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Autism intestine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147105/depletion-of-stercobilin-in-fecal-matter-from-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Emily R Sekera, Heather L Rudolph, Stephen D Carro, Michael J Morales, Glenna C L Bett, Randall L Rasmusson, Troy D Wood
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders lacking a clinical biomarker for diagnosis. Emerging evidence shows that intestinal microflora from ASD subjects can be distinguished from controls, suggesting metabolite differences due to the action of intestinal microbes may provide a means for identifying potential biomarkers for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if quantitative differences in levels of stercobilin and stercobilinogen, metabolites produced by biological action of intestinal microflora, exist in the fecal matter between an ASD mouse model population and controls...
November 2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102384/increased-stool-immunoglobulin-a-level-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Jiaxiu Zhou, Fusheng He, Feng Yang, Zheng Yang, Yingjun Xie, Shaoming Zhou, Jingwen Liang, Ruihuan Xu, Yan Wang, Hailiang Guo, Wenhao Zhou, Mingbang Wang
BACKGROUND: There are currently no effective treatments for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, alleviating gastrointestinal (GI) problems, which are prevalent in ASD patients, can significantly improve the core symptoms of autism. Previous studies have associated GI disorders in ASD patients with abnormal gut microbiota, although few disease-related microorganisms have been identified. Considering that the gut microbiome affects the intestinal immune system and the patient's behavior, and that immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main antibody secreted by intestinal immune cells, we investigated stool IgA content as a means of understanding the gut immune status of ASD patients...
October 25, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090837/biological-plausibility-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-autism
#3
Alex Vasquez
Organic abnormalities with neuroinflammatory and psychiatric consequences involving abnormal kynurenine and purine metabolism, neurotransmitter and cytokine imbalances, and altered levels of nutrients and metabolites are noted in autism, and many of these abnormalities-specifically including increased intestinal permeability, microbial metabolites, and heightened serum levels of endotoxin-originate from the gut.
November 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072974/the-occurrence-of-antibodies-against-gluten-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-does-not-correlate-with-serological-markers-of-impaired-intestinal-permeability
#4
Jan Józefczuk, Ewa Konopka, Joanna Beata Bierła, Ilona Trojanowska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Rafał Czarnecki, Lucjan Sobol, Paweł Józefczuk, Weronika Surdy, Bożena Cukrowska
There is evidence that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) display an increased immune reactivity against gluten, which is supposed to be the effect of intestinal barrier abnormalities. The aim of study was to evaluate the relation of antibody induced by gluten to zonulin and intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (I-FABP), that is, serological markers of an impaired gut barrier. The study included 77 patients with ASDs. Zonulin, I-FABP, celiac-specific antibodies, anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), and antibodies against neural transglutaminase 6 (TG6) of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG classes were detected in sera...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046233/association-among-gut-microbes-intestinal-physiology-and-autism
#5
Wei-Li Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023380/the-gut-microbiome-feelings-of-the-brain-a-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#6
REVIEW
Aaron Lerner, Sandra Neidhöfer, Torsten Matthias
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut-brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: "gut-brain axis", "gut-microbiota-brain axis", "nutrition microbiome/microbiota", "enteric nervous system", "enteric glial cells/network", "gut-brain pathways", "microbiome immune system", "microbiome neuroendocrine system" and "intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides"...
October 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965876/microbiota-related-changes-in-bile-acid-tryptophan-metabolism-are-associated-with-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism
#7
Anna V Golubeva, Susan A Joyce, Gerard Moloney, Aurelijus Burokas, Eoin Sherwin, Silvia Arboleya, Ian Flynn, Dmitry Khochanskiy, Angela Moya-Pérez, Veronica Peterson, Kieran Rea, Kiera Murphy, Olga Makarova, Sergey Buravkov, Niall P Hyland, Catherine Stanton, Gerard Clarke, Cormac G M Gahan, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental conditions worldwide. There is growing awareness that ASD is highly comorbid with gastrointestinal distress and altered intestinal microbiome, and that host-microbiome interactions may contribute to the disease symptoms. However, the paucity of knowledge on gut-brain axis signaling in autism constitutes an obstacle to the development of precision microbiota-based therapeutics in ASD. To this end, we explored the interactions between intestinal microbiota, gut physiology and social behavior in a BTBR T(+)Itpr3(tf)/J mouse model of ASD...
