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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139178/notch1-and-notch2-coordinately-regulate-stem-cell-function-in-the-quiescent-and-activated-states-of-muscle-satellite-cells
#1
Shin Fujimaki, Daiki Seko, Yasuo Kitajima, Kiyoshi Yoshioka, Yoshifumi Tsuchiya, Shinya Masuda, Yusuke Ono
Satellite cells, the muscle tissue stem cells, express three Notch receptors (Notch1-3). The function of Notch1 and Notch2 in satellite cells has to date not been fully evaluated. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in myogenic progression in adult skeletal muscle using tamoxifen-inducible satellite cell-specific conditional knockout mice for Notch1 (N1-scKO), Notch2 (N2-scKO), and Notch1/Notch2 (scDKO). In the quiescent state, the number of satellite cells was slightly reduced in N2-scKO, but not significantly in N1-scKO, and almost completely depleted in scDKO mice...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139089/cancer-stem-cells-in-head-and-neck-carcinomas-identification-and-possible-therapeutic-implications
#2
Elize Wolmarans, Sonja C Boy, Sulette Nel, Anne E Mercier, Michael Sean Pepper
The recurrence and/or lack of response of certain tumors to radio- and chemotherapy has been attributed to a small subpopulation of cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been identified in many tumors (including solid and hematological tumors). CSCs are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal, their ability to introduce heterogeneity within a tumor mass and its metastases, genomic instability, and their insensitivity to both radiation and chemotherapy. The latter highlights the clinical importance of studying this subpopulation since their resistance to traditional treatments may lead to metastatic disease and/or tumor relapse...
November 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138851/nrp1-positive-lung-cancer-cells-possess-tumor-initiating-properties
#3
Luis E Jimenez-Hernandez, Karla Vazquez-Santillan, Rosario Castro-Oropeza, Gustavo Martinez-Ruiz, Laura Muñoz-Galindo, Carolina Gonzalez-Torres, Carlo C Cortes-Gonzalez, Georgina Victoria-Acosta, Jorge Melendez-Zajgla, Vilma Maldonado
Tumor-initiating cells possess the capacity for self-renewal and to create heterogeneous cell lineages within a tumor. Therefore, the identification and isolation of cancer stem cells is an essential step in the analysis of their biology. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the cell surface protein neuropilin 1 (NRP1) can be used as a biomarker of stem-like cells in lung cancer tumors. For this purpose, NRP1-negative (NRP1-) and NRP1-positive (NRP1+) cell subpopulations from two lung cancer cell lines were sorted by flow cytometry...
November 9, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138837/vegf-secreted-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mediates-the-differentiation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-into-endothelial-cells-via-paracrine-mechanisms
#4
Quanhu Ge, Hongwei Zhang, Jixue Hou, Longfei Wan, Wenzhe Cheng, Xiaoyi Wang, Dan Dong, Congzhe Chen, Jie Xia, Jun Guo, Xueling Chen, Xiangwei Wu
Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment strategy for ischemic diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) adhere to each other in the bone marrow cavity and in in vitro cultures. We have previously demonstrated that the adhesion between MSCs and EPCs is critical for MSC self‑renewal and their multi‑differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. In the present study, the influence of the indirect communication between EPCs and MSCs on the endothelial differentiation potential of EPCs was investigated, and the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC‑mediated EPC differentiation were explored...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138802/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-mechanism-underlying-the-effect-of-ginsenoside-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-subjected-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion
#5
Jian Gao, Huajing Bai, Qiang Li, Jian Li, Feng Wan, Mo Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Yilun Song, Jianping Zhang, Yinchu Si
The present study comprised a series of experiments to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of ginsenoside on the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) undergoing oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in vitro. The NSCs, which were isolated from the hippocampus of embryonic day 17 embryo rats, were subjected to OGD/R to establish an in vitro model of brain ischemia-reperfusion, following which different doses of ginsenoside were administered to the model...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138265/targeted-delivery-of-stat-3-modulator-to-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells-down-regulates-a-series-of-stem-ness-genes
#6
Santosh K Misra, Arun De, Dipanjan Pan
Cancer stem cells are known to be controlled by pathways that are dormant in normal adult cells, e.g. PTEN, which is a negative regulator of transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 regulates genes that are involved in stem cell self-renewal and thus represents a novel therapeutic target of enormous clinical significance. Studies on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been also significantly correlated with STATs. We describe here for the first time a novel strategy to selectively target CSCs and to induce downregulation of STAT3 downstream target genes reducing expression of series of 'stem-ness genes' in treated tumors...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137597/reduction-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-mechanical-loading-or-cyclo-rgd-peptide
