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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814047/a-simple-tool-to-measure-spasticity-in-spinal-cord-injury-subjects
#1
Arash Arami, Nevio L Tagliamonte, Federica Tamburella, Hsieng-Yung Huang, Marco Molinari, Etienne Burdet
This work presents a wearable device and the algorithms for quantitative modelling of joint spasticity and its application in a pilot group of subjects with different levels of spinal cord injury. The device comprises light-weight instrumented handles to measure the interaction force between the subject and the physical therapist performing the tests, EMG sensors and inertial measurement units to measure muscle activity and joint kinematics. Experimental tests included the passive movement of different body segments, where the spasticity was expected, at different velocities...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814010/multi-modal-myocontrol-testing-combined-force-and-electromyography
#2
Markus Nowak, Thomas Eiband, Claudio Castellini
Myocontrol, that is control of prostheses using bodily signals, has proved in the decades to be a surprisingly hard problem for the scientific community of assistive and rehabilitation robotics. In particular, traditional surface electromyography (sEMG) seems to be no longer enough to guarantee dexterity (i.e., control over several degrees of freedom) and, most importantly, reliability. Multi-modal myocontrol is concerned with the idea of using novel signal gathering techniques as a replacement of, or alongside, sEMG, to provide high-density and diverse signals to improve dexterity and make the control more reliable...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813911/design-and-kinematic-analysis-of-a-novel-upper-limb-exoskeleton-for-rehabilitation-of-stroke-patients
#3
Amin Zeiaee, Rana Soltani-Zarrin, Reza Langari, Reza Tafreshi
This paper details the design process and features of a novel upper limb rehabilitation exoskeleton named CLEVER (Compact, Low-weight, Ergonomic, Virtual/Augmented Reality Enhanced Rehabilitation) ARM. The research effort is focused on designing a lightweight and ergonomic upper-limb rehabilitation exoskeleton capable of producing diverse and perceptually rich training scenarios. To this end, the knowledge available in the literature of rehabilitation robotics is used along with formal conceptual design techniques...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813810/dissociating-two-sources-of-variability-using-a-safety-margin-model
#4
Amit K Shah, James L Patton
Neurological trauma can have a devastating effect on activities of daily living. One of the consequences is an increased amount of variability in the system, which can challenge individuals to stay within safe and stable regions of operation. There are multiple sources of movement variability; two of these are neuromotor noise and action-tolerance variability. The amount of neuromotor noise that is uncontrollable can impose limitations on reshaping variability. Action-tolerance variability, which can be reshaped through experience, and neuromotor noise, a certain amount of which cannot be altered, are often conflated when discussing motor variability...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813604/experimental-study-and-mathematical-modeling-of-self-sustained-kinetic-oscillations-in-catalytic-oxidation-of-methane-over-nickel
#5
Elena A Lashina, Vasily V Kaichev, Andrey Aleksandrovich Saraev, Zakhar S Vinokurov, Nataliya A Chumakova, Gennadii Chumakov, Valerii I Bukhtiyarov
The self-sustained kinetic oscillations in the oxidation of CH4 over Ni foil have been studied at atmospheric pressure using an X-ray diffraction technique and mass spectrometry. It has been shown that the regular oscillations appear under oxygen-deficient conditions; CO, CO2, H2, and H2O are detected as the products. According to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements nickel periodically oxidizes to NiO initiating the reaction-rate oscillations. To describe the oscillations we have proposed a 5-stage mechanism of the partial oxidation of methane over Ni and a corresponding three-variable kinetic model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813481/method-matters-experimental-evidence-for-shorter-avian-sperm-in-faecal-compared-to-abdominal-massage-samples
#6
Antje Girndt, Glenn Cockburn, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Hanne Løvlie, Julia Schroeder
Birds are model organisms in sperm biology. Previous work in zebra finches, suggested that sperm sampled from males' faeces and ejaculates do not differ in size. Here, we tested this assumption in a captive population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We compared sperm length in samples from three collection techniques: female dummy, faecal and abdominal massage samples. We found that sperm were significantly shorter in faecal than abdominal massage samples, which was explained by shorter heads and midpieces, but not flagella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812944/binding-forces-between-a-novel-schiff-base-palladium-ii-complex-and-two-carrier-proteins-human-serum-albumi-and%C3%AE-lactoglobulin
#7
Somaye Shahraki, Ali Heydari
