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Timo-Benjamin Baumeister, Ingo Wickenbrock, Christian A Perings
Methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)) is an increasingly used medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cardiovascular adverse effects like vasospasm or myocardial infarction are described as very rare adverse effects. We present the case of a 21-year-old man diagnosed with ADHD who recently started therapy with Ritalin(®) Adult 20 mg for at least 3 days. Afterwards he presented with chest pain, elevated troponin and creatine kinase, and posterolateral ST elevations. A myocarditis was initially supposed...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Xiaoxia Yang, John Duan, Jeffrey Fisher
A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH) was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER) MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH...
2016: PloS One
Alexa Gomez, Alexandra N Petrucci, Lauren Dance, Jessica Morales-Valenzuela, Nicole Gibbs, Cara C Dahlhausen, Jessica R Villatoro, Russell F Frohardt, Fay A Guarraci
The present study was designed to test the effects of an acute, high dose of methylphenidate (MPH; trademarked as Ritalin) on sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, naturally cycling subjects in estrus were tested for partner preference 20min after receiving an i.p. injection of MPH 10mg/kg (n=8) or saline (n=7). During the partner-preference test, female subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male stimulus or a sexually receptive female stimulus. Physical contact was limited by placing the stimulus animals behind a wire mesh during the no-contact phase of the test, whereas physical contact was not limited during the contact phase...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Bjarke Nielsen
The ADHD epidemic has been the subject of much scrutiny, especially in relation to the medicalization of children, and, to a lesser degree, to the use of Ritalin as a performance enhancer or party drug (e.g. Keane 2008; Whitaker 2010; Bowden 2013). In this article, my focus is on non-investigated side-effects of this epidemic, namely the use of (prescription) Ritalin among heavy drug users. Based on fieldwork conducted in one of the largest cities in Denmark, in this article I trace the spread of intravenous use of Ritalin, and examine how different ways of ingesting Ritalin transform the drug itself, and, with this, transform treatment practices, parts of the drug scene, and the bodies of users...
September 27, 2016: Medical Anthropology
Monica D Rosenberg, Sheng Zhang, Wei-Ting Hsu, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, R Todd Constable, Chiang-Shan R Li, Marvin M Chun
UNLABELLED: Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained attention task, and a low-attention network, comprising connections negatively correlated with performance...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Methylphenidate (MPH) is primarily indicated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy therapy. A marked individual variability in the dose-response has been observed, and therefore dosage must be titrated for optimal therapeutic effect with minimal toxicity. This variability has been claimed to be predominantly pharmacokinetic. Moreover, due to its similar pharmacodynamics to amphetamine, MPH has been abused and fatalities have been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolomics of MPH, namely by presenting all major and minor metabolites...
July 20, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Nicholas W Simon, Bita Moghaddam
Ongoing development of the dopamine system during adolescence may provide a partial mechanism for behavioral and psychiatric vulnerabilities. Despite early evidence for a hyperactive adolescent dopaminergic system, recent data suggest that adolescent dopamine may be functionally hypoactive compared to in adults. While this distinction has been established in response to dopaminergic drugs and natural rewards, little is known about age-related differences in cognitive efficacy of dopaminergic drugs. Using a recently established Cued Response Inhibition Task, we tested the effects of acute systemic methylphenidate, commonly known as Ritalin, on response inhibition and response initiation in adolescent and adults rats...
July 16, 2016: Brain Research
Emilia Marchei, Ilaria Palmi, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici, Ileana-Rita Anton Airaldi, Juan Antonio Costa Orvay, Joan García Serra, Bartolomé Bonet Serra, Óscar García-Algar
This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome.Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child's blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified...
2016: Adicciones
Alicia R Dymowski, Jennie L Ponsford, Jacqueline A Owens, John H Olver, Michael Ponsford, Catherine Willmott
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of extended-release methylphenidate in enhancing processing speed, complex attentional functioning and everyday attentional behaviour after traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Seven week randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel pilot study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven individuals with reduced processing speed and/or attention deficits following complicated mild to severe traumatic brain injury...
