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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088685/a-semi-interpenetrating-network-of-polyacrylamide-and-recombinant-basement-membrane-allows-pluripotent-cell-culture-in-a-soft-ligand-rich-microenvironment
#1
Andrew J Price, Eva Y Huang, Vittorio Sebastiano, Alexander R Dunn
The physical properties of the extracellular matrix play an essential role in guiding stem cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Existing work to investigate the role of matrix mechanics in directing stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation has been limited by the poor attachment and survival of human pluripotent cells cultured on soft matrices (Young's modulus E ≲ 1000 Pa). To address this limitation we developed a protocol for generating semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and recombinant basement membrane...
December 9, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#2
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#3
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087628/id4-levels-dictate-the-stem-cell-state-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#4
Aileen R Helsel, Qi-En Yang, Melissa J Oatley, Tessa Lord, Fred Sablitzky, Jon M Oatley
Spermatogenesis is a classic model of cycling cell lineages that depend on a balance between stem cell self-renewal for continuity and formation of progenitors as the initial step in production of differentiated cells. However, the mechanisms guiding the continuum of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) to progenitor spermatogonial transition and precise identifiers of subtypes in the process are undefined. Here we used an Id4-eGfp reporter mouse to discover that EGFP intensity is predictive of the subsets with the ID4-EGFP(Bright) population being mostly, if not purely, SSCs while the ID4-EGFP(Dim) population is in transition to the progenitor state...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087539/quantitative-stability-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-clonal-output-in-transplanted-rhesus-macaques
#5
Samson J Koelle, Diego A Espinoza, Chuanfeng Wu, Jason Xu, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Robert E Donahue, Cynthia E Dunbar
Autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells lentivirally labeled with unique oligonucleotide barcodes flanked by sequencing primer targets enables quantitative assessment of the self-renewal and differentiation patterns of these cells in a myeloablative rhesus macaque model. Compared with other approaches to clonal tracking, this approach is highly quantitative and reproducible. We documented very stable multipotent long-term hematopoietic clonal output of monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and T cells from a polyclonal pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in four macaques followed for up to 49 months post-transplantation...
January 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087122/human-trophoblast-stem-cells-real-or-not-real
#6
Ching-Wen Chang, Mana M Parast
Abnormal trophoblast differentiation is the root cause of many placenta-based pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Human trophoblast differentiation is difficult to study due to the lack of a stem cell model. Such a multipotent "trophoblast stem" (TS) cell, with the ability to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, has been derived from mouse blastocysts, but attempts to derive similar human cells have failed. We consider here several possibilities for the TS cell niche in the human placenta...
January 5, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086811/study-of-the-microrna-expression-profile-of-foreskin-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-following-inflammation-priming
#7
Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Bassam Badran, Dominique Bron, Laurence Lagneaux, Mehdi Najar
BACKGROUND: Due to their self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potential, and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive tool for different therapeutic strategies. Foreskin (FSK), considered as a biological waste material, has already been shown to be a valuable source of MSCs. Besides their typical fibroblast like morphology and International Society for cellular Therapy compliant phenotype, foreskin-MSCs (FSK-MSCs) are clonogenic, and highly proliferative cells with multi-lineage and strong immunomodulatory capacities...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081346/neuroprotective-effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cellsand-conditioned-medium-in-mechanically-injured-neuroblastoma-cells
#8
Mesut Mete, Işıl Aydemir, Ülkün Ünlü Ünsal, Yusuf Kurtuluş Duransoy, İbrahim Mehmet Tuğlu, Mehmet Selçuki
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess self-renewal characteristics that distinguish them from other cell types. Recent studies have focused on the effects of conditioned medium (CM) that includes the extracellular matrix. Here we examined the neuroprotective effects of BMSCs and CM on damaged neuroblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cells were divided into five groups: 1) healthy controls, 2) damaged cells alone, 3) damaged cells treated with BMSCs, 4) damaged cells treated with CM, and 5) damaged cells treated with both BMSCs and CM...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078710/cancer-stem-cells-cscs-in-melanoma-there-s-smoke-but-is-there-fire
#9
REVIEW
Constance E Brinckerhoff
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also called Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs), can be defined as cancer cells that are present within solid tumors or hematological cancers, which have characteristics associated with normal stem cells, but which can give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs, therefore, are transformed stem cells, which can self-renew, differentiate into diverse progenies, and drive continuous tumor growth. (Villani et al. 2015) (Zhou et al., 2009)(Kreso & Dick, 2014)(Schatton et al...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078190/loss-of-quiescence-and-self-renewal-capacity-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-in-an-in-vitro-leukemic-niche
#10
Natalia-Del Pilar Vanegas, Jean-Paul Vernot
BACKGROUND: Leukemic and mesenchymal stem cells interact in the leukemic microenvironment and affect each other differently. This interplay has also important implications for the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology and function. This study evaluated human HSC self-renewal potential and quiescence in an in vitro leukemic niche without leukemic cells. METHODS: A leukemic niche was established by co-culturing mesenchymal stem cells with a fresh conditioned medium obtained from a leukemic (REH) cell line...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#11
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077417/aid-is-a-key-regulator-of-myeloid-erythroid-differentiation-and-dna-methylation-in-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#12
