools or contacting objects contaminated with infected fish...
March 1, 2018: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488354/xanthomonas-citri-t6ss-mediates-resistance-to-dictyostelium-predation-and-is-regulated-by-an-ecf-%C3%AF-factor-and-cognate-ser-thr-kinase
#7
Ethel Bayer-Santos, Lidia Dos Passos Lima, Lucas de Moraes Ceseti, Camila Yuri Ratagami, Eliane Silva de Santana, Aline Maria da Silva, Chuck Shaker Farah, Cristina Elisa Alvarez-Martinez
Plant-associated bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas cause disease in a wide range of economically important crops. However, their ability to persist in the environment is still poorly understood. Predation by amoebas represent a major selective pressure to bacterial populations in the environment. In this study, we show that the X. citri type 6 secretion system (T6SS) promotes resistance to predation by the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We found that an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor (EcfK) is required for induction of T6SS genes during interaction with Dictyostelium...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468142/-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-and-its-adhesin-subunit-cagl-mediate-potent-inflammatory-responses-in-primary-human-endothelial-cells
#8
Mona Tafreshi, Jyeswei Guan, Rebecca J Gorrell, Nicole Chew, Yue Xin, Virginie Deswaerte, Manfred Rohde, Roger J Daly, Richard M Peek, Brendan J Jenkins, Elizabeth M Davies, Terry Kwok
The Gram-negative bacterium, Helicobacter pylori , causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in humans. Although the gastric epithelium is the primary site of H. pylori colonization, H. pylori can gain access to deeper tissues. Concurring with this notion, H. pylori has been found in the vicinity of endothelial cells in gastric submucosa. Endothelial cells play crucial roles in innate immune response, wound healing and tumorigenesis. This study examines the molecular mechanisms by which H...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456540/kallikrein-kinin-system-suppresses-type-i-interferon-responses-a-novel-pathway-of-interferon-regulation
#9
Alecia Seliga, Michael Hweemoon Lee, Nicole C Fernandes, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Marta Didukh, Yuri Persidsky, Raghava Potula, Stefania Gallucci, Uma Sriram
The Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS), comprised of kallikreins (klks), bradykinins (BKs) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and many other molecules, regulates a number of physiological processes, including inflammation, coagulation, angiogenesis, and control of blood pressure. In this report, we show that KKS regulates Type I IFN responses, thought to be important in lupus pathogenesis. We used CpG (TLR9 ligand), R848 (TLR7 ligand), or recombinant IFN-α to induce interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and proteins, and observed that this response was markedly diminished by BKs, klk1 (tissue kallikrein), or captopril (an ACE inhibitor)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434698/effect-of-clostridium-butyricum-supplementation-on-the-development-of-intestinal-flora-and-the-immune-system-of-neonatal-mice
#10
Rui-Xue Miao, Xin-Xin Zhu, Chao-Min Wan, Zhi-Ling Wang, Yang Wen, Yi-Yuan Li
The objective of the present study was to examine whether Clostridium butyricum supplementation has a role in the regulation of the intestinal flora and the development of the immune system of neonatal mice. A total of 30 pregnant BALB/c mice, including their offspring, were randomly divided into three groups: In the maternal intervention group (Ba), maternal mice were treated with Clostridium butyricum from birth until weaning at postnatal day 21 (PD21) followed by administration of saline to the offspring at PD21-28; in the offspring intervention group (Ab), breast-feeding maternal mice were supplemented with saline and offspring were directly supplemented with Clostridium butyricum from PD21-28; in the both maternal and offspring intervention group (Bb), both maternal mice and offspring were supplemented with Clostridium butyricum at PD 0-21 and at PD21-28...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434073/placental-growth-factor-plgf-is-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433940/n-glycan-sialylation-in-a-silkworm-baculovirus-expression-system
#12
Masatoshi Suganuma, Tsuyoshi Nomura, Yukiko Higa, Yukiko Kataoka, Shunsuke Funaguma, Hironobu Okazaki, Takeo Suzuki, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Hideki Sezutsu, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Toshiki Tamura
A silkworm-baculovirus system is particularly effective for producing recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins. However, N-glycan structures in silkworm differ from those in mammals. Glycoproteins in silkworm are secreted as pauci-mannose type N-glycans without sialic acid or galactose residues. Sialic acid on N-glycans plays important roles in protein functions. Therefore, we developed pathways for galactosylation and sialylation in silkworm. Sialylated N-glycans on proteins were successfully produced in silkworm by co-expressing galactosyltransferase and sialyltransferase and providing an external supply of a sialylation-related substrate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432810/characterization-of-the-role-of-global-regulator-flia-in-the-pathophysiology-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#13
Yi-Ling Lo, Chyi-Liang Chen, Lunda Shen, Ying-Ching Chen, Yi-Hsin Wang, Chung-Chan Lee, Lian-Chen Wang, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hwan-You Chang
FliA is known to be a sigma factor that regulates bacterial flagella gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that FliA is involved in bacterial behavior other than motility. To elucidate the contribution of FliA to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathophysiology, we analyzed the biological properties and gene expression profiles of a ΔfliA mutant. Transcriptome analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of flagella biogenesis genes decreased dramatically in the mutant; consequently, the ΔfliA mutant failed to synthesize flagella and exhibited reduced motility...
