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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214829/ephb4-regulates-self-renewal-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#1
Tingting Liu, Xianwei Zeng, Fangling Sun, Hongli Hou, Yunqian Guan, Deyu Guo, Houxi Ai, Wen Wang, Guojun Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: EphB4 belongs to the largest family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. It contributes to a variety of pathological progresses of cancer malignancy. However, little is known about its role in neural stem cells (NSCs). This study examined whether EphB4 is required for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (hNSCs) in vitro. METHODS: We up- and down-regulated EphB4 expression in hNSCs using lentiviral over-expression and shRNA knockdown constructs and then investigated the influence of EphB4 on the properties of hNSCs...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213513/runx1-cooperates-with-flt3-itd-to-induce-leukemia
#2
Kira Behrens, Katrin Maul, Nilgün Tekin, Neele Kriebitzsch, Daniela Indenbirken, Vladimir Prassolov, Ursula Müller, Hubert Serve, Jörg Cammenga, Carol Stocking
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induced by the cooperative action of deregulated genes that perturb self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase are common mutations in AML, confer poor prognosis, and stimulate myeloproliferation. AML patient samples with FLT3-ITD express high levels of RUNX1, a transcription factor with known tumor-suppressor function. In this study, to understand this paradox, we investigated the impact of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD coexpression...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212613/porphyromonas-gingivalis-can-invade-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#3
Chunling Pan, Junchao Liu, Hongyan Wang, Jia Song, Lisi Tan, Haijiao Zhao
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with the development, progression, severity and recurrence of periodontitis. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) play an important role in the maintenance of periodontal tissue self-renewal and repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of P. gingivalis to infect PDLSCs using an in vitro monolayer model. METHODS: We separated and cultured primary PDLSCs using the tissue block with limiting dilution method...
February 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212107/rheb-in-neuronal-degeneration-regeneration-and-connectivity
#4
Veena Nambiar Potheraveedu, Miriam Schöpel, Raphael Stoll, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Rheb was originally detected as an immediate early response protein whose expression was induced by NMDA-dependent synaptic activity in the brain. Rheb's activity is highly regulated by its GTPase activating protein (GAP), the tuberous sclerosis complex protein, which stimulates the conversion from the active, GTP-loaded into the inactive, GDP-loaded conformation. Rheb has been established as an evolutionarily conserved molecular switch protein regulating cellular growth, cell volume, cell cycle, autophagy, and amino acid uptake...
February 17, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211885/the-novel-bmi-1-inhibitor-ptc596-downregulates-mcl-1-and-induces-p53-independent-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-progenitor-cells
#5
Y Nishida, A Maeda, M J Kim, L Cao, Y Kubota, J Ishizawa, A AlRawi, Y Kato, A Iwama, M Fujisawa, K Matsue, M Weetall, M Dumble, M Andreeff, T W Davis, A Branstrom, S Kimura, K Kojima
Disease recurrence is the major problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Relapse is driven by leukemia stem cells, a chemoresistant subpopulation capable of re-establishing disease. Patients with p53 mutant AML are at an extremely high risk of relapse. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) is required for the self-renewal and maintenance of AML stem cells. Here we studied the effects of a novel small molecule inhibitor of BMI-1, PTC596, in AML cells. Treatment with PTC596 reduced MCL-1 expression and triggered several molecular events consistent with induction of mitochondrial apoptosis: loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, BAX conformational change, caspase-3 cleavage and phosphatidylserine externalization...
