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Tbi and edema

Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Yitian Xu, Jun Zhu, Fan Gao, Baoqi Dang, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) is a multifaceted scaffolding protein known to be involved in the regulation of signaling events required for neuronal protection. In the present study, we investigated the role of RACK1 in secondary brain injury in a rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. A weight-drop TBI model was established in Sprague Dawley rats, and RACK1 in vivo knockdown and overexpression were performed 24 h before TBI insult. The IRE1 inhibitor 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde (DBSA) was administered by intracerebroventricular injection 1 h after TBI insult...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Jianping Wang, Yamin Zhang
Berberine has multiple clinical applications, including the treatment of tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, bacterial and viral infections, cerebral ischemic injuries, mental diseases, Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of berberine agonist rescue learning and memory in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the possible mechanism underlying these observations was explored. The protective effect of berberine agonist significantly recovered learning and memory skills, attenuated brain edema and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase‑3 and ‑9 protein expression in mice with severe TBI...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nader Shahrokhi, Mohammad Khaksari, Gholamreza AsadiKaram, Zahra Soltani, Nava Shahrokhi
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of death and disability in modern societies. The role of steroids and melatonin is recognized as a neuroprotective factor in traumatic injuries. This study examined the role of melatonin receptors in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. Materials and Methods: Seventy female ovariectomized Wistar rats were divided into five groups and two subgroups. All animals underwent brain trauma. The groups were as follow: 1) trauma, 2) melatonin receptor antagonist vehicle + estrogen, 3) MT1 melatonin receptor antagonist + estrogen, 4) MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist+ estrogen, 5) MT3 melatonin receptor antagonist+ estrogen...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Denis E Bragin, Gloria L Statom, Edwin M Nemoto
OBJECTIVE: In previous work we showed that high intracranial pressure (ICP) in the rat brain induces a transition from capillary (CAP) to pathological microvascular shunt (MVS) flow, resulting in brain hypoxia, edema, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. This transition was correlated with a loss of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation undetected by static autoregulatory curves but identified by induced dynamic ICP (iPRx) and cerebrovascular (iCVRx) reactivity. We hypothesized that loss of CBF autoregulation as correlated with MVS flow would be identified by iPRx and iCVRx in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with elevated ICP...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Hua-Jiang Dong, Ming-Liang Zhao, Xiao-Hong Li, Yi-Sheng Chen, Jing Wang, Miao-Bin Chen, Sen Wu, Jing-Jing Wang, Hai-Qian Liang, Hong-Tao Sun, Yue Tu, Sai Zhang, Jie Xiong, Chong Chen
Both chemical and physical microenvironment appear to be important for lineage specification of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). However, physical factors such as the elastic modulus in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are seldom studied. Intracranial hypertension and cerebral edema after TBI may change the brain's physical microenvironment, which inhibits neural lineage specification of transplanted UCMSCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential regulatory effect of mild hypothermia on the elastic modulus of the injured brain...
February 23, 2018: Neuroscience
Himakarnika Alluri, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Matthew L Davis, Binu Tharakan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. It is a silently growing epidemic with multifaceted pathogenesis, and current standards of treatments aim to target only the symptoms of the primary injury, while there is a tremendous need to explore interventions that can halt the progression of the secondary injuries. The use of a reliable animal model to study and understand the various aspects the pathobiology of TBI is extremely important in therapeutic drug development against TBI-associated complications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Hassan Soleimanpour, Sarvin Sanaie, Jahan Porhomayon, Fatemeh Rasouli, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Zonggang Hou, Runfa Tian, Feifei Han, Shuyu Hao, Weichuan Wu, Xiang Mao, Xiaogang Tao, Te Lu, Jinqian Dong, Yun Zhen, Baiyun Liu
A decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been shown to be a life-saving therapeutic treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, which also might result in post-operative behavioral dysfunction. However, there is still no definite conclusion about whether the behavioral dysfunction already existed at an early stage after the DC operation or is just a long-term post-operation complication. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze whether DC treatment was beneficial to behavioral function at an early stage post TBI...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Casey J Allen, Ty K Subhawong, Mena M Hanna, Lydia Chelala, M Ross Bullock, Carl I Schulman, Kenneth G Proctor
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is often used as an alternative pressor to catecholamines (CATs). However, unlike CATs, AVP is a powerful antidiuretic that could promote edema. We tested the hypothesis that AVP promoted cerebral edema and/or increased requirements for osmotherapy, relative to those who received CATs, for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) management after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This is a retrospective review of 286 consecutive TBI patients with intracranial pressure monitoring at a single institution from September 2008 to January 2015...
January 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Zhi-Ke Liu, Chun-Fai Ng, Hoi-Ting Shiu, Hing-Lok Wong, Wai-Ching Chin, Jin-Fang Zhang, Ping-Kuen Lam, Wai-Sang Poon, Clara Bik-San Lau, Ping-Chung Leung, Chun-Hay Ko
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Da Chuanxiong Formula (DCXF) is one of the famous herb pairs that contains dried rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Gastrodia elata Bl. in the mass ratio of 4:1. This classic representative traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used to treat brain diseases like headache and migraine caused by blood stasis and wind pathogen. However, the therapeutic effect of DCXF on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported yet. AIM OF STUDY: The present study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DCXF and its underlying mechanisms in the controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced TBI rat model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jingfang Lv, Yong Zeng, Yu Qian, Jingfei Dong, Zhixiang Zhang, Jianning Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes. They derive from pre-miRNAs that are enzymatically processed by dicer to ∼22 nucleotide mature miRNAs. Members of the pre-miRNA lethal-7 (let-7) are known to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we showed that the level of let-7c-5p, a key member of the let-7 family, was rapidly reduced in the traumatically injured foci in brains of adult C57BL/6J mice and gradually recovered to the pre-injury level 14 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI) induction...
