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Asheley Cockrell Skinner, Keith Payne, Andrew J Perrin, Abigail T Panter, Janna B Howard, Anna Bardone-Cone, Cynthia M Bulik, Michael J Steiner, Eliana M Perrin
OBJECTIVES: Assess implicit weight bias in children 9 to 11 years old. METHODS: Implicit weight bias was measured in children ages 9 to 11 (N = 114) by using the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Participants were shown a test image of a child for 350 milliseconds followed by a meaningless fractal (200 milliseconds), and then they were asked to rate the fractal image as "good" or "bad." We used 9 image pairs matched on age, race, sex, and activity but differing by weight of the child...
June 23, 2017: Pediatrics
William C Hacker, Shuxiang Li, Adrian H Elcock
We describe structural models of the Escherichia coli chromosome in which the positions of all 4.6 million nucleotides of each DNA strand are resolved. Models consistent with two basic chromosomal orientations, differing in their positioning of the origin of replication, have been constructed. In both types of model, the chromosome is partitioned into plectoneme-abundant and plectoneme-free regions, with plectoneme lengths and branching patterns matching experimental distributions, and with spatial distributions of highly-transcribed chromosomal regions matching recent experimental measurements of the distribution of RNA polymerases...
June 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Chengjie Xia, Jindong Li, Binquan Kou, Yixin Cao, Zhifeng Li, Xianghui Xiao, Yanan Fu, Tiqiao Xiao, Liang Hong, Jie Zhang, Walter Kob, Yujie Wang
Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected noncubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which led to the speculation of the presence of fractal glass order. Using x-ray tomography we identify here a similar noncubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within the first nearest neighbor shell, and, therefore, is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Linmin Pei, Syed M S Reza, Wei Li, Christos Davatzikos, Khan M Iftekharuddin
In this work, we propose a novel method to improve texture based tumor segmentation by fusing cell density patterns that are generated from tumor growth modeling. In order to model tumor growth, we solve the reaction-diffusion equation by using Lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM). Computational tumor growth modeling obtains the cell density distribution that potentially indicates the predicted tissue locations in the brain over time. The density patterns is then considered as novel features along with other texture (such as fractal, and multifractal Brownian motion (mBm)), and intensity features in MRI for improved brain tumor segmentation...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
P Li, Z F Zhang
Theoretical model required for the evolution of regular dislocation pattern should simultaneously take into account both static distribution and dynamic evolution of dislocation pattern. In principle, there exists a stable uniformly moving dislocation with both core and far field advancing at the same constant velocity, which suggests the existence of the traveling waves representing moving dislocation. Therefore, one new term "dislocation wave" is defined by simultaneously consisting of both an elastic wave and a dislocation in each wavefront...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rahul Jain, Ranga Pitchumani
This paper presents a fractal model to describe wettability on multiscale randomly rough surfaces. Hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surfaces produced using processes such as electrodeposition and etching lead to the creation of random roughness at multiple length scales on the surface. This paper considers the description of such surfaces with a fractal asperity model based on the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (W-M) function, where the fractal parameters are uniquely determined from a power spectrum of the surface...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Susie Vrobel
This paper focusses on the notions of time and timelessness in Eastern and Western thought traditions. The Introduction addresses the Eastern differentiation between the mind, which does not operate in a successive manner and is therefore not caught in time, and the time-laden successively operating mind and brain. I also describe how Jiddu Krishnamurti reconciles the two through insight, an event which restructures the brain and culminates in an eternal Now. In the following sections, I draw analogies to Western notions of timelessness and insight...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Fang Zhao, Daolai Cheng
The pore size distribution is quite significant for determining the transport capacity of heat and moisture in sludge during the drying process. It is crucial to investigate the transformation of the pore size in sludge under sonication. In this paper, the microstructures of pores inside sludge before and after ultrasonic treatment with various ultrasonic conditions were observed using a microscope. Fractal geometry and image analysis were combined to quantitatively identify the evolution of pore size in sludge undergoing various acoustic energy densities and treatment times...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yonatan Golan, Eilon Sherman
The plasma membrane is a complex medium where transmembrane proteins diffuse and interact to facilitate cell function. Membrane protein mobility is affected by multiple mechanisms, including crowding, trapping, medium elasticity and structure, thus limiting our ability to distinguish them in intact cells. Here we characterize the mobility and organization of a short transmembrane protein at the plasma membrane of live T cells, using single particle tracking and photoactivated-localization microscopy. Protein mobility is highly heterogeneous, subdiffusive and ergodic-like...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Rui Zhang, Shimin Liu, Jitendra Bahadur, Derek Elsworth, Yi Wang, Guanglong Hu, Yanna Liang
Microbial enhanced coalbed methane (ME-CBM) recovery is critically examined as a viable technology for natural gas recovery from coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. Since the majority of gas-in-place (GIP) is stored as an adsorbed phase in fine pores of coal matrix, the nano-pore structure directly influences gas storage and transport properties. Only limited studies have quantified the alteration of the nano-pore structure due to ME-CBM treatment. This study examines the evolution of the pore structure using a combination of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low-pressure N2 and CO2 adsorption (LPGA) and high-pressure methane adsorption methods...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shouning Chai, Yujing Wang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Meichuan Liu, Yanbin Wang, Guohua Zhao
To improve selectivity of electrocatalytic degrading to toxic, odorous thiophenol in wastewater, the fractal-structured dendritic Au/BDD (boron doped diamond) anode with molecular recognition is fabricated through facile replacement method. The characterizations of SEM and TEM show that the gold dendrites compose of single crystalline and have high population of the Au (111) facet. The distinctive structure endows the electrode with advantages of low resistivity, high active surface area, and prominent electrocatalytic activity...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
M H Yang, J H Li, B X Liu
In the present study, atomistic simulation reveals that the microscopic mechanism of the relaxation dynamics in amorphous materials is governed by the activating atoms that jump more than half of the average nearest neighbor distance within a given time. Based on the unsupervised machine-learning algorithm, hierarchical clustering analysis shows that the activating atoms are excited in a cooperative and avalanche-like model to form activating units. Correlation analysis suggests that large free volumes facilitate the formation of activating atoms...