June 27, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Jeff M Housman, Ronald D Williams, Conrad L Woolsey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. METHODS: Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Elaheh Salardini, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Asghar Kohi, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Payam Mohammadinejad, Mohammad Khiabany, Mona Shahriari, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder. Due to lack of response to the medication and significant side effects of the treatment with stimulants, alternative medications should be considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy of agomelatine in treatment of ADHD. METHODS: Fifty-four outpatients, children 6-15 years old, with diagnosis of ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria participated in a 6-week, parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Ann C Childress
INTRODUCTION: Since Ritalin (methylphenidate immediate-release or MPH IR) was first marketed in 1955, it has been a mainstay of treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). AREAS COVERED: The postulated mechanism of action, adverse events and efficacy of MPH are examined. MPH formulations that are currently on the market in the United States and those that will soon be available are considered. Various products are examined by comparing onset of effect and duration of action...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Gerlinde Schuhfried, Günter Schuhfried
The administration of methylphenidate (Ritalin®) to a patient with Alzheimer's disease who was in a critical condition (i.e. refusal of food, apathy and congestive heart failure) resulted in recovery to a stable health condition and stabilization of dementia. In this article various aspects of methylphenidate therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease are presented.
April 13, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Michael Owen
I agree caution needs to be exercised in using methylphenidate, most commonly known as Ritalin, for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, (clinical update, January 20).
February 10, 2016: Nursing Standard
P D Maskell, P R Smith, R Cole, L Hikin, S R Morley
Ethylphenidate is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance that is an analogue of the prescription drug methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)). Methylphenidate is used commonly for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to its stimulant effects ethylphenidate is being abused. There is a single case report of a death associated with ethylphenidate in Germany, and a case series of 19 deaths in the East of Scotland, but otherwise, the contribution of ethylphenidate to death is poorly documented...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
Chenghao Zhang, Huafei Luo, Yubo Wu, Junyun Zhang, Furong Zhang, Guobei Lin, Hao Wang
A chiral UFLC-MS/MS method was established and validated for quantifying d-threo-methylphenidate (d-threo-MPH), l-threo-methylphenidate (l-threo-MPH), d-threo-ethylphenidate (d-threo-EPH), l-threo-ethylphenidate (l-threo-EPH) and d,l-threo-ritalinic acid (d,l-threo-RA) in rat plasma over the linearity range of 1-500ng/mL. Chiral separation was performed on an Astec Chirobiotic V2 column (5μm, 250×2.1mm) with isocratic elution using methanol containing 0.003% ammonium acetate (w/v) and 0.003% trifluoroacetic acid (v/v) at a flow of 0...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Zvi Kivilevitch, Lidia V Gabis, Eldad Katorza, Reuven Achiron
The purpose of our research was to study the in-utero and long term post-natal outcome of fetal isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm. We conducted a retrospective, observational, case-control study, of low risk pregnant women, between 1993 and 2001. One hundred and forty one fetuses with isolated cerebral ventricular atria width between 8 and 10mm, corresponding to 2-4 standard deviations above the mean, and 309 controls, with atrial width below this level, were included for the analysis...
February 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Agnes Tekle-Röttering, Kevin S Jewell, Erika Reisz, Holger V Lutze, Thomas A Ternes, Winfried Schmidt, Torsten C Schmidt
Piperidine, piperazine and morpholine as archetypes for secondary heterocyclic amines, a structural unit that is often present in pharmaceuticals (e.g., ritalin, cetirizine, timolol, ciprofloxacin) were investigated in their reaction with ozone. In principle the investigated compounds can be degraded with ozone in a reasonable time, based on their high reaction rate constants with respect to ozone (1.9 × 10(4)-2.4 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)). However, transformation is insufficient (13-16%), most likely due to a chain reaction, which decomposes ozone...
January 1, 2016: Water Research
Nestor Alvaro, Mike Conway, Son Doan, Christoph Lofi, John Overington, Nigel Collier
Self-reported patient data has been shown to be a valuable knowledge source for post-market pharmacovigilance. In this paper we propose using the popular micro-blogging service Twitter to gather evidence about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after firstly having identified micro-blog messages (also know as "tweets") that report first-hand experience. In order to achieve this goal we explore machine learning with data crowdsourced from laymen annotators. With the help of lay annotators recruited from CrowdFlower we manually annotated 1548 tweets containing keywords related to two kinds of drugs: SSRIs (eg...
December 2015: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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