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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141367/-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-neural-stem-cells-induced-by-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-signal-pathway
#1
S Q Chen, M Huang, C L Liu, Y Y Shen, Q Cai, P J Wang
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to differentiate into neural stem cells (NSCs) via Wnt/β-catenin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK/MAPK) signal pathways. Methods: iPSCs were cultured and identified. The iPSCs were induced to differentiate into NSCs by BDNF and retinoic acid (RA). Nestin was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry after iPSCs differentiated...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141316/-a-clinical-analysis-of-micafungin-treatment-of-pulmonary-invasive-fungal-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-or-post-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplantation
#2
K Huang, K Y Qiu, L L Deng, J P Fang, Y Li, H X Guo, D H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of micafungin (MCF) for pulmonary invasive fungal disease (PIFD) in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Method: Twenty-five neutropenic PIFD children with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were selected from January 2012 to June 2015, including 12 males and 13 females, age range 2-15 (average 6.2±2.0) years. There were 12 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after chemotherapy, 4 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and 9 cases of β-thalassemia major after allo-HSCT...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141234/elevated-p53-activities-restrict-differentiation-potential-of-microrna-deficient-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Zhong Liu, Cheng Zhang, Maria Skamagki, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Wei Zhang, Dexin Kong, Chia-Wei Chang, Jingyang Feng, Xiaosi Han, Tim M Townes, Hu Li, Kitai Kim, Rui Zhao
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) deficient for microRNAs (miRNAs), such as Dgcr8(-/-) or Dicer(-/-) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), contain no mature miRNA and cannot differentiate into somatic cells. How miRNA deficiency causes differentiation defects remains poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-302 is sufficient to enable neural differentiation of differentiation-incompetent Dgcr8(-/-) ESCs. Our data showed that miR-302 directly suppresses the tumor suppressor p53, which is modestly upregulated in Dgcr8(-/-) ESCs and serves as a barrier restricting neural differentiation...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141233/mirnome-profiling-of-purified-endoderm-and-mesoderm-differentiated-from-hescs-reveals-functions-of-mir-483-3p-and-mir-1263-for-cell-fate-decisions
#4
Daichi Ishikawa, Ulf Diekmann, Jan Fiedler, Annette Just, Thomas Thum, Sigurd Lenzen, Ortwin Naujok
Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine since they can differentiate into all somatic cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) could be important for the regulation of these cell-fate decisions. Profiling of miRNAs revealed 19 differentially expressed miRNAs in the endoderm and 29 in the mesoderm when analyzing FACS-purified cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. The mesodermal-enriched miR-483-3p was identified as an important regulator for the generation of mesodermal PDGFRA(+) paraxial cells...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#5
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141229/widespread-translational-remodeling-during-human-neuronal-differentiation
#6
John D Blair, Dirk Hockemeyer, Jennifer A Doudna, Helen S Bateup, Stephen N Floor
Faithful cellular differentiation requires temporally precise activation of gene expression programs, which are coordinated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Neurons express the most complex set of mRNAs of any human tissue, but translational changes during neuronal differentiation remain incompletely understood. Here, we induced forebrain neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and measured genome-wide RNA and translation levels with transcript-isoform resolution. We found that thousands of genes change translation status during differentiation without a corresponding change in RNA level...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141228/transcriptional-profiling-of-quiescent-muscle-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Cindy T J van Velthoven, Antoine de Morree, Ingrid M Egner, Jamie O Brett, Thomas A Rando
Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) persist in a quiescent state and activate in response to specific stimuli. The quiescent state is both actively maintained and dynamically regulated. However, analyses of quiescence have come primarily from cells removed from their niche. Although these cells are still quiescent, biochemical changes certainly occur during the isolation process. Here, we analyze the transcriptome of MuSCs in vivo utilizing MuSC-specific labeling of RNA. Notably, labeling transcripts during the isolation procedure revealed very active transcription of specific subsets of genes...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141227/in-situ-fixation-redefines-quiescence-and-early-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#8