February 17, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210556/are-breast-cancer-stem-cells-the-key-to-resolving-clinical-issues-in-breast-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Hidetaka Shima, Akimitsu Yamada, Takashi Ishikawa, Itaru Endo
Despite the dramatic advances in breast cancer treatment over the past two decades, it is still the most common malignancies in women. One of the reasons patients succumb to breast cancer is treatment resistance leading to metastasis and recurrence. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested as a cause of metastasis and recurrence in several cancers because of their unique characteristics, including self-renewal, pluripotency, and high proliferative ability. Increasing evidence has implicated breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) as essential for tumor development, progression, recurrence, and treatment resistance...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209618/the-stat3-mirna-92-wnt-signaling-pathway-regulates-spheroid-formation-and-malignant-progression-in-ovarian-cancer
#7
Min-Wei Chen, Shu-Ting Yang, Ming-Hsien Chien, Kuo-Tai Hua, Chin-Jui Wu, Sheng-Mou Hsiao, Hao Lin, Michael Hsiao, Jen-Liang Su, Lin-Hung Wei
Ovarian cancer spheroids constitute a metastatic niche for transcoelomic spread that also engenders drug resistance. Spheroid-forming cells express active STAT3 signaling and display stem cell-like properties that may contribute to ovarian tumor progression. In this study, we show that STAT3 is hyperactivated in ovarian cancer spheroids and that STAT3 disruption in this setting is sufficient to relieve chemoresistance. In an NSG murine model of human ovarian cancer, STAT3 signaling regulated spheroid formation and self-renewal properties, whereas STAT3 attenuation reduced tumorigenicity...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209613/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-directs-self-renewal-symmetric-cell-division-of-hterthigh-prostate-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Kai Zhang, Yanjing Guo, Xue Wang, Huifang Zhao, Zhongzhong Ji, Chaping Cheng, Li Li, Yuxiang Fang, Dawei Xu, Helen He Zhu, Wei-Qiang Gao
Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) drive cancer progression and recurrence. Self-renewal expansion of CSC is achieved through symmetric cell division, yet how external stimuli affect intracellular regulatory programs of CSC division modes and stemness remains obscure. Here we report that hTERThigh prostate cancer (PCa) cells exhibit CSC properties, including a stem cell-associated gene expression signature, long term tumor-propagating capacity and epithelial-to-mensenchymal transition (EMT). In promoting the self-renewal symmetric division of hTERThigh PCa cells, WNT3a dramatically decreased the ratio of hTERThigh PCa cells undergoing asymmetric division...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209178/tumor-initiating-cells-a-critical-review-of-isolation-approaches-and-new-challenges-in-targeting-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Komal Qureshi-Baig, Pit Ullmann, Serge Haan, Elisabeth Letellier
Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Targeting TICs may be essential to achieve cure, because of their self-renewal and tumorigenic properties as well as their resistance to conventional therapies. Despite significant advances in TIC biology, their isolation and identification remain largely disputed and incompletely established. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in isolation and culturing approaches of TICs, with focus on colorectal cancer (CRC)...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208648/n-butylidenephthalide-regulated-tumor-stem-cell-genes-ezh2-axl-and-reduced-its-migration-and-invasion-in-glioblastoma
#10
Ssu-Yin Yen, Hong-Meng Chuang, Mao-Hsuan Huang, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Horng-Jyh Harn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive types of brain tumor. Due to its highly recurrent rate and poor prognosis, the overall survival time with this type of tumor is only 20-21 months. Recent knowledge suggests that its recurrence is in part due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which display radioresistant, chemoresistant, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Enhancers of Zeste 2 (EZH2) and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) are both highly expressed in GBM. Additionally, they are an essential regulator involved in CSCs maintenance, migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness, metastasis and patient survival...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207192/temporal-spatial-establishment-of-initial-niche-for-the-primary-spermatogonial-stem-cell-formation-is-determined-by-an-arid4b-regulatory-network
#11
Ray-Chang Wu, Yang Zeng, Yu-Fang Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Mei-Yi Wu
During neonatal testis development, centrally located gonocytes migrate to basement membrane of the seminiferous cords, where physical contact with a niche established by Sertoli cells is essential for transition of gonocytes into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To provide structural support and signaling stimuli for the gonocyte-to-SSC transition that occurs at a specific location during a finite phase, temporal-spatial establishment of the niche is critical. To date, the factors that guide Sertoli cells to establish the initial stem cell niche remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207184/an-im-penetrable-shield-how-the-tumor-microenvironment-protects-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Theresa Relation, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their unlimited self-renewal ability and their capacity to initiate and maintain malignancy, traits that are not found in most cells that comprise the tumor. Although current cancer treatments successfully reduce tumor burden, the tumor will likely recur unless CSCs are effectively eradicated. This challenge is made greater by the protective impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of infiltrating immune cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203307/epigenetic-strategies-to-reverse-drug-resistance-in-heterogeneous-multiple-myeloma
#13
REVIEW
Mark E Issa, Farnaz Sedigheh Takhsha, Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Perez-Novo, Wim Vanden Berghe, Muriel Cuendet