February 3, 2018: Brain Research
Ao Xiong, Ge Jin, Renping Xiong, Hong Lu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the protein expression related to cognitive and learning memory function, and to investigate the effect of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) silence on learning and memory function in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. METHODS: Ninety-six healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into groups according to the random number table. (1) Forty-eight rats were divided into sham operation (sham) group, TBI group (by using modified Feeney method), AQP4 RNA interference (RNAi) negative group [TBI+meaningless small interfering RNA (siRNA)-AQP4 liposome solution 10 μL], and AQP4 RNAi group (TBI+siRNA-AQP4 liposome solution 10 μL)...
February 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Karen Gorse, Mary Kate Lantzy, Eun D Lee, Audrey D Lafrenaye
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent disease with significant costs. Although progress has been made in understanding the complex pathobiology of focal lesions associated with TBI, questions remain regarding the diffuse responses to injury. Expression of the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Trpm4) channel, is linked to cytotoxic edema during hemorrhagic contusion expansion. However, little is known about Trpm4 following diffuse TBI. To explore Trpm4 expression in diffuse TBI, rats were subjected to a diffuse central fluid percussion injury (CFPI) and survived for 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Szu-Fu Chen, Wei-Shen Su, Chun-Hu Wu, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Feng-Yi Yang
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term treatment efficacy of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on functional outcomes, brain edema, and the possible involvement of reactions in mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury received LIPUS treatment daily for a period of 4 weeks. The effects of LIPUS on edema were detected by MR imaging in the mouse brain at 148 days following TBI. Long-term functional outcomes of LIPUS stimulation were evaluated by behavioral analyses...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Katsuhiro Nagata, Yujin Suto, John Cognetti, Kevin D Browne, Kenichiro Kumasaka, Victoria E Johnson, Lewis Kaplan, Joshua Marks, Douglas H Smith, Jose L Pascual
BACKGROUND: Unfractionated heparin (UFH) administered immediately after TBI reduces brain leukocyte (LEU) accumulation, and enhances early cognitive recovery, but may increase bleeding after injury. It is unknown how non-anticoagulant heparins such as 2,3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH), impact post-TBI cerebral inflammation and long term recovery. We hypothesized that ODSH after TBI reduces LEU-mediated brain inflammation and improves long term neurological recovery. METHODS: CD1 male mice (n=66) underwent either TBI (controlled cortical impact; CCI) or sham craniotomy...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Shotaro Michinaga, Akimasa Kimura, Shunichi Hatanaka, Shizuho Minami, Arisa Asano, Yuki Ikushima, Shingo Matsui, Yoshiya Toriyama, Manami Fujii, Yutaka Koyama
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is induced by immediate physical disruption of brain tissue, and causes death and disability. Studies on experimental TBI animal models show that disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) underlies brain edema and neuroinflammation during the delayed phase of TBI. In neurological disorders, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in BBB dysfunction and brain edema. In this study, the effect of ET antagonists on BBB dysfunction and brain edema were examined in a mouse focal TBI model using lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Rifat Latifi, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Hassan Al-Thani
OBJECTIVE The clinical relevance of high-sensitivity troponin T (HsTnT) in trauma patients is not well explored. In this study, the authors aimed to study the predictive value of serum HsTnT in intubated patients who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted for all intubated TBI patients between 2010 and 2014 at a national level 1 trauma center. Data were analyzed and compared based on the HsTnT status on admission (group 1, negative results; and group 2, positive results)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Saifudeen Ismael, Sanaz Nasoohi, Tauheed Ishrat
NNucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome may intimately contribute to sustaining damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to examine whether specific modulation of NLPR3 inflammasome by MCC950, a novel selective NLRP3 inhibitor confers protection after experimental TBI. Unilateral cortical impact injury was induced in young adult C57BL/6 mice. MCC950 (50 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administration at 1 h and 3 h post TBI. Animals were tested for neurological function, and then sacrificed for edema at 24 or 72 h post TBI...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Craig Williamson, Larry Morgan, Joshua P Klein
The use of neuroimaging in conjunction with serial neurological examinations is a core component of modern neurocritical care practice. Although there is a growing role for other neuromonitoring techniques, the ability to quickly and accurately interpret images in the context of a patient's clinical status arguably remains the indispensable skill for neurocritical care practitioners. Due to its rapid acquisition time and excellent ability to detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral edema, and signs of elevated intracranial pressure, computed tomography (CT) remains the most useful neuroimaging technique for intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Vahagn C Nikolian, Isabel S Dennahy, Gerald A Higgins, Aaron M Williams, Michael Weykamp, Patrick E Georgoff, Hassan Eidy, Mohamed H Ghandour, Panpan Chang, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Early treatment with valproic acid (VPA) has demonstrated benefit in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including smaller brain lesion size, decreased edema, reduced neurologic disability, and faster recovery. Mechanisms underlying these favorable outcomes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that VPA treatment would upregulate genes involved in cell survival and proliferation and downregulate those associated with cell death and the inflammatory response...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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