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Type 6 secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925697/prevalence-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-in-brazilian-patients-infected-with-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus
#1
Daniela Assis do Vale, Jorge Casseb, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira, Ivo Bussoloti Filho, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa, Karem López Ortega
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is known to be associated with neoplastic and neurodegenerative changes, and it is believed to be associated with various systemic inflammatory diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Although HTLV-I infection is endemic in Brazil, there is no information regarding the association between HTLV-I infection and SS in the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SS in HTLV-I-infected individuals and the prevalence of HTLV-I-infection in individuals diagnosed with SS...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924821/critical-role-of-tslp-responsive-mucosal-dendritic-cells-in-the-induction-of-nasal-antigen-specific-iga-response
#2
S Joo, Y Fukuyama, E J Park, Y Yuki, Y Kurashima, R Ouchida, S F Ziegler, H Kiyono
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7 (IL-7)-like cytokine involved in T helper 2 type immune responses. The primary target of TSLP is myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), however, little is known about the mechanism by which TSLP elicits respiratory IgA immune responses upon mucosal immunization. Here, we found that the levels of TSLP and TSLPR were upregulated in the mucosal DCs of mice nasally immunized with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) plus cholera toxin (CT) compared with those immunized with PspA alone...
December 7, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917866/umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-instruct-monocytes-towards-an-il10-producing-phenotype-by-secreting-il6-and-hgf
#3
Yinan Deng, Yingcai Zhang, Linsen Ye, Tong Zhang, Jintao Cheng, Guihua Chen, Qi Zhang, Yang Yang
Human UC-MSCs are regarded as an attractive alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications due to their easy preparation, higher proliferation and lower immunogenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying immune suppression by UC-MSCs are still unclear. We studied the mechanism of inhibition by UC-MSCs during the differentiation of monocytes into DCs and focused on the specific source and the role of the involved cytokines. We found that UC-MSCs suppressed monocyte differentiation into DCs and instructed monocytes towards other cell types, with clear decreases in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, in the secretion of inflammatory factors and in allostimulatory capacity...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880834/overexpressed-proteins-in-hypervirulent-clade-8-and-clade-6-strains-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-compared-to-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933-clade-3-strain
#4
Natalia Amigo, Qi Zhang, Ariel Amadio, Qunjie Zhang, Wanderson M Silva, Baiyuan Cui, Zhongjian Chen, Mariano Larzabal, Jinlong Bei, Angel Cataldi
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and predominantly affects children under 5 years. The major virulence traits are Shiga toxins, necessary to develop HUS and the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) through which bacteria translocate effector proteins directly into the host cell. By SNPs typing, E. coli O157:H7 was separated into nine different clades. Clade 8 and clade 6 strains were more frequently associated with severe disease and HUS. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in two strains of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872241/the-type-iii-effector-nled-from-enteropathogenic-e-coli-differentiates-between-host-substrates-p38-and-jnk
#5
Kristina Creuzburg, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Nichollas E Scott, Sabrina Mühlen, Elizabeth L Hartland, Jaclyn S Pearson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen that utilises a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject an array of virulence effector proteins into host enterocytes to subvert numerous cellular processes for successful colonisation and dissemination. The T3SS effector NleD is a 28 kDa zinc metalloprotease that is translocated into host enterocytes where it directly cleaves and inactivates the MAP kinase signaling proteins, JNK and p38. Here a library of 91 random transposon based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleD were tested for their ability to cleave JNK and p38 during transient transfection of cultured epithelial cells...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870481/glycemic-effect-and-safety-of-a-systemic-partial-glucokinase-activator-pf-04937319-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-inadequately-controlled-on-metformin-a-randomized-crossover-active-controlled-study
#6
William S Denney, Douglas S Denham, Michael R Riggs, Neeta B Amin
Glucokinase enhances glucose conversion to glucose-6-phosphate, causing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells and increased hepatic glucose uptake. PF-04937319 is a partial glucokinase activator designed to maintain efficacy with reduced hypoglycemia risk. In this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 3-period crossover phase 1b study, patients aged 18-70 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus and on metformin received once-daily PF-04937319 (300 mg), split-dose PF-04937319 (150+100 mg; breakfast+lunch), or sitagliptin (100 mg once daily)...