Ligand binding studies on carrier proteins are crucial in determining the pharmacological properties of drug candidates. Here, a new palladium(II) complex was synthesized and characterized. The in vitro binding studies of this complexwith two carrier proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and β-lactoglobulin (βLG) was investigated by employing biophysical techniques as well as computational modeling. The experimental results showed thatthe Pd(II) complex interacted with two carrier proteins with moderate binding affinity (Kb ~̴ 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812774/self-adaptive-hydrogels-to-mineralization
#8
Tooba Shoaib, Ariel Carmichael, R E Corman, Yun Shen, Thanh H Nguyen, Randy H Ewoldt, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
Mineralized biological tissues, whose behavior can range from rigid to compliant, are an essential component of vertebrates and invertebrates. Little is known about how the behavior of mineralized yet compliant tissues can be tuned by the degree of mineralization. In this work, a synthesis route to tune the structure and mechanical response of agarose gels via ionic crosslinking and mineralization has been developed. A combination of experimental techniques demonstrates that crosslinking via cooperative hydrogen bonding in agarose gels is disturbed by calcium ions, but they promote ionic crosslinking that modifies the agarose network...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812529/approaches-to-evaluate-lung-inflammation-in-translational-research
#9
David K Meyerholz, Jessica C Sieren, Amanda P Beck, Heather A Flaherty
Inflammation is a common feature in several types of lung disease and is a frequent end point to validate lung disease models, evaluate genetic or environmental impact on disease severity, or test the efficacy of new therapies. Questions relevant to a study should be defined during experimental design and techniques selected to specifically address these scientific queries. In this review, the authors focus primarily on the breadth of techniques to evaluate lung inflammation that have both clinical and preclinical applications...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812315/metabolite-cycled-steam-and-semi-laser-localization-for-mr-spectroscopy-of-the-human-brain-at-9-4t
#10
Ioannis-Angelos Giapitzakis, Tingting Shao, Nikolai Avdievich, Ralf Mekle, Roland Kreis, Anke Henning
PURPOSE: Metabolite cycling (MC) is an MRS technique for the simultaneous acquisition of water and metabolite spectra that avoids chemical exchange saturation transfer effects and for which water may serve as a reference signal or contain additional information in functional or diffusion studies. Here, MC was developed for human investigations at ultrahigh field. METHODS: MC-STEAM and MC-semi-LASER are introduced at 9.4T with an optimized inversion pulse and elaborate coil setup...
August 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811568/dynamic-x-ray-radiography-reveals-particle-size-and-shape-orientation-fields-during-granular-flow
#11
François Guillard, Benjy Marks, Itai Einav
When granular materials flow, the constituent particles segregate by size and align by shape. The impacts of these changes in fabric on the flow itself are not well understood, and thus novel non-invasive means are needed to observe the interior of the material. Here, we propose a new experimental technique using dynamic X-ray radiography to make such measurements possible. The technique is based on Fourier transformation to extract spatiotemporal fields of internal particle size and shape orientation distributions during flow, in addition to complementary measurements of velocity fields through image correlation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811565/iss-pc-identifying-splicing-sites-via-physical-chemical-properties-using-deep-sparse-auto-encoder
#12
Zhao-Chun Xu, Peng Wang, Wang-Ren Qiu, Xuan Xiao
Gene splicing is one of the most significant biological processes in eukaryotic gene expression, such as RNA splicing, which can cause a pre-mRNA to produce one or more mature messenger RNAs containing the coded information with multiple biological functions. Thus, identifying splicing sites in DNA/RNA sequences is significant for both the bio-medical research and the discovery of new drugs. However, it is expensive and time consuming based only on experimental technique, so new computational methods are needed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811184/experimental-cocrystal-screening-and-solution-based-scale-up-cocrystallization-methods
#13
REVIEW
Maria Malamatari, Steven A Ross, Dennis Douroumis, Sitaram P Velaga
Cocrystals are crystalline single phase materials composed of two or more different molecular and/or ionic compounds generally in a stoichiometric ratio which are neither solvates nor simple salts. If one of the components is an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), the term pharmaceutical cocrystal is often used. There is a growing interest among drug development scientists in exploring cocrystals, as means to address physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and mechanical properties and expand solid form diversity of the API...