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy, which remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Due to heterogeneity within the cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cell populations employ a dynamic survival strategy to chemotherapeutic treatments, which frequently results in a rapid acquisition of therapy resistance. Besides resistance-conferring genetic alterations within a tumor cell population selected during drug treatment, recent findings also reveal non-mutational mechanisms of drug resistance, involving a small population of "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) which are intrinsically more refractory to the effects of a variety of anticancer drugs...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203014/-influence-of-surface-treatment-with-sodium-hypochlorite-solution-on-dentin-bond-strength
#14
Y Wang, Y H Liang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution used during root canal therapy on dentin bond strength. METHODS: In the study, 15 freshly extracted human third molars with complete dental crowns, caries and filling-free were selected. The occlusal enamel was removed perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth to expose middle flat surfaces of sound dentin. The occlusal dentin surfaces were then polished using 600-grit silicon papers for 1 min and rinsed with deionized water for 1 min...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202759/relationship-between-measures-of-hiv-reactivation-and-the-decline-of-latent-reservoir-under-latency-reversing-agents
#15
Janka Petravic, Thomas A Rasmussen, Sharon R Lewin, Stephen J Kent, Miles P Davenport
Antiretroviral-free HIV remission requires substantial reduction of the number of latently infected cells and enhanced immune control of viremia. Latency-reversing agents (LRA) aim to eliminate latently infected cells by increasing the rate of reactivation of HIV transcription, which exposes these cells to killing by the immune system. As LRA are explored in clinical trials, it becomes increasingly important to assess the effect of increased HIV reactivation rate on the decline of latently infected cells, and estimate LRA efficacy in increasing virus reactivation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202689/corneal-epithelial-stem-cells-and-their-niche-at-a-glance
#16
REVIEW
Craig S Nowell, Freddy Radtke
The corneal epithelium acts as a protective barrier on the anterior ocular surface and is essential for maintaining transparency of the cornea and thus visual acuity. During both homeostasis and repair, the corneal epithelium is maintained by self-renewing stem cells, which persist throughout the lifetime of the organism. Importantly, as in other self-renewing tissues, the functional activity of corneal epithelial stem cells (CSCEs) is tightly regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche, which provides a range of cues that maintain the stem cell population...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202676/harnessing-the-bmp-signaling-pathway-to-control-the-formation-of-cancer-stem-cells-by-effects-on-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
REVIEW
Ashish Bosukonda, William D Carlson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) persist in tumors as a distinct population and may be causative in metastasis and relapse. CSC-rich tumors are associated with higher rates of metastasis and poor patient prognosis. Targeting CSCs therapeutically is challenging, since they seem to be resistant to standard chemotherapy. We have shown that a novel peptide agonist of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, P123, is capable of inhibiting the growth of primary tumor cells by interacting with type I receptors selectively [activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2) and ALK3, but not ALK6] and type II BMP receptors, activating SMAD 1/5/8 signaling and controlling the cell cycle pathway...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202523/cancer-stem-cells-regulate-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-via-activation-of-hedgehog-signaling-in-mammary-gland-tumors
#18
Giovanni Valenti, Hazel M Quinn, Guus Jje Heynen, Linxiang Lan, Jane D Holland, Regina Vogel, Annika Wulf-Goldenberg, Walter Birchmeier
Many tumors display intracellular heterogeneity, with subsets of cancer stem cells (CSC) that sustain tumor growth, recurrence, and therapy resistance. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) have been shown to support and regulate CSC function. Here we investigated the interactions between CSCs and CAFs in mammary gland tumors driven by combined activation of Wnt/β-catenin and Hgf/Met signaling in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In this setting, CSCs secreted the hedgehog ligand SHH, which regulated CAFs via paracrine activation of Hedgehog signaling...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202494/fumarate-hydratase-is-a-critical-metabolic-regulator-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-functions
#19
Amelie V Guitart, Theano I Panagopoulou, Arnaud Villacreces, Milica Vukovic, Catarina Sepulveda, Lewis Allen, Roderick N Carter, Louie N van de Lagemaat, Marcos Morgan, Peter Giles, Zuzanna Sas, Marta Vila Gonzalez, Hannah Lawson, Jasmin Paris, Joy Edwards-Hicks, Katrin Schaak, Chithra Subramani, Deniz Gezer, Alejandro Armesilla-Diaz, Jimi Wills, Aaron Easterbrook, David Coman, Chi Wai Eric So, Donal O'Carroll, Douglas Vernimmen, Neil P Rodrigues, Patrick J Pollard, Nicholas M Morton, Andrew Finch, Kamil R Kranc
Strict regulation of stem cell metabolism is essential for tissue functions and tumor suppression. In this study, we investigated the role of fumarate hydratase (Fh1), a key component of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and cytosolic fumarate metabolism, in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. Hematopoiesis-specific Fh1 deletion (resulting in endogenous fumarate accumulation and a genetic TCA cycle block reflected by decreased maximal mitochondrial respiration) caused lethal fetal liver hematopoietic defects and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) failure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202079/a-novel-cytoprotective-peptide-protects-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-induced-by-starvation-via-nrf2-sirt3-foxo3a-pathway
#20
Shuo Wang, Chao Zhang, Sidikejiang Niyazi, Long Zheng, Jiawei Li, Weitao Zhang, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Cheng Yang, Tongyu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been widely explored in the past decade as a cell-based treatment for various diseases. However, poor survival of adaptively transferred MSCs limits their clinical therapeutic potentials, which is largely ascribed to the nutrient starvation. In this study, we determined whether a novel kidney protective peptide CHBP could protect MSCs against starvation and invested the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: MSCs were subjected to serum deprivation and CHBP of graded concentrations was administered...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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