June 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhiyu Huang, Jiao Chen, Xiaoyan Ai, Ruirui Li, Yingwei Ai, Wei Li
Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Antony Kwan-Pui Law, Neelam Kumari, Daniel Shu-Wei Ting, Gavin Tan, Paul Mitchell, Ching Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to examine prospectively the association between a range of retinal vascular geometric variables measured from retinal photographs and the 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study of Asian Malay individuals aged 40-80 years at baseline (n = 3280) who returned for a 6 year follow-up. Retinal vascular geometric variables (tortuosity, branching, fractal dimension, calibre) were measured from baseline retinal photographs using a computer-assisted program (Singapore I Vessel Assessment)...
June 16, 2017: Diabetologia
Lei Qin, Cheng Zhai, Shimin Liu, Jizhao Xu
Freeze-thaw induced fracturing coal by liquid nitrogen (LN2) injection exerts a significant positive effect on the fracture permeability enhancement of the coal reservoir. To evaluate the different freeze-thaw variables which modify the mechanical properties of treated coals, the effects of freezing time, number of freeze-thaw cycles, and the moisture content of coal were studied using combined uniaxial compression and acoustic emission testing systems. Freezing the samples with LN2 for increasing amounts of time degraded the strength of coal within a certain limit...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
N G Antoniou, F K Diakonos, X N Maintas, C E Tsagkarakis
We show that, at the critical temperature, there is a class of Lee-Yang zeros of the partition function in a general scalar field theory, which location scales with the size of the system with a characteristic exponent expressed in terms of the isothermal critical exponent δ. In the thermodynamic limit the zeros belonging to this class condense to the critical point ζ=1 on the real axis in the complex fugacity plane while the complementary set of zeros (with Reζ<1) covers the unit circle. Although the aforementioned class degenerates to a single point for an infinite system, when the size is finite it contributes significantly to the partition function and reflects the self-similar structure (fractal geometry, scaling laws) of the critical system...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Sarah E Marzen, James P Crutchfield
Scientific explanation often requires inferring maximally predictive features from a given data set. Unfortunately, the collection of minimal maximally predictive features for most stochastic processes is uncountably infinite. In such cases, one compromises and instead seeks nearly maximally predictive features. Here, we derive upper bounds on the rates at which the number and the coding cost of nearly maximally predictive features scale with desired predictive power. The rates are determined by the fractal dimensions of a process' mixed-state distribution...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Marcello A Budroni, Andrea Baronchelli, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras
Methods connecting dynamical systems and graph theory have attracted increasing interest in the past few years, with applications ranging from a detailed comparison of different kinds of dynamics to the characterization of empirical data. Here we investigate the effects of the (multi)fractal properties of a signal, common in time series arising from chaotic dynamics or strange attractors, on the topology of a suitably projected network. Relying on the box-counting formalism, we map boxes into the nodes of a network and establish analytic expressions connecting the natural measure of a box with its degree in the graph representation...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Richard Kenyon, Jason Miller, Scott Sheffield, David B Wilson
Square ice is a statistical mechanics model for two-dimensional ice, widely believed to have a conformally invariant scaling limit. We associate a Peano (space-filling) curve to a square ice configuration, and more generally to a so-called six-vertex model configuration, and argue that its scaling limit is a space-filling version of the random fractal curve SLE_{κ}, Schramm-Loewner evolution with parameter κ, where 4<κ≤12+8sqrt[2]. For square ice, κ=12. At the "free-fermion point" of the six-vertex model, κ=8+4sqrt[3]...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Trifce Sandev, Alexander Iomin, Holger Kantz
We present exact analytical results for properties of anomalous diffusion on a fractal mesh. The fractal mesh structure is a direct product of two fractal sets, one belonging to a main branch of backbones, the other to the side branches of fingers. Both fractal sets are constructed on the entire (infinite) y and x axes. We suggest a special algorithm in order to construct such sets out of standard Cantor sets embedded in the unit interval. The transport properties of the fractal mesh are studied, in particular, subdiffusion along the backbones is obtained with the dispersion relation 〈x^{2}(t)〉≃t^{β}, where the transport exponent β<1 is determined by the fractal dimensions of both backbone and fingers...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
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