October 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922251/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#8
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906292/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#9
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#10
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805460/case-study-of-homeopathic-bowel-nosode-remedies-for-dysbiotic-japanese-patients
#11
Yoko Uchiyama-Tanaka
BACKGROUND: The composition of intestinal microbiota is very important in human health. Gastrointestinal disturbances are among the symptoms commonly reported by individuals diagnosed with chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autism, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics for dysbiosis have been reported in many studies. Bowel nosodes are homeopathic remedies made from human gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: Bowel nosodes made from the intestinal bacteria of European patients from the 1900s were administered to Japanese patients suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances, such as constipation and diarrhea, to determine their therapeutic efficacy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799094/hydrogen-breath-test-to-detect-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-a-prevalence-case-control-study-in-autism
#12
Li Wang, Yu-Mei Yu, You-Qi Zhang, Jie Zhang, Na Lu, Na Liu
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by hydrogen breath test in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with respect to a consistent control group. From 2011 to 2013, 310 children with ASD and 1240 sex- and age-matched typical children were enrolled in this study to undergo glucose breath test. The study participants were considered to exhibit SIBO when an increase in H2 of ≥20 ppm or CH4 of ≥10 ppm with respect to the fasting value was observed up to 60 min after the ingestion of glucose...
August 10, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795659/role-of-mycotoxins-in-the-pathobiology-of-autism-a-first-evidence
#13
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738753/genetic-predictors-of-celiac-disease-lactose-intolerance-and-vitamin-d-function-and-presence-of-peptide-morphins-in-urine-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#14
Katarina Bojović, Biljana Stanković, Nikola Kotur, Dijana Krstić-Milošević, Vladimir Gašić, Sonja Pavlović, Branka Zukić, Đurđica Ignjatović
Gastrointestinal disturbances, nutritional deficiencies, and food intolerances are frequently observed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). To reveal possible association of celiac disease risk variants (HLA-DQ), lactose intolerance associated variant (LCT-13910C>T) as well as variant associated with vitamin D function (VDR FokI) with NDD, polymerase chain reaction-based methodology was used. Additionally, intestinal peptide permeability was estimated in NDD patients and healthy children by measuring the level of peptides in urine using high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502607/increased-serum-zonulin-levels-as-an-intestinal-permeability-marker-in-autistic-subjects
#15
Erman Esnafoglu, Selma Cırrık, Sema Nur Ayyıldız, Abdullah Erdil, Emine Yurdakul Ertürk, Abdullah Daglı, Tevfik Noyan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum levels of zonulin, which regulates tight junctions between enterocytes and is a physiological modulator controlling intestinal permeability, in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). STUDY DESIGN: Serum zonulin levels were determined in 32 patients with ASD and 33 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of ASD symptoms was assessed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. RESULTS: Serum zonulin levels were significantly higher in the patients with ASD (122...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349974/sex-related-alterations-of-gut-microbiota-composition-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Lorena Coretti, Claudia Cristiano, Ermanno Florio, Giovanni Scala, Adriano Lama, Simona Keller, Mariella Cuomo, Roberto Russo, Raffaela Pero, Orlando Paciello, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Sergio Cocozza, Antonio Calignano, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Francesca Lembo
Alterations of microbiota-gut-brain axis have been invoked in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mouse models could represent an excellent tool to understand how gut dysbiosis and related alterations may contribute to autistic phenotype. In this study we paralleled gut microbiota (GM) profiles, behavioral characteristics, intestinal integrity and immunological features of colon tissues in BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice, a well established animal model of ASD. Sex differences, up to date poorly investigated in animal models, were specifically addressed...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275689/distinct-microbiome-neuroimmune-signatures-correlate-with%C3%A2-functional-abdominal-pain-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Ruth Ann Luna, Numan Oezguen, Miriam Balderas, Alamelu Venkatachalam, Jessica K Runge, James Versalovic, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, George M Anderson, Tor Savidge, Kent C Williams
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emerging data on the gut microbiome in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that altered host-microbe interactions may contribute to disease symptoms. Although gut microbial communities in children with ASD are reported to differ from individuals with neurotypical development, it is not known whether these bacteria induce pathogenic neuroimmune signals. METHODS: Because commensal clostridia interactions with the intestinal mucosa can regulate disease-associated cytokine and serotonergic pathways in animal models, we evaluated whether microbiome-neuroimmune profiles (from rectal biopsy specimens and blood) differed in ASD children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (ASD-FGID, n = 14) compared with neurotypical (NT) children with FGID (NT-FGID, n = 15) and without abdominal pain (NT, n = 6)...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222761/new-evidences-on-the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Francesco Strati, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Claudio De Felice, Claudio Donati, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Daniela Renzi, Antonio Calabrò, Carlotta De Filippo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social and behavioural impairments. In addition to neurological symptoms, ASD subjects frequently suffer from gastrointestinal abnormalities, thus implying a role of the gut microbiota in ASD gastrointestinal pathophysiology. RESULTS: Here, we characterized the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of autistic individuals demonstrating the presence of an altered microbial community structure...
February 22, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213183/a-role-for-the-serotonin-reuptake-transporter-in-the-brain-and-intestinal-features-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-developmental-antidepressant-exposure
#19
REVIEW
Kara Gross Margolis
Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122648/microbiota-transfer-therapy-alters-gut-ecosystem-and-improves-gastrointestinal-and-autism-symptoms-an-open-label-study
#20
Dae-Wook Kang, James B Adams, Ann C Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B Sullivan, J Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD...
January 23, 2017: Microbiome
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