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Aristeidis Papagiannopoulos, Maria Karayianni, Stergios Pispas, Aurel Radulescu
The complexation of lysozyme with aggregates from two triblock amphiphilic polyelectrolytes of the same blocks but different topologies and block molar masses, namely PS-b-SCPI-b-PEO and SCPI-b-PS-b-PEO, is investigated by scattering and spectroscopy methods. Light scattering reveals that the interaction with lysozyme causes shrinkage of the self-assembled nanoparticles in the case of the hydrophobic-polyelectrolyte-hydrophilic sequence. In the polyelectrolyte-hydrophobic-hydrophilic sequence, the opposite trend is observed...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Troy J Rand, Mukul Mukherjee
The sensorimotor system prefers sway velocity information when maintaining upright posture. Sway velocity has a unique characteristic of being persistent on a short time-scale and anti-persistent on a longer time-scale. The time where the transition from persistence to anti-persistence occurs provides information about how sway velocity is controlled. It is, however, not clear what factors affect shifts in this transition point. This research investigated postural responses to support surface movements of different temporal correlations and movement velocities...
March 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Folami Alamudun, Paige Paulus, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi
Prior research has shown that physicians' medical decisions can be influenced by sequential context, particularly in cases where successive stimuli exhibit similar characteristics when analyzing medical images. This type of systematic error is known to psychophysicists as sequential context effect as it indicates that judgments are influenced by features of and decisions about the preceding case in the sequence of examined cases, rather than being based solely on the peculiarities unique to the present case...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Heiko Hoffmann
The general mechanisms behind self-organized criticality (SOC) are still unknown. Several microscopic and mean-field theory approaches have been suggested, but they do not explain the dependence of the exponents on the underlying network topology of the SOC system. Here, we first report the phenomena that in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, sites inside an avalanche area largely return to their original state after the passing of an avalanche, forming, effectively, critically arranged clusters of sites...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Wei Huang, Pengcheng Hou, Junfeng Wang, Robert M Ziff, Youjin Deng
We study critical bond percolation on a seven-dimensional hypercubic lattice with periodic boundary conditions (7D) and on the complete graph (CG) of finite volume (number of vertices) V. We numerically confirm that for both cases, the critical number density n(s,V) of clusters of size s obeys a scaling form n(s,V)∼s^{-τ}n[over ̃](s/V^{d_{f}^{*}}) with identical volume fractal dimension d_{f}^{*}=2/3 and exponent τ=1+1/d_{f}^{*}=5/2. We then classify occupied bonds into bridge bonds, which includes branch and junction bonds, and nonbridge bonds; a bridge bond is a branch bond if and only if its deletion produces at least one tree...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
J James Frost, Kenneth J Pienta, Donald S Coffey
Symmetry and symmetry breaking concepts from physics and biology are applied to the problem of cancer. Three categories of symmetry breaking in cancer are examined: combinatorial, geometric, and functional. Within these categories, symmetry breaking is examined for relevant cancer features, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); tumor heterogeneity; tensegrity; fractal geometric and information structure; functional interaction networks; and network stabilizability and attack tolerance. The new cancer symmetry concepts are relevant to homeostasis loss in cancer and to its origin, spread, treatment and resistance...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jasmin L Whittaker, Rajkamal Balu, Robert Knott, Liliana de Campo, Jitendra P Mata, Christine Rehm, Anita J Hill, Naba K Dutta, Namita Roy Choudhury
Regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin (RSF) is a widely recognized protein for biomedical applications; however, their hierarchical gel structures are poorly understood. In this paper, the hierarchical structure of photocrosslinked RSF and RSF-based hybrid hydrogel systems: (i) RSF/Rec1-resilin and (ii) RSF/poly(N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCL) is reported for the first time using small-angle scattering (SAS) techniques. The structure of RSF in dilute to concentrated solution to fabricated hydrogels were characterized using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
K E Polovnikov, M Gherardi, M Cosentino-Lagomarsino, M V Tamm