Léo Machado, Joana Esteves de Lima, Odile Fabre, Caroline Proux, Rachel Legendre, Anikó Szegedi, Hugo Varet, Lars Roed Ingerslev, Romain Barrès, Frédéric Relaix, Philippos Mourikis
State of the art techniques have been developed to isolate and analyze cells from various tissues, aiming to capture their in vivo state. However, the majority of cell isolation protocols involve lengthy mechanical and enzymatic dissociation steps followed by flow cytometry, exposing cells to stress and disrupting their physiological niche. Focusing on adult skeletal muscle stem cells, we have developed a protocol that circumvents the impact of isolation procedures and captures cells in their native quiescent state...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141221/chemotherapy-induced-depletion-of-oct4-positive-cancer-stem-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-malignant-testicular-cancer
#9
Timothy M Pierpont, Amy M Lyndaker, Claire M Anderson, Qiming Jin, Elizabeth S Moore, Jamie L Roden, Alicia Braxton, Lina Bagepalli, Nandita Kataria, Hilary Zhaoxu Hu, Jason Garness, Matthew S Cook, Blanche Capel, Donald H Schlafer, Teresa Southard, Robert S Weiss
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are among the most responsive solid cancers to conventional chemotherapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a mouse TGCT model featuring germ cell-specific Kras activation and Pten inactivation. The resulting mice developed malignant, metastatic TGCTs composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma, the latter of which exhibited stem cell characteristics, including expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4. Consistent with epidemiological data linking human testicular cancer risk to in utero exposures, embryonic germ cells were susceptible to malignant transformation, whereas adult germ cells underwent apoptosis in response to the same oncogenic events...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141183/functional-outcomes-of-acute-inpatient-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#10
Jason Leung, Sean Smith, Claire Kalpakjian
BACKGROUND: Growing numbers of allogeneic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and improved post-transplant care have led to an increase of individuals with chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD). Although cGVHD leads to functional impairment for many, there is limited literature regarding the benefits of acute inpatient rehabilitation for cGVHD patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess Functional Independence Measure (FIM) outcomes of cGVHD patients during acute inpatient rehabilitation, and to compare inpatient rehabilitation outcomes to burn patients, a rehabilitation patient population with similar co-morbidities...
November 12, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#11
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141105/the-feasibility-of-intraperitoneal-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-injection-in-stomachs-of-diabetic-mice
#12
Jong Min Park, Sang Hwan Lee, Kwang Il Kim, Won Hee Kim, Joo Young Cho, Ki Baik Hahm, Sung Pyo Hong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic gastropathy is associated with loss of Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and autonomic neuropathy. Effective management for diabetic gastropathy is still unavailable. This study was aimed to confirm the pathogenetic changes in diabetic gastropathy and to examine the effect of treatment with placental derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs) in stomachs of animal models. METHODS: Fourteen NOD/ShiLtJ mice of 8 weeks were bled until week 30...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141085/the-contribution-of-foveal-and-peripheral-visual-information-to-ensemble-representation-of-face-race
#13
Wonmo Jung, Isabelle Bülthoff, Regine G M Armann
The brain can only attend to a fraction of all the information that is entering the visual system at any given moment. One way of overcoming the so-called bottleneck of selective attention (e.g., J. M. Wolfe, Võ, Evans, & Greene, 2011) is to make use of redundant visual information and extract summarized statistical information of the whole visual scene. Such ensemble representation occurs for low-level features of textures or simple objects, but it has also been reported for complex high-level properties...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140957/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-1-7-on-cd34-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#14
Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Carl J Pepine, Michael J Katovich, Maria B Grant, Mohan K Raizada, Sugata Hazra