November 2016: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860234/probing-the-response-of-human-osteoblasts-following-exposure-to-sympathetic-neuron-like-pc-12-cells-in-a-3d-co-culture-model
#7
Josh Erndt-Marino, Mariah S Hahn
Understanding the capacity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to regulate bone homeostasis has implications for a number of metabolic diseases and may help establish connections between certain neurological conditions and bone quality. The goal of the present work was to gain a deeper understanding of the influence of the SNS on the phenotype of osteoblasts, a major cell type in bone. An in vitro co-culture model with human osteoblasts and sympathetic-like, neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma-12 (PC-12) encapsulated within separate 3D poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels was utilized to assess markers involved with bone ECM formation and osteoclast formation...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859892/discovery-of-the-type-vii-esx-1-secretion-needle
#8
Louis Ates, And Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis harbours five ESAT-6/type VII secretion (ESX/T7S) systems. The first esx gene clusters were identified during the genome-sequencing project of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Follow-up studies revealed additional genes playing important roles in ESX/T7S systems. Among the latter genes, one can find those that encode Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins as well as a gene cluster that is encoded > 260 kb upstream of the esx-1 locus and encodes ESX-1 secretion-associated proteins EspA (Rv3616c), EspC (Rv3615c) and EspD (Rv3614c)...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842838/structural-characterization-and-macrophage-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-smilax-glabra-roxb
#9
Min Wang, Xiao-Bo Yang, Jing-Wen Zhao, Chuan-Jian Lu, Wei Zhu
A novel heteropolysaccharide (SGRP1) with great immunomodulatory activity was isolated from the root of Smilax glabra Roxb. by hot water extraction. Physical and chemical analyses showed that SGRP1 had an average molecular weight of 1.26×10(4)Da and was composed of mannose, fucose and glucose in molar ratio of 1.00:3.09:39.41. The glycosidic linkage types of SGRP1 were proven to be (1→3)-linked -α-l-Fuc, (1→3)-linked-α-l-Man, (1→)-linked-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-linked-α-d-Glc. The in vitro immunomodulatory assays demonstrated that SGRP1 could evidently promote the phagocytosis and increase macrophage-derived biological factors including nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion via JNK and ERK signaling pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830989/a-mutagenesis-based-approach-identifies-amino-acids-in-the-n-terminal-part-of-francisella-tularensis-igle-that-critically-control-type-vi-system-mediated-secretion
#10
Jeanette E Bröms, Lena Meyer, Anders Sjöstedt
The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its life cycle is characterized by an ability to survive within phagocytic cells through phagosomal escape and replication in the cytosol, ultimately causing inflammasome activation and host cell death. Required for these processes is the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which encodes a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is active during intracellular infection. In this study, we analyzed the role of the FPI-component IglE, a lipoprotein which we previously have shown to be secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829467/intracerebral-transplantation-of-interleukin-13-producing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-limits-microgliosis-oligodendrocyte-loss-and-demyelination-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model
#11
Debbie Le Blon, Caroline Guglielmetti, Chloé Hoornaert, Alessandra Quarta, Jasmijn Daans, Dearbhaile Dooley, Evi Lemmens, Jelle Praet, Nathalie De Vocht, Kristien Reekmans, Eva Santermans, Niel Hens, Herman Goossens, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden, Zwi Berneman, Sven Hendrix, Peter Ponsaerts
BACKGROUND: Promoting the neuroprotective and repair-inducing effector functions of microglia and macrophages, by means of M2 polarisation or alternative activation, is expected to become a new therapeutic approach for central nervous system (CNS) disorders in which detrimental pro-inflammatory microglia and/or macrophages display a major contribution to the neuropathology. In this study, we present a novel in vivo approach using intracerebral grafting of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) genetically engineered to secrete interleukin 13 (IL13-MSC)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799332/ph-alkalinization-by-chloroquine-suppresses-pathogenic-burkholderia-t6ss-1-and-multi-nucleated-giant-cells
#12
Jennifer Chua, Jeffrey L Senft, Stephen J Lockett, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, David DeShazer, Arthur M Friedlander
Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is formation of granulomas containing multi-nucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on the Type 6 secretion system-1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine (CLQ), an anti-malarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape and subsequent MNGC formation...
October 31, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799293/global-dynamic-proteome-study-of-a-pellicle-forming-acinetobacter-baumannii-strain
#13
Takfarinas Kentache, Ahmed Ben Abdelkrim, Thierry Jouenne, Emmanuelle De, Julie Hardouin
Since several decades, many bacteria, among which A. baumannii, have shown their ability to colonize the upper surface of static liquids, forming a biofilm at the air-liquid interface named pellicle. Despite the ubiquity of these pellicles in both natural and artificial environments, few studies have investigated this biofilm type. The present data set provides the first description of the whole proteome of A. baumannii cells grown as pellicle, using a label-free mass spectrometry approach. Results accord with the general findings reporting that sessile bacteria are far more resistant to detrimental conditions than their planktonic counterparts, by the accumulation of stress proteins...