Chromosomes are key players of cell physiology, their dynamics provides valuable information about its physical organization. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the short-time motion of chromosomal loci has been described with a Rouse model in a simple or viscoelastic medium. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of the folded organization of chromosomes on the local dynamics. Clearly, stress propagation, and thus dynamics, must be affected by such organization, but a theory allowing us to extract such information from data, e...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Michelangelo Nigro, Davide Viggiano, Vincenzo Ragone, Tiziana Trabace, Annamaria di Palma, Michele Rossini, Giovambattista Capasso, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Gigliotti
BACKGROUND: The classical approach to the analysis of kidney biopsies is based on semi-quantitative scores of the amount of sclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and vascular damage. However, advanced renal lesions may be accompanied by a paucity of clinical features and, conversely, important clinical abnormalities may be accompanied by minimal histopathological changes. The objective of this study is to correlate new, semiautomatic, quantitative features of kidney biopsies (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
J M Alonso, A Arroyuelo, P G Garay, O A Martin, J A Vila
There is a need to develop widely applicable tools to understand glycan organization, diversity and structure. We present a graph-theoretical study of a large sample of glycans in terms of finite dimension, a new metric which is an adaptation to finite sets of the classical Hausdorff "fractal" dimension. Every glycan in the sample is encoded, via finite dimension, as a point of Glycan Space, a new notion introduced in this paper. Two major outcomes were found: (a) the existence of universal bounds that restrict the universe of possible glycans and show, for instance, that the graphs of glycans are a very special type of chemical graph, and (b) how Glycan Space is related to biological domains associated to the analysed glycans...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyunsu Park, Pavel Takmakov, Hyowon Lee
Advancements in microfabrication has enabled manufacturing of microscopic neurostimulation electrodes with smaller footprint than ever possible. The smaller electrodes can potentially reduce tissue damage and allow better spatial resolution for neural stimulation. Although electrodes of any shape can easily be fabricated, substantial effort have been focused on identification and characterization of new materials and surface morphology for efficient charge injection, while maintaining simple circular or rectangular Euclidean electrode geometries...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ratna Jyothi, Ajay Kumar Nair, Rahul Venugopal, Arun Sasidharan, Prasanta Kumar Ghosh, John P John, Seema Mehrotra, Ravindra Panth, Bindu M Kutty
Meditation, as taught by most schools of practice, consists of a set of heterogeneous techniques. We wanted to assess if EEG profiles varied across different meditation techniques, proficiency levels and experience of the practitioners. We examined EEG dynamics in Vipassana meditators (Novice, Senior meditators and Teachers) while they engaged in their traditional meditation practice (concentration, mindfulness and loving kindness in a structured manner) as taught by S.N. Goenka. Seniors and Teachers (vs Novices) showed trait increases in delta (1-4 Hz), theta-alpha (6-10 Hz) and low-gamma power (30-40 Hz) at baseline rest; state-trait increases in low-alpha (8-10 Hz) and low-gamma power during concentrative and mindfulness meditation; and theta-alpha and low-gamma power during loving-kindness meditation...
March 8, 2018: Biological Psychology
Rupesh Verma, Romil Audhkhasi, Krishna Thyagarajan, Varsha Banerjee
Many of the present-day optical devices use photonic crystals. These are multilayers of dielectric media that control the reflection and transmission of light falling on them. In this paper, we study the optical properties of periodic, fractal, and aperiodic photonic crystals and compare them based on their attributes. Our calculations of the band reflectivity and degree of robustness reveal novel features, e.g., fractal photonic crystals are found to reflect the maximum amount of incident light. On the other hand, aperiodic photonic crystals have the largest immunity to disorder...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Alexander Schmidt, Ernst G Schukat-Talamazzini, Janine Zöllkau, Adelina Pytlik, Sophia Leibl, Kathrin Kumm, Franziska Bode, Isabelle Kynass, Otto W Witte, Ekkehard Schleussner, Uwe Schneider, Dirk Hoyer
Adverse prenatal environmental influences to the developing fetus are associated with mental and cardiovascular disease in later life. Universal developmental characteristics such as self-organization, pattern formation, and adaptation in the growing information processing system have not yet been sufficiently analyzed with respect to description of normal fetal development and identification of developmental disturbances. Fetal heart rate patterns are the only non-invasive order parameter of the developing autonomic brain available with respect to the developing complex organ system...
