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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855123/biotransformation-of-ritalinic-acid-by-laccase-in-the-presence-of-mediator-tempo
#1
Aza Kobakhidze, Vladimir Elisashvili, Philippe F-X Corvini, Monika Čvančarová
Methylphenidate is widely used as a medication for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Less than 1% of methylphenidate is excreted unchanged in urine, while 80% of an oral dose is excreted as ritalinic acid (which is reportedly poorly degradable). This study aims to investigate the biotransformation of ritalinic acid by free and immobilized enzymes. The influence of various laccase mediators on biotransformation efficiency has been tested. Formation of the main transformation products has been monitored and their potential structures suggested...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855122/bacterial-isolates-degrading-ritalinic-acid-human-metabolite-of-neuro-enhancer-methylphenidate
#2
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
The consumption of nootropic drugs has increased tremendously in the last decade, though the studies on their environmental fate are still scarce. Nootropics are bioactive compounds designed to alter human's physiology therefore the adverse effects towards wildlife can be expected. In order to understand their environmental impact, the knowledge on their transformation pathways is necessary. Methylphenidate belongs to the most prescribed neuro-enhancers and is among the most favored smart drugs used in non-medical situations...
August 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730316/locus-coeruleus-neuronal-activity-correlates-with-behavioral-response-to-acute-and-chronic-doses-of-methylphenidate-ritalin-in-adolescent-rats
#3
Natasha Kharas, Cruz Reyes-Vazquez, Nachum Dafny
The objective of this study is to gain insight into the behavioral and neuronal changes induced by acute and chronic methylphenidate (MPD) administration. Specifically, there is limited knowledge of the effects of MPD on the locus coeruleus (LC), the main site of norepinephrine synthesis in the brain. In this study, LC neuronal firing rate was recorded simultaneously with locomotor activity in freely moving adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were chosen to mimic the age group in humans most affected by MPD exposure...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720013/the-5-ht1b-serotonin-receptor-regulates-methylphenidate-induced-gene-expression-in-the-striatum-differential-effects-on-immediate-early-genes
#4
David Alter, Joel A Beverley, Ronak Patel, Carlos A Bolaños-Guzmán, Heinz Steiner
Drug combinations that include a psychostimulant such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor such as fluoxetine are indicated in several medical conditions. Co-exposure to these drugs also occurs with "cognitive enhancer" use by individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Methylphenidate, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, by itself produces some addiction-related gene regulation in the striatum. We have demonstrated that co-administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors potentiates these methylphenidate-induced molecular effects, thus producing a more "cocaine-like" profile...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710651/intoxication-caused-by-new-psychostimulants-analytical-methods-to-disclose-acute-and-chronic-use-of-benzofurans-and-ethylphenidate
#5
Bernardino Barceló, Isabel Gomila, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Emilia Marchei, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Simona Pichini, Carolina Roset, Miguel Ángel Elorza, Francesco Paolo Busardò
The acute and chronic toxicity of several new psychoactive substances (NPS) is unknown, and only little information is available on the pharmacology and toxicology, toxicokinetics, and detectability in body samples of such new compounds. We here propose analytical methods to disclose acute and chronic use of two types of new psychostimulants: benzofurans and ethylphenidate and we applied them to a real case of a subject attending Emergency Department with signs of acute intoxication due to psychotropic drug(s)...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677880/study-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-5-meo-mipt-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-real-case-samples
#6
Katharina Elisabeth Grafinger, Marianne Hädener, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
The synthetic tryptamine 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT) has recently been abused as a hallucinogenic drug in Germany and Switzerland. This study presents a case of 5-MeO-MiPT intoxication and the structural elucidation of metabolites in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), blood, and urine. Microsomal incubation experiments were performed using pHLM to detect and identify in vitro metabolites. In August 2016, the police encountered a naked man, agitated and with aggressive behavior on the street...
July 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672285/the-effect-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-methylphenidate-treatment-on-the-adult-auditory-temporal-order-judgment-threshold
#7
Leah Fostick
Purpose: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition notes that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosed in childhood will persist into adulthood among at least some individuals. There is a paucity of evidence, however, regarding whether other difficulties that often accompany childhood ADHD will also continue into adulthood, specifically auditory processing deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ADHD and the stimulant medication methylphenidate on auditory perception performance among adults...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615331/comparison-of-the-vta-and-lc-response-to-methylphenidate-a-concomitant-behavioral-and-neuronal-study-of-adolescent-male-rats
#8
Tahseen J Karim, Cruz Reyes-Vazquez, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD), also known as Ritalin, is a psychostimulant used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it is increasingly being misused by normal adolescents for recreation and academic advantage. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of MPD in normal subjects. MPD inhibits the reuptake of catecholamines, mainly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC). The VTA and LC normally mediate attention, motivation, and drug reward behaviors...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#9
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475974/ultraviolet-ultrasound-activated-persulfate-for-degradation-of-drug-by-zinc-selenide-quantum-dots-catalysis-and-microbiology-study
#10
Ali Fakhri, Mahsa Naji, Shiva Tahami
In this study, wet chemical method used for ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) and characterized by, UV-vis, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The crystallites size of ZnSe QDs was 4.0nm. The average diameters of ZnSe QDs were 3.0-5.3nm. Ritalin was degraded using the UV/ZnSe QDs/persulfate process. The several parameters investigated for the influence of Rtialin degradation were the temperature, the persulfate concentration, and the initial Ritalin concentration. The values of optimum parameters ware room temperature, concentration persulfate 5mmol/L and initial Ritalin concentration 0...
