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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331736/dysfunctional-telomeres-and-hematological-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Elena Fiorini, Andrea Santoni, Simona Colla
Telomere biology disorders, which are characterized by telomerase activity haploinsufficiency and accelerated telomere shortening, most commonly manifest as degenerative diseases. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover, such as those in the hematopoietic system, are particularly vulnerable to defects in telomere maintenance genes that eventually culminate in bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, in which the BM cannot produce sufficient new blood cells. Here, we review how telomere defects induce degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs, with particular focus on how they impact the hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment and affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation...
January 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330298/stemness-is-enhanced-in-gastric-cancer-by-a-set-pp2a-e2f1-axis
#2
Shuhei Enjoji, Ryotaro Yabe, Shunya Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Masashi Sakurai, Yusuke Sakai, Hiroko Takenouchi, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Hiroko Oshima, Masanobu Oshima, Michael P Vitek, Tetsuya Matsuura, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuya Usui, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chemotherapies against gastric cancer often fail, with cancer recurrence due potentially to the persistence of cancer stem cells. This unique subpopulation of cells in tumors possess the ability to self-renew and de-differentiate. These cancer stem cells are critical for initiation, maintenance, metastasis, and relapse of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms supporting cancer stemness remain largely unknown...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327674/insoluble-microenvironment-facilitating-the-generation-and-maintenance-of-pluripotency
#3
Xiaofang Chen, Jiaqi Li, Yan Huang, Peng Liu, Yubo Fan
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold enormous potential as a tool to generate cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since the initial report of iPSCs in 2006, many different methods have been developed in order to enhance the safety and efficiency of this technology. Recent studies indicate that the extracellular signals can promote the production of iPSCs, and even replace the Yamanaka factors. Noticeably, abundant evidences suggest that the insoluble microenvironment, including the culture substrate and neighboring cells, directly regulates the expression of core pluripotency genes and the epigenetic modification of the chromatins, hence impact the reprogramming dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#4
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326381/b1a-b-cells-require-autophagy-for-metabolic-homeostasis-and-self-renewal
#5
Alexander J Clarke, Thomas Riffelmacher, Daniel Braas, Richard J Cornall, Anna Katharina Simon
Specific metabolic programs are activated by immune cells to fulfill their functional roles, which include adaptations to their microenvironment. B1 B cells are tissue-resident, innate-like B cells. They have many distinct properties, such as the capacity to self-renew and the ability to rapidly respond to a limited repertoire of epitopes. The metabolic pathways that support these functions are unknown. We show that B1 B cells are bioenergetically more active than B2 B cells, with higher rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and depend on glycolysis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325444/redox-paradox-a-novel-approach-to-therapeutics-resistant-cancer
#6
Luksana Chaiswing, William H St Clair, Daret K St Clair
Cancer cells that are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy are a major problem limiting the success of cancer therapy. Aggressive cancer cells depend on elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to proliferate, self-renew, and metastasize. As a result, these aggressive cancers maintain high basal levels of ROS compared to normal cells. The prominence of the redox state in cancer cells led us to consider whether increasing the redox state to the condition of oxidative stress could be used as a successful adjuvant therapy for aggressive cancers...
