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Type 6 secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533521/hepatocyte-shp-1-is-a-critical-modulator-of-inflammation-during-endotoxemia
#1
Anupam Adhikari, Caroline Martel, André Marette, Martin Olivier
Liver hepatocytes (Hep) are known to be central players during the inflammatory response to systemic infection. Interestingly, the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) SHP-1, has been recognized as a major regulator of inflammation; however their implication in the control of Hep-mediated inflammatory response is still unknown. To study its implication in the regulation of the Hep-mediated inflammatory response during endotoxemia, Cre-Lox mice with a Hep-specific Ptpn6 deletion (Ptpn6 (H-KO) ) were injected with LPS...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532656/the-il-33-st2-axis-is-crucial-in-type-2-airway-responses-induced-by-the-staphylococcus-aureus-protease-spld
#2
Andrea R Teufelberger, Maria Nordengrün, Harald Braun, Tania Maes, Katrien De Grove, Gabriele Holtappels, Clara O'Brien, Sharen Provoost, Hamida Hammad, Amanda Gonçalves, Rudi Beyaert, Wim Declercq, Peter Vandenabeele, Dmitri V Krysko, Barbara M Bröker, Claus Bachert, Olga Krysko
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma showed increased nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization. Serine protease like protein D (SplD) and other closely related proteases secreted by S. aureus have recently been identified as inducers of allergic asthma in humans and mice but their mechanism of action is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of recombinant SplD in driving Th2-biased responses and IgE formation in a murine model of allergic asthma...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513416/the-role-of-esx-1-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pathogenesis
#3
Ka-Wing Wong
In this article, we have described several cellular pathological effects caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-1. The effects include induction of necrosis, NOD2 signaling, type I interferon production, and autophagy. We then attempted to suggest that these pathological effects are mediated by the cytosolic access of M. tuberculosis-derived materials as a result of the phagosome-disrupting activity of the major ESX-1 substrate ESAT-6. Such activity of ESAT-6 is most likely due to its pore-forming activity at the membrane...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510418/conjugation-reaction-with-8-arm-peg-markedly-improves-the-immunogenicity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cfp10-tb10-4-fusion-protein
#4
Xiaowei Sun, Weili Yu, Quanhai Pang, Tao Hu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen responsible for tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is highly desired for immunoprotection against Mtb infection. CFP10 and TB10.4 are two important immunodominant Mtb-secreted protein antigens, which suffer from poor immunogenicity. Thus, an antigen delivery system and adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of the two proteins. CFP10 and TB10.4 are two Mtb-secreted immunodominant protein antigens. A CFP10-TB10.4 fusion protein (CT) was used as the antigen...
May 16, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508449/satellite-glial-cells-in-human-trigeminal-ganglia-have-a-broad-expression-of-functional-toll-like-receptors
#5
Johanna G Mitterreiter, Werner J D Ouwendijk, Monique van Velzen, Gijsbert P van Nierop, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Georges M G M Verjans
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) orchestrate immune responses to a wide variety of danger- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), expression profile and function of TLRs in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) are ill-defined. We analyzed TLR expression of satellite glial cells (SGCs) and microglia, glial cells predominantly involved in local immune responses in ganglia of the human PNS and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the CNS, respectively. Ex vivo flow cytometry analysis of cell suspensions obtained from human cadaveric trigeminal ganglia (TG) and NAWM showed that both SGCs and microglia expressed TLR1-5, TLR7 and TLR9, although expression levels varied between these cell types...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508092/a-metabonomic-analysis-on-the-response-of-enterobacter-cloacae-from-coastal-outfall-for-land-based-pollutant-under-phoxim-stress
#6
Dijun Zhang, Shan He, Tinghong Ming, Chenyang Lu, Jun Zhou, Xiurong Su
Enterobacter cloacae is an opportunistic pathogen widely distributed in human and animal intestinal systems. The secretion of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and cephalosporinase (AmpC) endows E. cloacae with strong drug resistance. In a previous study by our group, protein expression of E. cloacae under phoxim stress was measured by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Here, nuclear magnetic resonance was used to detect differences in E. cloacae metabonomics when under phoxim stress. We determined that there are 29 types of metabolites that differ between phoxim stress and normal culture conditions...