May 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382667/substance-use-among-transgender-students-in-california-public-middle-and-high-schools
#11
Kris Tunac De Pedro, Tamika D Gilreath, Christopher Jackson, Monica Christina Esqueda
BACKGROUND: Transgender adolescents face tremendous social stress in families and schools, which often leads to behavioral health disparities. This study assessed whether rates of substance use were higher among transgender adolescents when compared to nontransgender adolescents. METHODS: This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) that examines whether rates of substance use are higher among transgender youth when compared to nontransgender youth...
May 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323514/perceptions-of-risks-and-benefits-among-nonprescription-stimulant-consumers-diverters-and-non-users
#12
Brittany A Kinman, Kevin J Armstrong, Kristina B Hood
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined perceptions of legal and health risks along with the perceived benefits of nonprescription stimulant (NPS) use in college students (e.g., using stimulants such as Ritalin, Vvyanse, Concerta, or Adderall without a prescription). OBJECTIVE: This study sought to better understand how college students perceived legal and health risks, as well as motivations associated with NPS use. The perceived risks and benefits were examined between those involved and those uninvolved...
August 24, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154152/oral-administration-of-methylphenidate-ritalin-affects-dopamine-release-differentially-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-striatum-a-microdialysis-study-in-the-monkey
#13
Tohru Kodama, Takashi Kojima, Yoshiko Honda, Takayuki Hosokawa, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Masataka Watanabe
Methylphenidate (MPH; trade name Ritalin) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Because MPH increases dopamine (DA) release by blocking the DA transporter in the human striatum, MPH is supposed to work on attention and cognition through a DA increase in the striatum. However, ADHD patients show impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) function and MPH administration is associated with increased neural activity in the PFC...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103426/analytical-characterization-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-4-fluoromethylphenidate-4f-mph-and-differentiation-between-the-%C3%A2-threo-and-%C3%A2-erythro-diastereomers
#14
Gavin McLaughlin, Noreen Morris, Pierce V Kavanagh, John D Power, Geraldine Dowling, Brendan Twamley, John O'Brien, Gary Hessman, Brian Murphy, Donna Walther, John S Partilla, Michael H Baumann, Simon D Brandt
Misuse of (±)-threo-methylphenidate (methyl-2-phenyl-2-(piperidin-2-yl)acetate; Ritalin®; MPH) has long been acknowledged, but the appearance of MPH analogs in the form of 'research chemicals' has only emerged in more recent years. 4-Fluoromethylphenidate (4F-MPH) is one of these recent examples. This study presents the identification and analytical characterization of two powdered 4F-MPH products that were obtained from an online vendor in 2015. Interestingly, the products appeared to have originated from two distinct batches given that one product consisted of (±)-threo-4F-MPH isomers whereas the second sample consisted of a mixture of (±)-threo and (±)-erythro 4F-MPH...
March 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088740/associations-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-student-teacher-relationships-and-non-medical-use-of-prescription-medications-among-adolescents
#15
Myriam Forster, Amy L Gower, Iris W Borowsky, Barbara J McMorris
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) in population-based samples of adolescents, and even fewer have examined whether promotive factors might buffer these effects. The present study assesses the direct effects of ACE and positive student-teacher relationships on NUMPD and whether positive student-teacher relationships moderate this association. DESIGN: Data were from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (MSS), an in-school survey administered every three years to students throughout Minnesota...
May 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006939/the-effect-of-combined-treatment-of-opioids-with-methylphenidate-on-nociception-in-rats-and-pain-in-human
#16
A Yamamotová, J Fricová, R Rokyta, R Šlamberová
Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH/Ritalin) is a stimulant used for off-label management of cancer-related fatigue and sedation; however, its use in pain treatment is still relatively rare. This study 1) compares the antinociceptive effect of MPH and its combination with morphine (MOR) in adult male Wistar rats after a single administration of MPH, MOR or their combination, and 2) compares the analgesic effects of opioids and Ritalin combined therapy with opioid monotherapy in patients with cancer pain. To objectively assess physical activity during a three-week monitoring period, patients were equipped with Actiwatch Score Actigraph...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936986/the-use-of-modified-release-methylphenidate-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Ann Childress, Dmitry Belchenko, Brian Lempa
Since Ritalin® (Methylphenidate-Immediate release or MPH-IR) was introduced for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, multiple formulations of MPH have been developed. The specific formulation determines the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and the onset and duration of action for the compound. Areas covered: Aptensio XR® is a multilayer-release MPH (MPH-MLR) consisting of an MPH-IR layer (40%) and an extended-release (ER) portion of 60% of MPH. It has an initial maximum MPH concentration at about two hours (h) and a second concentration peak at approximately 8 h...
February 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918861/to-study-to-party-or-both-assessing-risk-factors-for-non-prescribed-stimulant-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students
#18
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747690/stemi-secondary-to-coronary-vasospasm-possible-adverse-event-of-methylphenidate-in-a-21-year-old-man-with-adhd
#19
Timo-Benjamin Baumeister, Ingo Wickenbrock, Christian A Perings
Methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)) is an increasingly used medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cardiovascular adverse effects like vasospasm or myocardial infarction are described as very rare adverse effects. We present the case of a 21-year-old man diagnosed with ADHD who recently started therapy with Ritalin(®) Adult 20 mg for at least 3 days. Afterwards he presented with chest pain, elevated troponin and creatine kinase, and posterolateral ST elevations. A myocarditis was initially supposed...
December 2016: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723791/application-of-physiologically-based-absorption-modeling-to-characterize-the-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-oral-extended-release-methylphenidate-products-in-adults
#20
Xiaoxia Yang, John Duan, Jeffrey Fisher
A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH) was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER) MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH...
2016: PloS One
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