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Experimental techniques

Qianyi Zhang, Evan G R Davies, James R Bolton, Yang Liu
Monochloramine (NH2 Cl) is widely used for secondary disinfection by water utilities. However, Edmonton field stormwater sampling results have shown that NH2 Cl, because of its long-lasting property, can cause stormwater contamination through outdoor potable water uses during the summer season. To protect water sources, it is important to understand NH2 Cl dissipation mechanisms in stormwater. Natural organic matter (NOM) is the dominant species that contributes to NH2 Cl decay in stormwater. In this research, it is proposed that NOM reacted with both NH2 Cl and free chlorine through rapid and long-term reactions during NH2 Cl dissipation...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Irene Fondón, Auxiliadora Sarmiento, Ana Isabel García, María Silvestre, Catarina Eloy, António Polónia, Paulo Aguiar
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Its early diagnosis is extremely important to prevent avoidable deaths. However, malignancy assessment of tissue biopsies is complex and dependent on observer subjectivity. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological images exhibit a highly variable appearance, even within the same malignancy level. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automated malignancy assessment of breast tissue samples based on the processing of histological images...
March 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Mario Fleischer, Alexander Mainka, Steffen Kürbis, Peter Birkholz
Recently, 3D printing has been increasingly used to create physical models of the vocal tract with geometries obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. These printed models allow measuring the vocal tract transfer function, which is not reliably possible in vivo for the vocal tract of living humans. The transfer functions enable the detailed examination of the acoustic effects of specific articulatory strategies in speaking and singing, and the validation of acoustic plane-wave models for realistic vocal tract geometries in articulatory speech synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Valentina Camomilla, Elena Bergamini, Silvia Fantozzi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Md Nahid Pervez, Faizan Shafiq, Zahid Sarwar, Muhammad Munib Jilani, Yingjie Cai
In this study, the influence and optimization of the factors of a non-formaldehyde resin finishing process on cotton fabric using a Taguchi-based grey relational analysis were experimentally investigated. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for five parameters and three levels by applying Taguchi's design of experiments. The Taguchi technique was coupled with a grey relational analysis to obtain a grey relational grade for evaluating multiple responses, i.e., crease recovery angle (CRA), tearing strength (TE), and whiteness index (WI)...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Paulina Duckic, Robert B Hayes
Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i...
March 14, 2018: Health Physics
Yuly Vesga, Carlos Diaz, Jeanne Crassous, Florencio E Hernandez
Herein, we report on the theoretical-experimental analysis of the two photon absorption and circular dichroism spectra of 1-(2-pyridyl)-4-methoxy-carbo[6]helicene derivative (P6). The primary outcomes of our investigation on this particular helicene derivative with a donor-acceptor motif on one end led to two important conclusions: 1) The lengthening of the π-electron delocalization within the helical core of P6 predominantly increases the contribution of the magnetic transition dipole moment to the TPCD signal; 2) The electric transition quadrupole moment contribution to the TPCD signal is enhanced by the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) produced by the donor-acceptor combination on one end of the molecule...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Papu Kumar Naik, Mood Mohan, Tamal Banerjee, Sandip Paul, Vaibhav V Goud
The present study aims at the extraction of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) from fuel oil using novel low cost deep eutectic solvent (DES). The DES is prepared by mixing the hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA; methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide [MTPB]) and hydrogen bond donor (HBD; ethylene glycol (EG)) at a molar ratio of 1:4. The Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) is then measured at ambient condition. The classical Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation technique is then employed to investigate and compare the experimental phase behavior of DES-quinoline-heptane ternary system...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Osamu Takayama, Graciana Puentes
We demonstrate experimentally the lateral circular birefringence of a tunable birefringent polymer, the first example of the spin Hall effect of light in a polymeric material, and we demonstrate that this light shift can be significantly enhanced by tuning the effective birefringence in the polymer. We report experimental observations of this effect using polarimetric techniques and quantum-weak-measurement techniques, reporting a weak amplification factor of 200.