March 5, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Charles N Melton, Sheida T Riahinasab, Amir Keshavarz, Benjamin J Stokes, Linda S Hirst
When nanoparticle self-assembly takes place in an anisotropic liquid crystal environment, fascinating new effects can arise. The presence of elastic anisotropy and topological defects can direct spatial organization. An important goal in nanoscience is to direct the assembly of nanoparticles over large length scales to produce macroscopic composite materials; however, limitations on spatial ordering exist due to the inherent disorder of fluid-based methods. In this paper we demonstrate the formation of quantum dot clusters and spherical capsules suspended within spherical liquid crystal droplets as a method to position nanoparticle clusters at defined locations...
March 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Fabian Sieland, Jenny Schneider, Detlef W Bahnemann
The effects of the particle size distribution on the charge carrier dynamics and the photocatalytic activity of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) powder samples were investigated in this work. Instead of the synthesis of the small semiconductor particles, the binary particle size distributions of the powders were obtained by mixing commercially available TiO2 powders with different particle sizes. The pure anatase samples (average diameters: 7, 20, and 125 nm, respectively) were created via ultrasound treatment and discreet drying...
March 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dalei Jing, Shiyu Song, Yunlu Pan, Xiaoming Wang
The fractal tree-like branched network is an effective channel design structure to reduce the hydraulic resistance as compared with the conventional parallel channel network. In order for a laminar flow to achieve minimum hydraulic resistance, it is believed that the optimal fractal tree-like channel network obeys the well-accepted Murray's law of βm = N -1/3 (βm is the optimal diameter ratio between the daughter channel and the parent channel and N is the branching number at every level), which is obtained under the assumption of no-slip conditions at the channel wall-liquid interface...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Maie Bachmann, Laura Päeske, Kaia Kalev, Katrin Aarma, Andres Lehtmets, Pille Ööpik, Jaanus Lass, Hiie Hinrikus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Depressive disorder is one of the leading causes of burden of disease today and it is presumed to take the first place in the world in 2030. Early detection of depression requires a patient-friendly inexpensive method based on easily measurable objective indicators. This study aims to compare various single-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) measures in application for detection of depression. METHODS: The EEG recordings were performed on a group of 13 medication-free depressive outpatients and 13 gender and age matched controls...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Scott W Ducharme, Joshua J Liddy, Jeffrey M Haddad, Michael A Busa, Laura J Claxton, Richard E A van Emmerik
Human locomotion is an inherently complex activity that requires the coordination and control of neurophysiological and biomechanical degrees of freedom across various spatiotemporal scales. Locomotor patterns must constantly be altered in the face of changing environmental or task demands, such as heterogeneous terrains or obstacles. Variability in stride times occurring at short time scales (e.g., 5-10 strides) is statistically correlated to larger fluctuations occurring over longer time scales (e.g., 50-100 strides)...
March 2, 2018: Human Movement Science
María Laura Fanani, Natalia Wilke
Demixing of components has long been described in model membranes. It is a consequence of non-ideal lateral interactions between membrane components, and it causes the presence of segregated phases, forming patches (domains) of different properties, thus introducing heterogeneity into the membrane. In the present review we first describe the processes through which domains are generated, how they grow, and why they are rounded, striped or fractal-like, as well as why they get distributed forming defined patterns...
March 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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