#7
Olesja Hazenbiller, Neil A Duncan, Roman J Krawetz
BACKGROUND: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137267/tumacrophage-macrophages-transformed-into-tumor-stem-like-cells-by-virulent-genetic-material-from-tumor-cells
#8
Yizhuang Zhang, Na Zhou, Xiuyan Yu, Xuehui Zhang, Shanxin Li, Zhen Lei, Ruobi Hu, Hui Li, Yiqing Mao, Xi Wang, Jinshu Zhang, Yuan Li, Hongyan Guo, David M Irwin, Gang Niu, Huanran Tan
Tumor-associated macrophages are regarded as tumor-enhancers as they have key roles in the subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits that promote tumor progression. Here, we show that cancer cells can subvert macrophages yielding cells that have gained pro-tumor functions. When macrophages isolated from mice or humans are co-cultured with dead cancer cell line cells, induced to undergo apoptosis to mimic chemotherapy, up-regulation of pro-tumor gene expression was identified. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cancer cells by macrophages resulted in their transformation into tumor stem (initiating)-like cells, as indicated by the expression of epithelial markers (e...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137258/aberrantly-activated-cox-2-and-wnt-signaling-interact-to-maintain-cancer-stem-cells-in-glioblastoma
#9
Megan Wu, Jennifer Guan, Chris Li, Simon Gunter, Labeeba Nusrat, Sheena Ng, Karan Dhand, Cindi Morshead, Albert Kim, Sunit Das
Glioblastoma recurrence after aggressive therapy typically occurs within six months, and patients inevitably succumb to their disease. Tumor recurrence is driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells in glioblastoma (glioblastoma stem-like cells, GSCs), which exhibit resistance to cytotoxic therapies, compared to their non-stem-cell counterparts. Here, we show that the Cox-2 and Wnt signaling pathways are aberrantly activated in GSCs and interact to maintain the cancer stem cell identity. Cox-2 stimulates GSC self-renewal and proliferation through prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which in turn activates the Wnt signaling pathway...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137234/the-af4-mll-fusion-transiently-augments-multilineage-hematopoietic-engraftment-but-is-not-sufficient-to-initiate-leukemia-in-cord-blood-cd34-cells
#10
Cristina Prieto, Rolf Marschalek, Alessa Kühn, Adelheid Bursen, Clara Bueno, Pablo Menéndez
The translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is the hallmark genetic abnormality associated with infant pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and has the highest frequency of rearrangement in Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) leukemias. Unlike other MLL translocations, MLL-AF4-induced proB-ALL is exceptionally difficult to model in mice/humans. Previous work has investigated the relevance of the reciprocal translocation fusion protein AF4-MLL for t(4;11) leukemia, finding that AF4-MLL is capable of inducing proB-ALL without requirement for MLL-AF4 when expressed in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136097/nonrandom-contribution-of-left-and-right-testes-to-germline-transmission-from-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#11
Mito Kanastu-Shinohara, Honda Naoki, Takashi Shinohara
Vast amounts of sperm are produced from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which continuously undergo self-renewal. We examined the possible effect of laterality in male germline transmission efficiency of SSCs using a spermatogonial transplantation technique. We transplanted the same number of wild-type and Egfp transgenic SSCs in the same or different testes of individual recipient mice and compared the fertility of each type of recipient by natural mating. Transgenic mice were born within 3 months after transplantation regardless of the transplantation pattern...
November 9, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134290/re-emergence-of-lilium-callosum-sieb-et-zucc-in-taiwan-after-a-fire-allows-propagation-and-renews-the-possibility-of-conservation
#12
Ying Chun Chen, Yang Jung Huang, Chiu Mei Wang, Chin An Chiu, Huey Ling Lin, Pei Fang Lee, Ya Ming Cheng, Chen Chang
BACKGROUND: Lilium callosum is native to Taiwan, but little is known about it since it has been considered extinct since 1915. After the rediscovery of this rare species after a fire in 2011 in Tunghsiao Township, intensive work has been conducted to count the number in the wild population, to develop a conservation strategy, and to understand its reproductive characteristics and even economic potential. RESULTS: To conserve the germplasm of this population, three scales from a wild L...
November 13, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130960/piwi-proteins-and-piwi-interacting-rna-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#13
Yi-Neng Han, Yuan Li, Sheng-Qiang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Jun-Hua Zheng, Wei Li
P-Element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and interact with PIWI proteins. piRNAs were primarily described in the germline, but emerging evidence revealed that piRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner among multiple human somatic tissue types as well and play important roles in transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, gene and protein regulation, genome rearrangement, spermatogenesis and germ stem-cell maintenance. PIWI proteins were first discovered in Drosophila and they play roles in spermatogenesis, germline stem-cell maintenance, self-renewal, retrotransposons silencing and the male germline mobility control...
