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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944962/hpv-e6-protein-enriches-the-cd55-population-in-cervical-cancer-cells-promoting-radio-resistance-and-cancer-aggressiveness
#1
Thomas Ho-Yin Leung, Hermit Wai-Man Tang, Michelle Kwan-Yee Siu, David Wai Chan, Karen Kar-Loen Chan, Annie Nga-Yin Cheung, Hextan Yuen-Sheung Ngan
Accumulating evidence indicates that the human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 protein plays a crucial role in the development of cervical cancer. Sub-populations of cells that reside within tumors are responsible for tumor resistance to cancer therapy and recurrence. However, the identity of such cells residing in cervical cancer and their relationship with the HPV-E6 protein have not been identified. Here, we isolated sphere-forming cells, which exhibited self-renewal ability, from primary cervical tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed that CD55 was upregulated in primary cervical cancer sphere cells...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944949/the-research-progress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Gang Li, Yue Yang, Hua-Jiang Dong, Ling Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adults throughout the world. It is urgent to ameliorate TBI damage and reduce the disability and case-fatality rate. Stem cell therapy is another medical revolution after drug and surgical medication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of cells with significant self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and be favorable for the treatment of various diseases and injuries, it could be envisioned that MSCs transplantation may be a promising treatment for TBI...
July 16, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944929/oncogenic-mir%C3%A2-132-sustains-proliferation-and-self%C3%A2-renewal-potential-by-inhibition-of-polypyrimidine-tract%C3%A2-binding-protein-2-in-glioblastoma-cells
#3
Silong Lou, Jia Ji, Xin Cheng, Jian Ruan, Rong Li, Zhengjun Guo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the leading type of brain tumor, exhibiting unlimited proliferation and invasion potential. The present study indicated that a high expression level of miR‑132 was detected in the neural subtype of GBM and predicted an unfavorable prognosis for patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (n=526). Cox hazard regression analysis demonstrated miR‑132 as an independent prognostic indicator for GBM patients. Further in vitro experiments indicated that miR‑132 promoted the proliferation and sphere formation of U87 cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944344/irf4-couples-anabolic-metabolism-to-th1-cell-fate-determination
#4
Radomir Kratchmarov, Simone A Nish, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, William C Adams, Yen-Hua Chen, Bonnie Yen, Nyanza J Rothman, Ulf Klein, Steven L Reiner
Anabolic metabolism in lymphocytes promotes plasmablast and cytotoxic T cell differentiation at the expense of self-renewal. Heightened expression and function of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) accompany enhanced anabolic induction and full commitment to functional differentiation in B cells and CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we used a genetic approach to determine whether IRF4 plays an analogous role in Th1 cell induction. Our findings indicate that IRF4 promotes determined Th1 cell differentiation in tandem with anabolic metabolism of CD4(+) T cells...
September 1, 2017: Immunohorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943937/knockdown-of-sall4-expression-using-rna-interference-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-enhances-early-apoptosis-inhibits-invasion-and-increases-chemosensitivity-to-temozolomide-in-u251-glioma-cells
#5
Lei Zhang, Yong Yan, Ying Jiang, Jun Qian, Lei Jiang, Guohan Hu, Yicheng Lu, Chun Luo
Spalt-like transcription factor 4 (SALL4) is essential for the maintenance of the self-renewal and pluripotent properties in embryonic stem cells. Although the detailed mechanism remains unclear, dysregulation of SALL4 has been detected in various malignancies. Previously, the authors' of the present study reported that the expression level of SALL4 was associated with the poor prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The present study aimed to investigate the function of SALL4 in U251 human glioblastoma cells, including apoptosis and invasion inhibition...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943339/%C3%AE-catenin-coordinates-with-jup-and-the-tcf1-gata6-axis-to-regulate-human-embryonic-stem-cell-fate
#6
Hongwei Sun, Xiaohu Wang, Kuisheng Liu, Mengmeng Guo, Yan Zhang, Qi-Long Ying, Shoudong Ye
β-catenin-mediated signaling has been extensively studied in regard to its role in the regulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, the results are controversial and the mechanism by which β-catenin regulates the hESC fate remains unclear. Here, we report that β-catenin and γ-catenin are functionally redundant in mediating hESC adhesion and are required for embryoid body formation, but both genes are dispensable for hESC maintenance, as the undifferentiated state of β-catenin and γ-catenin double deficient hESCs can be maintained...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943295/the-slippery-slope-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#7
Martin Wahlestedt, David Bryder
The late stages of life are in most species, including humans, associated with a decline in overall organism maintenance/health. This applies also to the hematopoietic system, where aging associates not only to an increased predisposition for hematological malignancies, but also as a strong comorbidity factor for other diseases. Research during the last two decades have proposed that alterations at the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) might be a root cause for the hematological changes observed with age...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943242/csnk1a1-regulates-prmt1-to-maintain-the-progenitor-state-in-self-renewing-somatic-tissue
#8
Xiaomin Bao, Zurab Siprashvili, Brian J Zarnegar, Rajani M Shenoy, Eon J Rios, Natalie Nady, Kun Qu, Angela Mah, Daniel E Webster, Adam J Rubin, Glenn G Wozniak, Shiying Tao, Joanna Wysocka, Paul A Khavari
Somatic progenitors sustain tissue self-renewal while suppressing premature differentiation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) affect many processes; however, their role in progenitor function is incompletely understood. PRMT1 was found to be the most highly expressed PRMT in epidermal progenitors and the most downregulated PRMT during differentiation. In targeted mouse knockouts and in long-term regenerated human mosaic epidermis in vivo, epidermal PRMT1 loss abolished progenitor self-renewal and led to premature differentiation...
