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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769579/hla-class-ii-haplotypes-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Meriem Bennabi, Alexandru Gaman, Richard Delorme, Wahid Boukouaci, Céline Manier, Isabelle Scheid, Nassima Si Mohammed, Djaouida Bengoufa, Dominique Charron, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza
Infections and autoimmunity are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with both strongly influenced by the genetic regulation of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The relationship between ASD and the HLA genetic diversity requires further investigation. Using a case control design, the distribution of HLA class II-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were investigated in ASD patients, versus healthy controls (HC). ASD patients meeting DSM-IV TR criteria and HC (474 and 350 respectively) were genotyped at medium resolution using a Luminex-based SSO technology...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685134/oral-sensitization-to-whey-proteins-induces-age-and-sex-dependent-behavioral-abnormality-and-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-food-allergy-a-potential-role-of-mast-cells
#2
Danielle L Germundson, Nicholas A Smith, Lane P Vendsel, Andrea V Kelsch, Colin K Combs, Kumi Nagamoto-Combs
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence has strengthened the association of food allergy with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms by which peripheral allergic responses lead to behavioral dysfunction are yet to be determined. Allergen-activated mast cells may serve as mediators by releasing histamine and other inflammatory factors that could adversely affect brain function. We hypothesized that eliciting food allergy in experimental animals would result in behavioral changes accompanied by mast cell accumulation in the brain...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617356/clostridium-bacteria-and-autism-spectrum-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-hypothetical-contribution-of-environmental-glyphosate-levels
#3
REVIEW
Isadora Argou-Cardozo, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá
Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors...
April 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600698/role-of-microbiota-in-the-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Daniela Campion, Paola Ponzo, Carlo Alessandria, Giorgio M Saracco, Federico Balzola
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) defines a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with repetitive patterns of behavior. Symptoms generally appear in the early developmental period and cause significant impairment in individual and social functioning. In recent years the increased prevalence of ASD, along with the evidence of a significant link between autism and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, raised a special interest in exploringì the reciprocal influences between gut and brain...
March 30, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593681/intestinal-microbiota-influences-non-intestinal-related-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Maria C Opazo, Elizabeth M Ortega-Rocha, Irenice Coronado-Arrázola, Laura C Bonifaz, Helene Boudin, Michel Neunlist, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Claudia A Riedel
The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571898/differential-immune-responses-and-microbiota-profiles-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-co-morbid-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#7
Destanie R Rose, Houa Yang, Gloria Serena, Craig Sturgeon, Bing Ma, Milo Careaga, Heather K Hughes, Kathy Angkustsiri, Melissa Rose, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Judy Van de Water, Robin L Hansen, Jacques Ravel, Alessio Fasano, Paul Ashwood
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have reported the increased presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Altered microbiome profiles, pro-inflammatory responses and impaired intestinal permeability have been observed in children with ASD and co-morbid GI symptoms, yet few studies have compared these findings to ASD children without GI issues or similarly aged typical developing children. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are biological signatures in terms of immune dysfunction and microbiota composition in children with ASD with GI symptoms...
March 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556402/noncontiguous-finished-genome-sequence-of-megasphaera-sp-asd88-isolated-from-faeces-of-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
A V Chaplin, S I Polyakova, T O Kochetkova, S R Sokolova, A Y Goltsov, D Y Trofimov, B A Efimov
We report here a draft genome sequence of Megasphaera sp. ASD88, a strain from the intestinal microbiota of a child with autism spectrum disorder, representing a previously undescribed species of the genus Megasphaera. The assembled sequence consists of 88 scaffolds, and the total size is 2.59 Mb.
March 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526827/toxin-profile-of-fecal-clostridium-perfringens-strains-isolated-from-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Góra Bartłomiej, Gofron Zygmunt, Grosiak Magdalena, Aptekorz Małgorzata, Kazek Beata, Kocelak Piotr, Radosz-Komoniewska Halina, Chudek Jerzy, Martirosian Gayane
Infectious factors are taken into consideration in pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD patients often suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The intestinal microbiota of autistic patients significantly differs from that in healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the profile of toxins produced by C. perfringens strains isolated from feces of children with ASD, with healthy individuals and obese subjects. This study included 111 strains of C. perfringens: 49 isolates from 29 children with ASD, 30 - from 17 healthy individuals and 32 - from 24 young obese subjects...