January 12, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324934/stem-cells-therapy-the-future-in-the-management-of-systemic-sclerosis-a-case-report
#7
Jung In Song, Silvanie Volz, Maria Eirini Liodaki, Peter Mailänder, Konstantinos Kalousis
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and chronic and often progressive course. The diffuse cutaneous form of SSc (dcSSc) is characterized by thickening of the skin (scleroderma) and distinctive involvement of multiple internal organs. Patients with limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) generally have long-standing Raynaud's phenomenon before other manifestations of SSc appear. Over the last decade the Interest of adipose-derived cell therapy in regenerative medicine has increased continuously...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323720/tfcp2l1-safeguards-the-maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#8
Hongwei Sun, Yu You, Mengmeng Guo, Xiaohu Wang, Yan Zhang, Shoudong Ye
Tfcp2l1 is a transcription factor critical for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functions of Tfcp2l1 in controlling hESC activity and showed that Tfcp2l1 is functionally important in the maintenance of hESC identity. Tfcp2l1 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Forced expression of Tfcp2l1 promoted hESC self-renewal. Functional analysis of the mutant forms of Tfcp2l1 revealed that both the CP2- and SAM-like domains are indispensable for Tfcp2l1 to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323290/clonal-analysis-of-lineage-fate-in-native-haematopoiesis
#9
Alejo E Rodriguez-Fraticelli, Samuel L Wolock, Caleb S Weinreb, Riccardo Panero, Sachin H Patel, Maja Jankovic, Jianlong Sun, Raffaele A Calogero, Allon M Klein, Fernando D Camargo
Haematopoiesis, the process of mature blood and immune cell production, is functionally organized as a hierarchy, with self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitor cells sitting at the very top. Multiple models have been proposed as to what the earliest lineage choices are in these primitive haematopoietic compartments, the cellular intermediates, and the resulting lineage trees that emerge from them. Given that the bulk of studies addressing lineage outcomes have been performed in the context of haematopoietic transplantation, current models of lineage branching are more likely to represent roadmaps of lineage potential than native fate...
January 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323140/loss-of-a20-in-bm-mscs-regulates-the-th17-treg-balance-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Zhuan Feng, Yue Zhai, Zhaohui Zheng, Lijie Yang, Xing Luo, Xiwen Dong, Qing Han, Jin Jin, Zhi-Nan Chen, Ping Zhu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent cells that are self-renewable and possess the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Several studies demonstrated that MSCs could regulate a Th17/Treg balance and could be a potential therapeutic target for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). A20 is highly expressed in many cell types after the stimulation of TNF-α, where it may inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. However, the expression of A20 in BM-MSCs in RA is not fully understood. In our study, we found that A20 was decreased in RA patients' bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), and with more IL-6 secretion, the balance of Th17/Treg was broken...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321579/differentiation-potential-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-correlates-to-the-level-of-chd7
#11
Takako Yamamoto, Chiemi Takenaka, Yusuke Yoda, Yasuhiro Oshima, Kenichi Kagawa, Hiroshi Miyajima, Tetsuji Sasaki, Shin Kawamata
Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) possesses two distinct features; self-renewal and the potential to differentiate. Here we show the differentiation potential and growth rate of ESC correlates positively with the expression level of the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7). When ESCs are maintained in feeder-free conditions and single cell seeding, ESC KhES-1 having 4520 copies or more of CHD7 in 5 ng total RNA show differentiation potential, but this is lost when the CHD7 copy number is reduced in KhES-1 to less than 696 by alternative culture conditions...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321513/tousled-like-kinase-1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-core-transcription-factors-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
Jina Lee, Min Seong Kim, Su Hyung Park, Yeun Kyu Jang
Although the differentiation of pluripotent cells in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is often associated with protein kinase-mediated signaling pathways and Tousled-like kinase 1 (Tlk1) is required for development in several species, the role of Tlk1 in ESC function remains unclear. Here, we used mouse ESCs to study the function of Tlk1 in pluripotent cells. The knockdown (KD)-based Tlk1-deficient cells showed that Tlk1 is not essential for ESC self-renewal in an undifferentiated state. However, Tlk1-KD cells formed irregularly shaped embryoid bodies and induced resistance to differentiation cues, indicating their failure to differentiate into an embryoid body...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321163/antitumor-effects-of-blocking-protein-neddylation-in-t315i-bcr-abl-leukemia-cells-and-leukemia-stem-cells
#13
Chang Liu, Danian Nie, Juan Li, Xin Du, Yuhong Lu, Yangqiu Li, Jingfeng Zhou, Yanli Jin, Jingxuan Pan