May 15, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507064/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-traf6-mediates-ubiquitination-dependent-stat3-activation-upon-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#7
Hai-Hua Ruan, Zhen Zhang, Su-Ying Wang, Logan M Nickels, Li Tian, Jian-Jun Qiao, Jun Zhu
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) can inject effector proteins into host cells via Type III secretion systems (T3SSs). These effector proteins modulate a variety of host transcriptional responses to facilitate bacterial growth and survival. Here, we show that S Typhimurium infection of host cells specifically induces ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This TRAF6 ubiquitination is triggered by the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-I) T3SS effectors SopB and SopE2...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500733/bordetella-effector-bopn-is-translocated-into-host-cells-via-its-n-terminal-residues
#8
Akio Abe, Ryutaro Nishimura, Asaomi Kuwae
Bordetella bronchiseptica infects a wide variety of mammals, and the type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in the long-term colonization of Bordetella in the trachea and lung. The T3SS translocates virulence factors (commonly referred to as effectors) into host cells, leading to alteration of the host physiological function. The Bordetella effectors BopN and BteA are known to have roles in the up-regulation of IL-10 and the cytotoxicity, respectively. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which BopN is translocated into host cells has not been examined in sufficient detail...
May 13, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486968/complete-sequence-and-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-eight-native-pseudomonas-syringae-plasmids-belonging-to-the-ppt23a-family
#9
José A Gutiérrez-Barranquero, Francisco M Cazorla, Antonio de Vicente, George W Sundin
BACKGROUND: The pPT23A family of plasmids appears to be indigenous to the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and these plasmids are widely distributed and widely transferred among pathovars of P. syringae and related species. pPT23A-family plasmids (PFPs) are sources of accessory genes for their hosts that can include genes important for virulence and epiphytic colonization of plant leaf surfaces. The occurrence of repeated sequences including duplicated insertion sequences on PFPs has made obtaining closed plasmid genome sequences difficult...
May 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481867/the-rb-il-6-axis-controls-self-renewal-and-endocrine-therapy-resistance-by-fine-tuning-mitochondrial-activity
#10
S Kitajima, A Yoshida, S Kohno, F Li, S Suzuki, N Nagatani, Y Nishimoto, N Sasaki, H Muranaka, Y Wan, T C Thai, N Okahashi, F Matsuda, H Shimizu, T Nishiuchi, Y Suzuki, K Tominaga, N Gotoh, M Suzuki, M E Ewen, D A Barbie, O Hirose, T Tanaka, C Takahashi
Retinoblastoma (RB) protein inactivation during tumor progression is often associated with acquisition of immature phenotypes and resistance to therapy. Determination of an RB inactivation signature in a context of gaining undifferentiated phenotype in a p53-null sarcoma system revealed a critical role for interleukin (IL)-6. Using a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), we discovered that poorly differentiated breast cancers are enriched for this RB inactivation signature. Accelerated IL-6 secretion following RB inactivation in an RB-intact luminal-type breast cancer cell line MCF-7 promoted a positive feed forward loop between IL-6 and STAT3 driving tumor growth and endocrine therapy resistance...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435976/-role-of-igg-plasma-cells-in-the-change-of-protein-c-system-in-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Xu-Hong Lin, Jun-Ling Guo, Yu-Qing Wen, Yu-Xia Li, Dan-Dan Wei, Rui-Lin Yang, Xiao-Yun Mu, Hui-Chao Wang
The present study is designed to explore the role of plasma cells in the change of protein C system (PCS) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 4% in concentration) was used to induce mouse UC model. The plasma cells and the type of immune complex in colon were observed by immunofluorescence. The amount and type of plasma cells separated from colonic mucosal lamina propria were detected by flow cytometry using anti-CD54(+)CD38(+) and IgA/M/G antibodies, respectively. After stimulation of macrophages by IgG type immune complex, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were evaluated by ELISA...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423120/primary-cultures-of-mouse-small-intestinal-epithelial-cells-using-the-dissociating-enzyme-type-i-collagenase-and-hyaluronidase
#12
H J Ren, C L Zhang, R D Liu, N Li, X G Li, H K Xue, Y Guo, Z Q Wang, J Cui, L Ming
The epithelium is a highly dynamic system, which plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of the intestinal tract. However, studies on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to lack of normal epithelial cell models. In the present study, we established a reproducible method for primary culture of mouse IECs, which were isolated from the viable small intestinal crypts of murine fetuses (on embryonic day 19), using type I collagenase and hyaluronidase in a short span of time (≤20 min)...
April 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421913/type-vi-secretion-systems-of-erwinia-amylovora-contribute-to-bacterial-competition-virulence-and-exopolysaccharide-production
#13
Yanli Tian, Yuqiang Zhao, Linye Shi, Zhongli Cui, Baishi Hu, Youfu Zhao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) plays a major role in mediating interbacterial competition and might contribute to virulence in plant pathogenic bacteria. However, the role of T6SS in Erwinia amylovora remains unknown. In this study, 33 deletion mutants within three T6SS clusters were generated in E. amylovora strain NCPPB1665. Our results showed that all 33 mutants displayed reduced antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli as compared with that of the wild-type (WT) strain, indicating that Erwinia amylovora T6SS are functional...