September 18, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943029/generation-of-mouse-and-human-organoid-forming-intestinal-progenitor-cells-by-direct-lineage-reprogramming
#9
Shizuka Miura, Atsushi Suzuki
Intestinal organoids hold great promise as a valuable tool for studying and treating intestinal diseases. The currently available sources of human intestinal organoids, tissue fragments or pluripotent stem cells, involve invasive procedures or complex differentiation protocols, respectively. Here, we show that a set of four transcription factors, Hnf4α, Foxa3, Gata6, and Cdx2, can directly reprogram mouse fibroblasts to acquire the identity of fetal intestine-derived progenitor cells (FIPCs). These induced FIPCs (iFIPCs) form spherical organoids that develop into adult-type budding organoids containing cells with intestinal stem cell properties...
September 16, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942499/human-cancer-stem-cells-are-a-target-for-cancer-prevention-using-epigallocatechin-gallate
#10
REVIEW
Hirota Fujiki, Eisaburo Sueoka, Anchalee Rawangkan, Masami Suganuma
PURPOSE: Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. METHODS: The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941992/nano-delivery-system-targeting-to-cancer-stem-cell-cluster-of-differentiation-biomarkers
#11
REVIEW
Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Soodabeh Hassanpour, Zahra Farajzadeh Vahid, Maryam Hejazi, Maryam Hashemi, Javad Ranjbari, Maryam Tabarzad, Saeed Noorolyai, Miguel de la Guardia
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the most important origins of cancer progression and metastasis. CSCs have unique self-renewal properties and diverse cell membrane receptors that induced the resistance to the conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, the therapeutic removal of CSCs could result in the cancer cure with lack of recurrence and metastasis. In this regard, targeting CSCs in accordance to their specific biomarkers is a talented attitude in cancer therapy. Various CSCs surface biomarkers have been described, which some of them exhibited similarities on different cancer cell types, while the others are cancer specific and have just been reported on one or a few types of cancers...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940170/the-role-of-wd40-repeat-protein-62-mcph2-in-brain-growth-diverse-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-required-for-cortical-development
#12
REVIEW
Belal Shohayeb, Nicholas Rui Lim, Uda Ho, Zhiheng Xu, Mirella Dottori, Leonie Quinn, Dominic Chi Hiung Ng
Genetic disruptions of spindle/centrosome-associated WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) are causative for autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) and a broader range of cortical malformations. Since the identification of WDR62 as encoded by the MCPH2 locus in 2010, recent studies that have deleted/depleted WDR62 in various animal models of cortical development have highlighted conserved functions in brain growth. Here, we provide a timely review of our current understanding of WDR62 contributions in the self-renewal, expansion and fate specification of neural stem and progenitor cells that are critical for neocortical development...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939616/histone-h3k4-methylation-dependent-and-independent-functions-of-set1a-compass-in-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-differentiation
#13
Christie C Sze, Kaixiang Cao, Clayton K Collings, Stacy A Marshall, Emily J Rendleman, Patrick A Ozark, Fei Xavier Chen, Marc A Morgan, Lu Wang, Ali Shilatifard
Of the six members of the COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1) family of histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) methyltransferases identified in mammals, Set1A has been shown to be essential for early embryonic development and the maintenance of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Like its familial relatives, Set1A possesses a catalytic SET domain responsible for histone H3K4 methylation. Whether H3K4 methylation by Set1A/COMPASS is required for ESC maintenance and during differentiation has not yet been addressed...
September 22, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939501/reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-to-induced-neural-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Ebrahim Shahbazi, Fahimeh Mirakhori, Vahid Ezzatizadeh, Hossein Baharvand
Recent investigations have demonstrated that defined sets of exogenous factors (chemical and/or biochemical) can convert human and mouse somatic cells into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs). Considering the self-renewal and multi-potential differentiation capabilities of iNSCs, generation of these cells has considerably enhanced cell therapy for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. These cells can also serve as models for investigation of the mechanism(s) underlying neurodegenerative diseases and as an asset in drug discovery...