November 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130544/identification-of-gene-expression-signatures-across-different-types-of-neural-stem-cells-with-the-monte-carlo-feature-selection-method
#14
Lei Chen, JiaRui Li, Yu-Hang Zhang, KaiYan Feng, ShaoPeng Wang, YunHua Zhang, Tao Huang, Xiangyin Kong, Yu-Dong Cai
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are a group of multi-potent, self-renewing progenitor cells that contribute to the generation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes. Three subtypes of NSCs can be isolated based on the stages of the NSC lineage, including quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs), activated neural stem cells (aNSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although it is widely accepted that these three groups of NSCs play different roles in the development of the nervous system, their molecular signatures are poorly understood...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129686/naive-like-esrrb-ipscs-with-the-capacity-for-rapid-neural-differentiation
#15
Fumihiko Kisa, Seiji Shiozawa, Keisuke Oda, Sho Yoshimatsu, Mari Nakamura, Ikuko Koya, Kenji Kawai, Sadafumi Suzuki, Hideyuki Okano
Several groups have reported the existence of a form of pluripotency that resembles that of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), i.e., a naive state, in human pluripotent stem cells; however, the characteristics vary between reports. The nuclear receptor ESRRB is expressed in mESCs and plays a significant role in their self-renewal, but its expression has not been observed in most naive-like human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, we modified several methods for converting hiPSCs into a naive state through the transgenic expression of several reprogramming factors...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129685/small-rna-sequencing-reveals-dlk1-dio3-locus-embedded-micrornas-as-major-drivers-of-ground-state-pluripotency
#16
Sharif Moradi, Ali Sharifi-Zarchi, Amirhossein Ahmadi, Sepideh Mollamohammadi, Alexander Stubenvoll, Stefan Günther, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Sassan Asgari, Thomas Braun, Hossein Baharvand
Ground-state pluripotency is a cell state in which pluripotency is established and maintained through efficient repression of endogenous differentiation pathways. Self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are influenced by ESC-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the "miRNome" of ESCs cultured under conditions favoring ground-state pluripotency. We found that ground-state ESCs express a distinct set of miRNAs compared with ESCs grown in serum. Interestingly, most "ground-state miRNAs" are encoded by an imprinted region on chromosome 12 within the Dlk1-Dio3 locus...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127331/divergent-effects-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-modifiers-on-the-preservation-of-human-limbal-epithelial-progenitors-according-to-culture-condition
#17
Hyun Jung Lee, J Mario Wolosin, So-Hyang Chung
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the regulation of self-renewal in stem cells. Here we investigated the effect of CHIR99021, the primary transducer of the Wnt signaling canonical pathway, and IWP2, a wide action Wnt signal blocker, on the growth and differentiation of the limbal epithelial progenitor cells when these cells are cultured in two different, common culture approaches, outgrowth from limbal biopsy explants and isolated cell seeded in low calcium medium. Consistent with their expected effects, irrespective of the culture system, IWP2 decreased total β-catenin while CHIR99021 increased it in nuclear localization...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126913/iwr-1-a-tankyrase-inhibitor-attenuates-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-inhibits-in-vivo-the-growth-of-a-subcutaneous-human-osteosarcoma-xenograft
#18
Sara R Martins-Neves, Daniela I Paiva-Oliveira, Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro, Judith V M G Bovée, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen, Célia M F Gomes
Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates the self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and is involved in tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance. Previously, we reported that this pathway is activated in a subset of osteosarcoma CSCs and that doxorubicin induced stemness properties in differentiated cells through Wnt/β-catenin activation. Here, we investigated whether pharmacological Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, using a tankyrase inhibitor (IWR-1) might constitute a strategy to target CSCs and improve chemotherapy efficacy in osteosarcoma...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123544/non-coding-rnas-in-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-deciphering-regulatory-roles-in-stem-cell-potency-inflammatory-resolve-and-tissue-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Farah Fatima, Karin Ekstrom, Irina Nazarenko, Marco Maugeri, Hadi Valadi, Andrew F Hill, Giovanni Camussi, Muhammad Nawaz
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous populations of nano- and micro-sized vesicles secreted by various cell types. There is mounting evidence that EVs have widespread roles in transporting proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells and serve as mediators of intercellular communication. EVs secreted from stem cells could function as paracrine factors, and appear to mimic and recapitulate several features of their secreting cells. EV-mediated transport of regulatory RNAs provides a novel source of trans-regulation between cells...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121598/novel-c-terminal-heat-shock-protein-90-inhibitors-ku711-and-ku757-are-effective-in-targeting-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cancer-stem-cells
#20
C Subramanian, K J Kovatch, M W Sim, G Wang, M E Prince, T E Carey, R Davis, B S J Blagg, M S Cohen
Advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a therapeutic challenge due to the development of therapy resistance. Several studies have implicated the development of cancer stem cells as a possible mechanism for therapy resistance in HNSCC. Heat shock protein 90's (Hsp90's) molecular chaperone function is implicated in pathways of resistance in HNSCC. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the efficacy of novel C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors (KU711 and KU757) in targeting HNSCC cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
November 6, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
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