February 9, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398650/tracking-vibrio-cholerae-cell-cell-interactions-during-infection-reveals-bacterial-population-dynamics-within-intestinal-microenvironments
#14
Yang Fu, Brian T Ho, John J Mekalanos
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Although many V. cholerae virulence factors have been studied, the role of interbacterial interactions within the host gut and their influence on colonization are poorly understood. Here, we utilized the conjugative properties of a Vibrio-specific plasmid to serve as a quantifiable genetic marker for direct contact among V. cholerae cells in the infant rabbit model for cholera. In conjunction, we also quantified contact-dependent type 6 secretion system (T6SS)-mediated killing of co-infecting V...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380670/a-type-6-secretion-system-t6ss-encoded-gene-within-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-contributes-to-virulence
#15
Bryan Troxell
Bacteria interact with their host through protein secretion systems and surface structures. Pathogenic bacteria encode protein secretion systems that promote the invasion of the host's tissue, the evasion of the host's immune response, the thwarting microbial competitors, and ultimately survival within the host. For motile bacteria, the presence of extracellular flagella provides the host with a structural motif used for activation of the immune system. Within this issue of Virulence, the article "Identification of a novel gene in ROD9 island of Salmonella Enteritidis involved in the alteration of virulence-associated protein expression" describes the contribution of a gene, SEN1005, toward host-pathogen interaction...
January 30, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378818/carbonic-anhydrase-expression-in-the-branchial-ionocytes-of-rainbow-trout
#16
Michael Brannen, Kathleen M Gilmour
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to acid-base challenges activate branchial mechanisms for the excretion of acid-base equivalents. Current models of branchial acid-base excretion in freshwater rainbow trout propose two main ionocyte types; the peanut lectin agglutinin-positive (PNA+) mitochondrion-rich cell or ionocyte is believed to secrete HCO3- in exchange for Cl-, whereas H+ secretion is thought to occur across PNA- ionocytes in exchange for Na+ Both HCO3- and H+ are supplied by intracellular hydration of CO2 catalyzed by cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CAc)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363724/effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-the-polarization-of-macrophages
#17
Yuan Hua Zheng, Yi Yu Deng, Wen Lai, Shao Yi Zheng, Hui Ning Bian, Zu An Liu, Zhi Feng Huang, Chuan Wei Sun, Han Hua Li, Hong Min Luo, Liang Hua Ma, Han Xi Chen, Bing Xiong
Inflammation is a defensive response in the living tissue of the vascular system that acts against damage factors and involves various types of immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, endothelial cells and other associated immune molecules. If the release of inflammatory mediators is excessive, systemic inflammatory response syndrome may develop. Sepsis is the most common complication of severe burns and is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is caused by infectious factors and is capable of leading to multiple organ dysfunction and potentially death...
March 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355056/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-trans-cinnamaldehyde-on-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-macrophage-activation-via-mapks-pathway-regulation
#18
Mi Eun Kim, Ju Yong Na, Jun Sik Lee
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is a primary response of the innate immune system against various infections. Macrophages are a type of immune cell that have a critical role in the inflammation. Recent studies reported that various natural compounds could regulate immune responses such as inflammation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) is a natural compound from cinnamon, especially abundant in cinnamon bark. Previous studies reported that TCA has anti-biofilm, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities...
January 22, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341450/characterization-of-a-novel-papain-inducible-murine-model-of-eosinophilic-rhinosinusitis
#19
Anuj Tharakan, Alex Dobzanski, Nyall R London, Syed M Khalil, Nitya Surya, Andrew P Lane, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and a local type 2 cytokine milieu. Current animal models fail to recapitulate many of the innate and adaptive immunologic hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering the development of effective therapeutics. In the present study, mice were exposed intranasally to the cysteine protease papain, which shares functional similarities with parasitic proteases and aeroallergens, to generate a rapidly inducible murine model of eosinophilic rhinosinusitis...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340960/higher-levels-of-progranulin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-lymphoma-and-carcinoma-with-cns-metastasis
#20
Akio Kimura, Masao Takemura, Ginette Serrero, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Yuichi Hayashi, Kuniaki Saito, Takashi Inuzuka
Assessing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with lymphoma or carcinoma is important in determining therapy and prognosis. Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycosylated protein with roles in cancer growth and survival; it is highly expressed in aggressive cancer cell lines and specimens from many cancer types. We examined PRGN levels by Enzyme Immuno-Assay (EIA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 230 patients, including 18 with lymphoma [12 with CNS metastasis (CNS+); 6 without CNS metastasis (CNS-)], 21 with carcinomas (10 CNS+; 11 CNS-), and 191 control patients with non-cancer neurological diseases, and compared PRGN levels among these disease groups...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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