October 31, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798649/vibrio-vulnificus-type-6-secretion-system-1-contains-anti-bacterial-properties
#14
Selina R Church, Thomas Lux, Craig Baker-Austin, Sam P Buddington, Stephen Ll Michell
Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterium responsible for severe gastroenteritis, sepsis and wound infections. Gastroenteritis and sepsis are commonly associated with the consumption of raw oysters, whereas wound infection is often associated with the handling of contaminated fish. Although classical virulence factors of this emerging pathogen are well characterised, there remains a paucity of knowledge regarding the general biology of this species. To investigate the presence of previously unreported virulence factors, we applied whole genome sequencing to a panel of ten V...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795959/large-gliadin-peptides-detected-in-the-pancreas-of-nod-and-healthy-mice-following-oral-administration
#15
Susanne W Bruun, Knud Josefsen, Julia T Tanassi, Aleš Marek, Martin H F Pedersen, Ulrik Sidenius, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Julie C Antvorskov, Jesper Larsen, Niels H Heegaard, Karsten Buschard
Gluten promotes type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and likely also in humans. In NOD mice and in non-diabetes-prone mice, it induces inflammation in the pancreatic lymph nodes, suggesting that gluten can initiate inflammation locally. Further, gliadin fragments stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells directly. We hypothesized that gluten fragments may cross the intestinal barrier to be distributed to organs other than the gut. If present in pancreas, gliadin could interact directly with the immune system and the beta cells to initiate diabetes development...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795323/essd-a-nuclease-effector-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-ess-pathway
#16
Ryan Jay Ohr, Mark Anderson, Miaomiao Shi, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
: Specialized secretion systems of bacteria evolved for selective advantage, either killing microbial competitors or implementing effector functions during parasitism. Earlier work characterized the ESAT-6 Secretion System (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus and demonstrated its contribution to staphylococcal persistent infection of vertebrate hosts. Here we identify a novel secreted effector of the ESS pathway, EssD, that functions as a nuclease and cleaves DNA, but not RNA. EssI, a protein of the DUF600 family, binds EssD to block its nuclease activity in the staphylococcal cytoplasm...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765811/genomic-analyses-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa1-resequenced-by-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing
#17
Gang Li, Mengyu Shen, Shuai Le, Yinling Tan, Ming Li, Xia Zhao, Wei Shen, Yuhui Yang, Jing Wang, Hongbin Zhu, Shu Li, Xiancai Rao, Fuquan Hu, Shuguang Lu
As a third-generation sequencing (TGS) method, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology provides long read length, and it is well suited for resequencing projects and de novo assembly. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 was characterized and resequenced using SMRT technology. PA1 was also subjected to genomic, comparative and pan-genomic analyses. The multidrug resistant strain PA1 possesses a 6,498,072 bp genome and a sequence type of ST-782. The genome of PA1 was also visualized, and the results revealed the details of general genome annotations, virulence factors, regulatory proteins (RPs), secretion system proteins, type II toxin-antitoxin (T-A) pairs and genomic islands...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758771/tlr9-activation-suppresses-inflammation-in-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#18
Matthew G Varga, M Blanca Piazuelo, Judith Romero-Gallo, Alberto G Delgado, Giovanni Suarez, Morgan E Whitaker, Uma S Krishna, Rachna V Patel, Eric P Skaar, Keith T Wilson, Holly M S Algood, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces chronic gastritis in humans, and infection can persist for decades. One H. pylori strain-specific constituent that augments disease risk is the cag pathogenicity island. The cag island encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates DNA into host cells. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune receptor that detects hypo-methylated CpG DNA motifs. In this study, we sought to define the role of the H. pylori cag T4SS on TLR9-mediated responses in vivo...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744102/a-metabolomics-investigation-of-the-function-of-the-esx-1-gene-cluster-in-mycobacteria
#19
Du Toit Loots, Conrad C Swanepoel, Mae Newton-Foot, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius
The ESX-1 gene cluster, encoding the Type-VII secretion (T7S) system and its virulence associated proteins, ESAT-6 and CFP-10, is thought to be responsible for the transport of extracellular proteins across the hydrophobic and highly impermeable, cell envelope of Mycobacterium, and is involved in virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Using a GCxGC-TOFMS metabolomics approach, a M. smegmatis ESX-1 knock-out strain (ΔESX-1ms) was compared to that of the M. smegmatis wild-type parent strain, and the metabolite markers due to the presence or absence of the ESX-1 gene cluster were identified...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738721/a-simple-strategy-for-extracellular-production-of-cota-laccase-in-escherichia-coli-and-decolorization-of-simulated-textile-effluent-by-recombinant-laccase
#20
Tian-Nyu Wang, Min Zhao
Laccases are green oxidases with a number of potential industrial applications. In this study, recombinant Bacillus subtilis CotA laccase was secreted by Escherichia coli via both the α-hemolysin secretion system and the YebF secretion system after microaerobic induction. Meanwhile, we discovered a much simpler approach for extracellular production of recombinant CotA laccase from E. coli, involving alternation of induction conditions to release recombinant CotA following intracellular expression. By optimizing the induction parameters, the extracellular yield of recombinant CotA laccase was improved from 157...
October 13, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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