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Aaron M Michalko, James R Fienup
Transverse translation diverse phase retrieval (TTDPR), a ptychographic image-based wavefront-sensing technique, is a viable method for optical shop testing due to its high accuracy and relatively simple experimental arrangement. However, when measuring a reflective optic, a normally hard-edged translating illumination will become soft-edged due to diffraction, which may reduce the accuracy of TTDPR by suppressing fine structures in measured data. In this Letter, we quantitatively explore the wavefront-sensing accuracy of TTDPR in the presence of soft-edged translating illumination...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Junxiang Ke, Lilin Yi, Guangqiong Xia, Weisheng Hu
For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we experimentally demonstrate a successful 30-Gb/s signal transmission of a duobinary message hidden in a chaotic optical carrier over 100-km fiber. Thanks to the duobinary modulation format with high spectral efficiency, the 30-Gb/s signal can be encrypted by a 10-GHz-wide chaotic carrier. A digital signal processing technique can be used to convert duobinary data into binary data on the receiver side. This proposal lowers the requirement for wideband chaos generation and synchronization in high-speed long-distance chaotic optical communications, and fiber dispersion compensation can also be simplified, which has potential to be used in high-speed long-distance secure optical communications...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Wanfu Shen, Chunguang Hu, Shuchun Huo, Zhaoyang Sun, Shuangqing Fan, Jing Liu, Xiaotang Hu
We report on both the theoretical and experimental design of a black phosphorus (BP)-based reflective linear polarizer on Si/SiO2 substrate in visible range using the Fabry-Perot cavities method. Thanks to the optical anisotropy of BP, polarization wavelength regulation and a high extinction ratio are achievable via optimizing the thickness of BP. Using azimuth-dependent reflectance difference microscopy, we directly measured a huge optical anisotropy of 1.58, corresponding to an extinction ratio of ∼9  dB, from a 96 nm BP on a silicon substrate capped by 260 nm thermally oxidized silicon at a wavelength of 690 nm for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Patric Schmitz, Julian Hildebrandt, Andre Calero Valdez, Leif Kobbelt, Martina Ziefle
In virtual environments, the space that can be explored by real walking is limited by the size of the tracked area. To enable unimpeded walking through large virtual spaces in small real-world surroundings, redirection techniques are used. These unnoticeably manipulate the user's virtual walking trajectory. It is important to know how strongly such techniques can be applied without the user noticing the manipulation-or getting cybersick. Previously, this was estimated by measuring a detection threshold (DT) in highly-controlled psychophysical studies, which experimentally isolate the effect but do not aim for perceived immersion in the context of VR applications...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Ryohei Nagao, Keigo Matsumoto, Takuji Narumi, Tomohiro Tanikawa, Michitaka Hirose
This paper presents a novel interactive system that provides users with virtual reality (VR) experiences, wherein users feel as if they are ascending/descending stairs through passive haptic feedback. The passive haptic stimuli are provided by small bumps under the feet of users; these stimuli are provided to represent the edges of the stairs in the virtual environment. The visual stimuli of the stairs and shoes, provided by head-mounted displays, evoke a visuo-haptic interaction that modifies a user's perception of the floor shape...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Wei Wang, Yan Yan, Feiping Nie, Shuicheng Yan, Nicu Sebe
Graph-based dimensionality reduction techniques have been widely and successfully applied to clustering and classification tasks. The basis of these algorithms is the constructed graph which dictates their performance. In general, the graph is defined by the input affinity matrix. However, the affinity matrix derived from the data is sometimes suboptimal for dimension reduction as the data used are very noisy. To address this issue, we propose the projective unsupervised flexible embedding models with optimal graph (PUFE-OG)...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
R Cuthbert, C Deutsch, A Roy, P Stimpson, H Patel
Introduction The free jejunal flap represents the gold standard for circumferential defects in upper digestive tract reconstruction. It is a technically demanding procedure with significant failure rates. Unrecognised failure leads to flap necrosis and potentially fatal sequelae, including sepsis and carotid artery bleed. Despite these catastrophic consequences, however, there remains no consensus on an optimum method for postoperative flap monitoring. Our unit has pioneered the use of external colour duplex ultrasound to monitor flap vascularity...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Ken Xuan Wei, Chandrasekhar Ramanathan, Paola Cappellaro
Characterizing out-of-equilibrium many-body dynamics is a complex but crucial task for quantum applications and understanding fundamental phenomena. A central question is the role of localization in quenching thermalization in many-body systems and whether such localization survives in the presence of interactions. Probing this question in real systems necessitates the development of an experimentally measurable metric that can distinguish between different types of localization. While it is known that the localized phase of interacting systems [many-body localization (MBL)] exhibits a long-time logarithmic growth in entanglement entropy that distinguishes it from the noninteracting case of Anderson localization (AL), entanglement entropy is difficult to measure experimentally...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Fenhong Song, Dapeng Ju, Fangwei Gu, Yan Liu, Yuan Ji, Yulin Ren, Xiaocong He, Baoyong Sha, Ben Q Li, Qingzhen Yang
Electric field induced micro/nano patterns in thin polymer film, sometimes referred as electrohydrodynamic patterning, is a promising technique to fabricate micro/nano structures. Extensive attentions have been attracted due to its advantages in micro contact (easy demolding) and low cost. Although considerable work has been done on this technique, including both experimental and theoretical ones, there still appears a requirement for understanding the mechanism of electrohydrodynamic patterning. Thus we systematically studied the effect of different parameters on electrohydrodynamic patterning with a numerical phase field model...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Mirza A Hammad, Rana Adnan Tahir, Hafiza Nisha Akram, Faheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: As the number of elderly persons increases, neurodegenerative diseases are becoming ubiquitous. There is currently a great need for knowledge concerning management of old-age neurodegenerative diseases; the most important of which are: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential of computationally predicted molecules and targets against neurodegenerative diseases...
March 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
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