June 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421662/the-outer-membrane-vesicles-secretion-system-type-zero
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, Jose Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Gram-negative bacteria have mechanisms through which they can colonize and survive in different environments, such as the secretion systems types (1-6) that have been widely studied and characterized. Nowadays, some authors have proposed extracellular structures, such as the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), to be considered as an additional and independent secretion system. The OMVs are spherical particles of 50-250 nm in diameter; they originate in the outer membrane, and therefore they have a very similar composition to the latter...
April 19, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412968/interleukin-1-primes-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-an-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-trophic-phenotype-in-vitro
#15
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Licia Martuscelli, Sarah Aoulad-Ali, Nancy J Rothwell, Cay M Kielty, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key contributor to central nervous system (CNS) injury such as stroke, and is a major target for therapeutic intervention. Effective treatments for CNS injuries are limited and applicable to only a minority of patients. Stem cell-based therapies are increasingly considered for the treatment of CNS disease, because they can be used as in-situ regulators of inflammation, and improve tissue repair and recovery. One promising option is the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can secrete anti-inflammatory and trophic factors, can migrate towards inflamed and injured sites or can be implanted locally...
April 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410371/determining-the-role-of-missense-mutations-in-the-pou-domain-of-hnf1a-that-reduce-the-dna-binding-affinity-a-computational-approach
#16
Sneha P, Thirumal Kumar D, George Priya Doss C, Siva R, Hatem Zayed
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is a non-ketotic form of diabetes associated with poor insulin secretion. Over the past years, several studies have reported the association of missense mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha (HNF1A) with MODY3. Missense mutations in the POU homeodomain (POUH) of HNF1A hinder binding to the DNA, thereby leading to a dysfunctional protein. Missense mutations of the HNF1A were retrieved from public databases and subjected to a three-step computational mutational analysis to identify the underlying mechanism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380080/biodegradable-poly-lactic-acid-co-glycolic-acid-scaffolds-as-carriers-for-genetically-modified-fibroblasts
#17
Tatjana Perisic, Ziyang Zhang, Peter Foehr, Ursula Hopfner, Kathrin Klutz, Rainer H Burgkart, Alexei Slobodianski, Moritz Goeldner, Hans-Günther Machens, Arndt F Schilling
Recent advances in gene delivery into cells allow improved therapeutic effects in gene therapy trials. To increase the bioavailability of applied cells, it is of great interest that transfected cells remain at the application site and systemic spread is minimized. In this study, we tested clinically used biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds (Vicryl & Ethisorb) as transient carriers for genetically modified cells. To this aim, we used human fibroblasts and examined attachment and proliferation of untransfected cells on the scaffolds in vitro, as well as the mechanical properties of the scaffolds at four time points (1, 3, 6 and 9 days) of cultivation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367002/tsg-6-downregulates-ifn-alpha-and-tnf-alpha-expression-by-suppressing-irf7-phosphorylation-in-human-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#18
L Kui, G C Chan, P P W Lee
Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and type I interferons (IFN) are pathogenic signatures of systemic lupus erythematosus, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role by predominantly producing IFN-α. Given the rise of importance in identifying tumor necrosis stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) as a key anti-inflammatory regulator, we investigate its function and its ability to counteract proinflammatory cytokine secretion by pDCs in vitro. CpG-A and R837 induced significant endogenous TSG-6 expression in the pDC cell-line GEN2...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366834/the-wilms-tumor-protein-wt1-stimulates-transcription-of-the-gene-encoding-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-igfbp5
#19
Miriam Müller, Anja Bondke Persson, Katharina Krueger, Karin M Kirschner, Holger Scholz
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) constitute a family of six secreted proteins that regulate the signaling of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5 is the most conserved family member in vertebrates and the major IGF binding protein in bone. IGFBP5 is required for normal development of the musculoskeletal system, and various types of cancer frequently express high levels of IGFP5. Here we identify the gene encoding IGFBP5 as a novel downstream target of the Wilms tumor protein WT1...
July 1, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357654/human-adipocyte-differentiation-and-characterization-in-a-perfusion-based-cell-culture-device
#20
Yunxiao Liu, Patthara Kongsuphol, Sajay Bhuvanendran Nair Gourikutty, Qasem Ramadan
Adipocytes have gained significant attention recently, because they are not only functioning as energy storage but also as endocrine cells. Adipocytes secret various signaling molecules, including adiponectin, MCP-1, and IL-6, termed collectively as "adipokines". Adipokines regulate glucose metabolism, thereby play an important role in obesity, diabetes type 2, and other metabolic disorders. Conventionally, to study the secretory function, adipocytes are cultured in vitro in static conditions. However, static culturing condition falls short of mimicking the interstitial fluid flows in living systems...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
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