September 19, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938627/prostate-tumor-overexpressed-1-ptov1-promotes-docetaxel-resistance-and-survival-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Verónica Cánovas, Yolanda Puñal, Valentina Maggio, Enric Redondo, Mercedes Marín, Begoña Mellado, Mireia Olivan, Matilde Lleonart, Jacques Planas, Juan Morote, Rosanna Paciucci
Metastatic prostate cancer is presently incurable. The oncogenic protein PTOV1, first described in prostate cancer, was reported as overexpressed and significantly correlated with poor survival in numerous tumors. Here, we investigated the role of PTOV1 in prostate cancer survival to docetaxel and self-renewal ability. Transduction of PTOV1 in docetaxel-sensitive Du145 and PC3 cells significantly increased cell survival after docetaxel exposure and induced docetaxel-resistance genes expression (ABCB1, CCNG2 and TUBB2B)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938607/hgfl-mediated-ron-signaling-supports-breast-cancer-stem-cell-phenotypes-via-activation-of-non-canonical-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#16
Sasha J Ruiz-Torres, Nancy M Benight, Rebekah A Karns, Elyse E Lower, Jun-Lin Guan, Susan E Waltz
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which drive tumor progression, recurrence, and metastasis, are considered a major challenge for breast cancer treatments, thus the discovery of novel pathways regulating BCSC maintenance remains essential to develop new strategies to effectively target this population and combat disease mortality. The HGFL-RON signaling is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is associated with increased breast cancer progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Here, we report that overexpression of RON/MST1R and HGFL/MST1 in cell lines and primary tumors increases BCSC self-renewal, numbers, and tumorigenic potential after syngeneic transplantation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937680/salinomycin-kills-cancer-stem-cells-by-sequestering-iron-in-lysosomes
#17
Trang Thi Mai, Ahmed Hamaï, Antje Hienzsch, Tatiana Cañeque, Sebastian Müller, Julien Wicinski, Olivier Cabaud, Christine Leroy, Amandine David, Verónica Acevedo, Akihide Ryo, Christophe Ginestier, Daniel Birnbaum, Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Patrice Codogno, Maryam Mehrpour, Raphaël Rodriguez
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells within tumours that exhibit self-renewal properties and the capacity to seed tumours. CSCs are typically refractory to conventional treatments and have been associated to metastasis and relapse. Salinomycin operates as a selective agent against CSCs through mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that a synthetic derivative of salinomycin, which we named ironomycin (AM5), exhibits a more potent and selective activity against breast CSCs in vitro and in vivo, by accumulating and sequestering iron in lysosomes...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936466/mouse-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-isolation-and-culture
#18
Xiao Liu, Luosheng Tang, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells across the retina. Unlike in fish, they have lost the capacity to regenerate the retina in mammals. But, mammalian Müller cells still retain certain retinal stem cell properties with various degree of self-renewal and differentiation potentials, and thereby held a merit in cell-based therapies for treating retinal degeneration diseases. In our laboratory, we use an enzymatic procedure to isolate, purify, and culture mouse Müller cells.
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935704/the-splicing-co-factor-barricade-tat-sf1-is-required-for-cell-cycle-and-lineage-progression-in-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#19
Monika K Abramczuk, Thomas R Burkard, Vivien Rolland, Victoria Steinmann, Peter Duchek, Yanrui Jiang, Sebastian Wissel, Heinrich Reichert, Juergen A Knoblich
Stem cells need to balance self-renewal and differentiation for correct tissue development and homeostasis. Defects in this balance can lead to developmental defects or tumor formation. In recent years, mRNA splicing has emerged as one important mechanism regulating cell fate decisions. Here we address the role of the evolutionary conserved splicing co-factor Barricade (Barc)/Tat-SF1/CUS2 in Drosophila neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineage formation. We show that Barc is required for the generation of neurons during Drosophila brain development by ensuring correct neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935668/chemical-reprogramming-of-mouse-embryonic-and-adult-fibroblast-into-endoderm-lineage
#20
Shangtao Cao, Shengyong Yu, Yan Chen, Xiaoshang Wang, Chunhua Zhou, Yuting Liu, Junqi Kuang, He Liu, Dongwei Li, Jing Ye, Yue Qing, Shilong Chu, Linlin Wu, Lin Guo, Yinxiong Li, Xiaodong Shu, Jiekai Chen, Jing Liu, Duanqing Pei
We report here an approach to redirect somatic cell fate under chemically defined conditions without transcription factors. We start by converting mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to epithelial-like cells (ciELC) with chemicals and growth factors. Subsequent cell fate mapping reveals a robust induction of SOX17 in the resulting ELCs that can be further reprogrammed to endodermal progenitor cells (ciEPC). Interestingly, these cells can self-renew in vitro and further differentiate into albumin-producing hepatocytes that can rescue mice from acute live injury...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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