March 8, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460795/evidence-the-u-s-autism-epidemic-initiated-by-acetaminophen-tylenol-is-aggravated-by-oral-antibiotic-amoxicillin-clavulanate-augmentin-and-now-exponentially-by-herbicide-glyphosate-roundup
#10
Peter Good
Because certain hereditary diseases show autistic behavior, and autism often runs in families, researchers seek genes underlying the pathophysiology of autism, thus core behaviors. Other researchers argue environmental factors are decisive, citing compelling evidence of an autism epidemic in the United States beginning about 1980. Recognition that environmental factors influence gene expression led to synthesis of these views - an 'epigenetic epidemic' provoked by pervasive environmental agents altering expression of vulnerable genes, inducing characteristic autistic biochemistries in many mothers and infants...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427656/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-probiotics-on-neural-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Ceymi Doenyas
Recent evidence implicates immune alterations and gut microbiota dysbiosis in at least some subpopulations of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immune and gut alterations in ASD have mostly been studied separately, and the reviews and theoretical models up to now have mainly considered the immune system as one of the routes for gut-brain communication. We take a different perspective and consider possible common mechanisms of action for the gut microbiota and inflammation on the neural basis of ASD...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411548/searching-for-the-gut-microbial-contributing-factors-to-social-behavior-in-rodent-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355379/fecal-calprotectin-levels-correlate-with-main-domains-of-the-autism-diagnostic-interview-revised-adi-r-in-a-sample-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-from-slovakia
#13
K Babinská, A Tomova, H Celušáková, J Babková, G Repiská, A Kubranská, D Filčíková, L Siklenková, D Ostatníková
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior and restricted interests. There is convincing evidence that the intestinal inflammation is involved in etiology of ASD. Increased levels of inflammatory markers were shown to be associated with more aberrant behaviors and communication of subjects with ASD. Calprotectin in the feces is produced by activated neutrophils and epithelial cells of the gut mucosa, and its levels reflect local inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183720/contemporary-applications-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-intestinal-diseases-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky
The intestinal microbiota comprise an important organ that plays a vital role in host digestion, development, energy maintenance, hemostasis, and immunity. Disruption of the gut microbial community due to diet, lifestyle, or antibiotic exposure increases susceptibility to chronic infection and disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the transfer of gut microbiota from a healthy donor to a patient in order to restore normal diversity and function of the microbial community. This method has become a well established alternative therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171095/the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-a-review
#16
REVIEW
P C Barko, M A McMichael, K S Swanson, D A Williams
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a diverse consortium of bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses that inhabit the gut of all mammals. Studies in humans and other mammals have implicated the microbiome in a range of physiologic processes that are vital to host health including energy homeostasis, metabolism, gut epithelial health, immunologic activity, and neurobehavioral development. The microbial genome confers metabolic capabilities exceeding those of the host organism alone, making the gut microbiome an active participant in host physiology...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147105/depletion-of-stercobilin-in-fecal-matter-from-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Emily R Sekera, Heather L Rudolph, Stephen D Carro, Michael J Morales, Glenna C L Bett, Randall L Rasmusson, Troy D Wood
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders lacking a clinical biomarker for diagnosis. Emerging evidence shows that intestinal microflora from ASD subjects can be distinguished from controls, suggesting metabolite differences due to the action of intestinal microbes may provide a means for identifying potential biomarkers for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if quantitative differences in levels of stercobilin and stercobilinogen, metabolites produced by biological action of intestinal microflora, exist in the fecal matter between an ASD mouse model population and controls...
November 2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102384/increased-stool-immunoglobulin-a-level-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Jiaxiu Zhou, Fusheng He, Feng Yang, Zheng Yang, Yingjun Xie, Shaoming Zhou, Jingwen Liang, Ruihuan Xu, Yan Wang, Hailiang Guo, Wenhao Zhou, Mingbang Wang
BACKGROUND: There are currently no effective treatments for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, alleviating gastrointestinal (GI) problems, which are prevalent in ASD patients, can significantly improve the core symptoms of autism. Previous studies have associated GI disorders in ASD patients with abnormal gut microbiota, although few disease-related microorganisms have been identified. Considering that the gut microbiome affects the intestinal immune system and the patient's behavior, and that immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main antibody secreted by intestinal immune cells, we investigated stool IgA content as a means of understanding the gut immune status of ASD patients...
October 25, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090837/biological-plausibility-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-autism
#19
Alex Vasquez
Organic abnormalities with neuroinflammatory and psychiatric consequences involving abnormal kynurenine and purine metabolism, neurotransmitter and cytokine imbalances, and altered levels of nutrients and metabolites are noted in autism, and many of these abnormalities-specifically including increased intestinal permeability, microbial metabolites, and heightened serum levels of endotoxin-originate from the gut.
November 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072974/the-occurrence-of-antibodies-against-gluten-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-does-not-correlate-with-serological-markers-of-impaired-intestinal-permeability
#20
Jan Józefczuk, Ewa Konopka, Joanna Beata Bierła, Ilona Trojanowska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Rafał Czarnecki, Lucjan Sobol, Paweł Józefczuk, Weronika Surdy, Bożena Cukrowska
There is evidence that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) display an increased immune reactivity against gluten, which is supposed to be the effect of intestinal barrier abnormalities. The aim of study was to evaluate the relation of antibody induced by gluten to zonulin and intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (I-FABP), that is, serological markers of an impaired gut barrier. The study included 77 patients with ASDs. Zonulin, I-FABP, celiac-specific antibodies, anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), and antibodies against neural transglutaminase 6 (TG6) of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG classes were detected in sera...
February 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
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