Hiroyoshi Kunimoto, Anna Sophia McKenney, Cem Meydan, Kaitlyn Shank, Abbas Nazir, Franck Rapaport, Benjamin Durham, Francine E Garrett-Bakelman, Elodie Pronier, Alan H Shih, Ari Melnick, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Ross L Levine
Recent studies have reported activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family members regulate active DNA demethylation. Genetic alterations of TET2 occur in myeloid malignancies and hematopoietic specific loss of Tet2 induces aberrant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal/differentiation, implicating TET2 as a master regulator of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Despite the functional link between AID and TET in epigenetic gene regulation, the role of AID loss in hematopoiesis and myeloid transformation remains to be investigated...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076784/coupled-proliferation-and-apoptosis-maintain-the-rapid-turnover-of-microglia-in-the-adult-brain
#13
Katharine Askew, Kaizhen Li, Adrian Olmos-Alonso, Fernando Garcia-Moreno, Yajie Liang, Philippa Richardson, Tom Tipton, Mark A Chapman, Kristoffer Riecken, Sol Beccari, Amanda Sierra, Zoltán Molnár, Mark S Cragg, Olga Garaschuk, V Hugh Perry, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Microglia play key roles in brain development, homeostasis, and function, and it is widely assumed that the adult population is long lived and maintained by self-renewal. However, the precise temporal and spatial dynamics of the microglial population are unknown. We show in mice and humans that the turnover of microglia is remarkably fast, allowing the whole population to be renewed several times during a lifetime. The number of microglial cells remains steady from late postnatal stages until aging and is maintained by the spatial and temporal coupling of proliferation and apoptosis, as shown by pulse-chase studies, chronic in vivo imaging of microglia, and the use of mouse models of dysregulated apoptosis...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076758/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-promote-cognitive-function-and%C3%A2-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Shichao Huang, Jianxin Mao, Kan Ding, Yue Zhou, Xianglu Zeng, Wenjuan Yang, Peipei Wang, Cun Zhao, Jian Yao, Peng Xia, Gang Pei
Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074006/autocrine-wnt-regulates-the-survival-and-genomic-stability-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Iris Augustin, Dyah L Dewi, Jennifer Hundshammer, Gerrit Erdmann, Grainne Kerr, Michael Boutros
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. The secretion of Wnt ligands requires Evi (also known as Wls). Genetically ablating Evi provides an experimental approach to studying the consequence of depleting all redundant Wnt proteins, and overexpressing Evi enables a nonspecific means of increasing Wnt signaling. We generated Evi-deficient and Evi-overexpressing mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to analyze the role of autocrine Wnt production in self-renewal and differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071833/co-culture-with-macrophages-enhances-the-clonogenic-and-invasion-activity-of-endometriotic-stromal-cells
#16
Rachel W S Chan, Cheuk-Lun Lee, Ernest H Y Ng, William S B Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect on endometrial and endometriotic cells after co-culture with macrophages, using clonogenic, invasion and self-renewal assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples, endometrium and endometriotic tissues were collected. Autologous macrophages were co-cultured with endometrial and endometriotic cells. The number of colony-forming units (CFU), invasiveness and self-renewal activity after co-culture with macrophages were determined...
January 10, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069833/clasp2-ensures-mitotic-fidelity-and-prevents-differentiation-of-epidermal-keratinocytes
#17
Marta N Shahbazi, Daniel Peña-Jimenez, Francesca Antonucci, Matthias Drosten, Mirna Perez-Moreno
Epidermal homeostasis is tightly controlled by a balancing act of self-renewal or terminal differentiation of proliferating basal keratinocytes. An increase in DNA content as a consequence of a mitotic block is a recognized mechanism underlying keratinocyte differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not yet fully understood. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, here we report that the expression of the mammalian Microtubule and Kinetochore-associated protein Clasp2 is intimately associated to the basal proliferative makeup of keratinocytes, and its deficiency leads to premature differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067405/lkb1-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-development-metabolism-and-muscle-progenitor-cell-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Tizhong Shan, Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Weiche Wu, Yizhen Wang
Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1), also named as Serine/Threonine protein kinase 11 (STK11), is a serine/threonine kinase that plays crucial roles in various cellular processes including cell survival, cell division, cellular polarity, cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell metabolism. In metabolic tissues, Lkb1 regulates glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism through phosphorylating and activating the AMPK subfamily proteins. In skeletal muscle, Lkb1 affects muscle development and postnatal growth, lipid and fatty acid oxidation, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066829/the-multifaceted-role-of-nrf2-in-mitochondrial-function
#19
REVIEW
Kira M Holmström, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 target genes comprise of a large network of antioxidant enzymes, proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins, inhibition of inflammation, as well as other transcription factors. In recent years it has emerged that as part of its role as a regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, Nrf2 impacts mitochondrial function. Increased Nrf2 activity defends against mitochondrial toxins...
December 2016: Curr Opin Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065643/ctip-specific-roles-during-cell-reprogramming-have-long-term-consequences-in-the-survival-and-fitness-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Daniel Gómez-Cabello, Cintia Checa-Rodríguez, María Abad, Manuel Serrano, Pablo Huertas
Acquired genomic instability is one of the major concerns for the clinical use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). All reprogramming methods are accompanied by the induction of DNA damage, of which double-strand breaks are the most cytotoxic and mutagenic. Consequently, DNA repair genes seem to be relevant for accurate reprogramming to minimize the impact of such DNA damage. Here, we reveal that reprogramming is associated with high levels of DNA end resection, a critical step in homologous recombination...
December 27, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
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