Imatinib (IM) revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but drug resistance and disease recurrence remain a challenge. In this study, we suggest a novel strategy based on blocking protein neddylation to address BCR-ABL point mutations and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) that lie at the root of IM-resistant recurrences. Based on the finding that the NEDD8-activating enzyme subunit NAE1 is overexpressed in CML cells, we hypothesized that the function of certain neddylation-dependent protein substrates might be targeted to therapeutic ends in IM-resistant CML cells and LSCs...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320872/correction-to-bai-et%C3%A2-al-melatonin-promotes-self-renewal-of-nestin-positive-pancreatic-stem-cells-through-activation-of-the-mt2-erk-smad-nestin-axis
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320732/stabilization-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-suppresses-mll-af9-induced-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Yan Xiu, Qianze Dong, Qingchang Li, Fengyin Li, Nick Borcherding, Weizhou Zhang, Brendan Boyce, Hai-Hui Xue, Chen Zhao
Canonical NF-κB signaling is constitutively activated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells and is required for maintenance of the self-renewal of leukemia stem cells (LSCs). However, any potential role for NF-κB non-canonical signaling in AML has been largely overlooked. Here, we report that stabilization of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) suppresses AML. Mechanistically, stabilization of NIK activates NF-κB non-canonical signaling and represses NF-κB canonical signaling. In addition, stabilization of NIK-induced activation of NF-κB non-canonical signaling upregulates Dnmt3a and downregulates Mef2c, which suppresses and promotes AML development, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320425/targeting-pancreatic-cancer-cell-plasticity-the-latest-in-therapeutics
#16
REVIEW
Jacob M Smigiel, Neetha Parameswaran, Mark W Jackson
Mortality remains alarmingly high for patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), with 93% succumbing to the disease within five years. The vast majority of PDAC cases are driven by activating mutations in the proto-oncogene KRAS, which results in constitutive proliferation and survival signaling. As efforts to target RAS and its downstream effectors continue, parallel research aimed at identifying novel targets is also needed in order to improve therapeutic options and efficacy. Recent studies demonstrate that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to metastatic dissemination and therapy failure, the causes of mortality from PDAC...
January 10, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319179/muscle-derived-satellite-cells-for-treating-type-1-diabetes-in-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#17
Yu Ren, Hefei Wang, Si Ha, Xingsheng Zhao, Xiao Wang, Yu Lan, Xiaoling Liu
Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a complicated metabolic disease, with the fundamental treatment nowadays being diet control, insulin injections, slet or pancreas transplantation, which is limited because exogenous insulin injections fail to simulate normal insulin secretion in islet beta cells successfully and islet transplantation lacks organ donors. So far, stem cells with highly self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential have become a new hope for the treatment of diabetes. In this research, rat Muscle-derived satellite cells *MDSCs*were separated and cultivated in vitro and inducted into insulin-producing cells with observation and identification using dithizone staining and so on...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318501/function-of-fezf1-during-early-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Xin Liu, Pei Su, Lisha Lu, Zicen Feng, Hongtao Wang, Jiaxi Zhou
The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development...
January 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315388/galectin-3-and-cancer-stemness
#19
Pratima Nangia-Makker, Victor Hogan, Avraham Raz
Over the last few decades galectin-3, a carbohydrate binding protein, with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine residues, has been unique due to the regulatory roles it performs in processes associated with tumor progression and metastasis such as cell proliferation, homotypic/ heterotypic aggregation, dynamic cellular transformation, migration and invasion, survival and apoptosis. Structure-function association of galectin-3 reveals that it consists of a short amino terminal motif, which regulates its nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling; a collagen α-like domain, susceptible to cleavage by matrix metalloproteases and prostate specific antigen (PSA); accountable for its oligomerization and lattice formation, and a carbohydrate recognition/binding domain containing the anti-death motif of the Bcl2 protein family...
January 5, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315268/mirna-influences-in-neuroblast-modulation-an-introspective-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Vanessa Zammit, Byron Baron, Duncan Ayers
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common occurring solid paediatric cancer in children under the age of five years. Whether of familial or sporadic origin, chromosome abnormalities contribute to the development of NB and cause dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding, single stranded RNAs that target messenger RNAs at the post-transcriptional levels by repressing translation within all facets of human physiology. Such gene 'silencing' activities by miRNAs allows the development of regulatory feedback loops affecting multiple functions within the cell, including the possible differentiation of neural stem cell (NSC) lineage selection...
January 9, 2018: Genes
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