August 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810820/quantitative-label-free-evaluation-of-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-through-multiphoton-microscopy
#14
Brian C Syverud, Mary-Ann Mycek, Lisa Marie Larkin
The lack of tools for assessing engineered tissue viability and function in a non-invasive manner is a major regulatory and translational challenge facing tissue engineers. Label-free, nonlinear optical molecular imaging (OMI) has utilized endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence to indicate metabolic activity. Similarly, second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from myosin and collagen can measure overall muscle structural integrity and function...
August 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809977/correlation-between-collective-and-molecular-dynamics-in-ph-responsive-cyclodextrin-based-hydrogels
#15
C Bottari, L Comez, S Corezzi, F D'Amico, A Gessini, A Mele, C Punta, L Melone, A Pugliese, C Masciovecchio, B Rossi
UV Raman and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiments have been used in this study to explore the complex phase change behavior occurring in pH-responsive polysaccharide hydrogels as a function of temperature. Due to the different physical quantities measured by the two techniques, the joint analysis of Raman and BLS spectra has provided an unprecedented large-scale characterization of the molecular rearrangements and of the different kinds of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions that cooperate to determine the phase transformation observed in these hydrogels during the heating of the gel...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809925/salivary-peptidome-profiling-analysis-for-occurrence-of-new-carious-lesions-in-patients-with-severe-early-childhood-caries
#16
Chang Tian, Xiangyu Sun, Xiaochen Liu, Xin Huang, Feng Chen, Shuguo Zheng
This study aimed to identify differences of peptide profiles in stimulated whole saliva among children with and without occurrence of new carious lesions, and to provide a simple way for early diagnosis and prevention of the relapse of severe early childhood caries (s-ECC). Overall, 26 children aged 3-4 years were selected out from all the children in the kindergarten to be involved in the present study, among them 13 were diagnosed as s-ECC and underwent dental treatment, whilst the other 13 were matched by age and sex as control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809896/multifrequency-excitation-and-detection-scheme-in-apertureless-scattering-near-field-scanning-optical-microscopy
#17
H Greener, M Mrejen, U Arieli, H Suchowski
Near-field scanning optical microscopy has revolutionized the study of fundamental physics, as it is one of very few label-free optical noninvasive nanoscale-resolved imaging techniques. However, its resolution remains strongly limited by the poor discrimination of weak near-field optical signals from a far-field background. Here, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate a multifrequency excitation and detection scheme in apertureless near-field optical microscopy that exceeds current state-of-the-art sensitivity and background suppression...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809889/two-stage-cross-talk-mitigation-in-an-orbital-angular-momentum-based-free-space-optical-communication-system
#18
Zhen Qu, Ivan B Djordjevic
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a two-stage cross-talk mitigation method in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical communication system, which is enabled by combining spatial offset and low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded nonuniform signaling. Different from traditional OAM multiplexing, where the OAM modes are centrally aligned for copropagation, the adjacent OAM modes (OAM states 2 and -6 and OAM states -2 and 6) in our proposed scheme are spatially offset to mitigate the mode cross talk...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809881/genetic-algorithm-optimized-wideband-on-chip-polarization-rotator-with-an-ultrasmall-footprint
#19
Zejie Yu, Haoran Cui, Xiankai Sun
Polarization control of light waves is an important technique in optical communication and signal processing. On-chip polarization rotation from the fundamental transverse-electric (TE00) mode to the fundamental transverse-magnetic (TM00) mode is usually difficult because of their large effective refractive index difference. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip wideband polarization rotator designed with a genetic algorithm to convert the TE00 mode into the TM00 mode within a footprint of 0.96 μm ×4.2  μm...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809785/path-planning-for-non-circular-non-holonomic-robots-in-highly-cluttered-environments
#20
Ricardo Samaniego, Joaquin Lopez, Fernando Vazquez
This paper presents an algorithm for finding a solution to the problem of planning a feasible path for a slender autonomous mobile robot in a large and cluttered environment. The presented approach is based on performing a graph search on a kinodynamic-feasible lattice state space of high resolution; however, the technique is applicable to many search algorithms. With the purpose of allowing the algorithm to consider paths that take the robot through narrow passes and close to obstacles, high resolutions are used for the lattice space and the control set...
August 15, 2017: Sensors
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