The dysfunctional nature of CD34 cells from heart failure (HF) patients makes them unsuitable for autologous stem cell therapy. In view of evidence that the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) improves CD34 cell functions, we hypothesized that CD34 cells from HF patients will be dysfunctional and that Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] would improve their function. Peripheral blood was collected from NYHA class II-IV HF patients (n=31) and reference subjects (n=16). CD34 cell numbers from HF patients were reduced by 47% (p<0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140941/phenotype-and-management-of-infantile-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-china
#15
Ziqing Ye, Ying Zhou, Ying Huang, Yuhuan Wang, Junping Lu, Zifei Tang, Shijian Miao, Kuiran Dong, Zhinong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises rare and clinically severe disorders. We examined the phenotypes and genetic causes of patients with infantile-onset IBD from a tertiary medical center. METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with infantile-onset IBD and applied standardized treatment with medical, surgical, and supportive care. Targeted sequencing and whole-exome sequencing were performed. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140847/overexpressed-wild-type-superoxide-dismutase-1-exhibits-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-related-misfolded-conformation-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-spinal-motor-neurons
#16
Kenichi Komatsu, Keiko Imamura, Hirofumi Yamashita, Jean-Pierre Julien, Ryosuke Takahashi, Haruhisa Inoue
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset, fatal disorder in which motor neurons selectively degenerate. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was found to be a causative gene of familial ALS, and mutant SOD1 transgenic mice recapitulated ALS phenotypes. Analysis of these mice showed accumulation of misfolded SOD1 protein in motor neurons. Misfolded SOD1 accumulation was found in spinal motor neurons of both familial ALS patients with the SOD1 mutation and sporadic ALS patients. However, it is unclear what condition causes wild-type SOD1 misfolding in patients without the SOD1 mutation...
November 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140809/stem-cell-therapy-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-on-the-horizon-or-still-a-dream
#17
Kenneth M Fish, Kiyotake Ishikawa, Roger J Hajjar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140591/preventive-effects-of-tonsil-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-osteoradionecrosis-in-a-rat-model
#18
Hae Sang Park, Jihae Lee, Jin-Woo Kim, Ha Young Kim, Soo Yeon Jung, Sung Min Lee, Chan Hum Park, Han Su Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on osteoradionecrosis (ORN). METHOD: We generated a mandibular ORN rat model using a combination of 20-Gy single-dose irradiation and tooth extraction. Study groups were negative control (tooth extraction only), ORN group (irradiation, tooth extraction), Matrigel-1 group (Matrigel; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA; irradiation, Matrigel application immediately after tooth extraction), tonsil-derived MSC-1 group (irradiation, tonsil-derived MSC application immediately after tooth extraction), Matrigel-4 group (irradiation, Matrigel application 4 weeks after tooth extraction), and tonsil-derived MSC-4 group (irradiation, tonsil-derived MSC application 4 weeks after tooth extraction)...
November 15, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140570/rapid-screening-of-the-endodermal-differentiation-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Richard Siller, Gareth J Sullivan
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold tremendous promise for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, toxicology screening, and developmental biology. These applications are hindered due to inherent differences in differentiation potential observed among different hPSC lines. This is particularly true for the differentiation of hPSCs toward the endodermal lineage. Several groups have developed methods to screen hPSCs for their endodermal differentiation potential (EP). Particularly notable studies include (i) the use of WNT3A expression as a predictive biomarker, (ii) an embryoid body-based screen, and (iii) a transcriptomics-based approach...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140569/single-cell-functional-analysis-of-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-on-micropatterned-flexible-substrates
#20
Jan David Kijlstra, Dongjian Hu, Peter van der Meer, Ibrahim J Domian
Human pluripotent stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) hold great promise for applications in human disease modeling, drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and, ultimately, regenerative medicine. The ability to study multiple parameters of hPSC-CM function, such as contractile and electrical activity, calcium cycling, and force generation, is therefore of paramount importance. hPSC-CMs cultured on stiff substrates like glass or polystyrene do not have the ability to shorten during contraction, making them less suitable for the study of hPSC-CM contractile function...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
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