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Autism intestine

W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Neil R Dalton, Susie Chandler, Charles Turner, Tony Charman, Andrew Pickles, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird
To measure urine indolylacroylglycine (IAG) excretion using the IAG:creatinine ratio in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with two groups of age matched controls, one with special needs but without ASD (SEN) and one typically developing (TD) and in subgroups with/without current gastrointestinal problems and ASD with and without regression. IAG:creatinine ratio was measured in the urine of 279 children aged 10-14 years: 129 children with ASD (28 with and 101 without regression), 62 SEN controls and 88 TD controls...
August 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Andre Carvalho, Javier R Caso, Yolanda Sanz, Ken Walder, Michael Maes
There is a growing awareness that gut commensal metabolites play a major role in host physiology and indeed the pathophysiology of several illnesses. The composition of the microbiota largely determines the levels of tryptophan in the systemic circulation and hence, indirectly, the levels of serotonin in the brain. Some microbiota synthesize neurotransmitters directly, e.g., gamma-amino butyric acid, while modulating the synthesis of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)...
June 27, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Cristiane P Lázaro, Milena P Pondé, Luiz E A Rodrigues
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in the individual's ability to socialize, communicate, and use the imagination, in addition to stereotyped behaviors. These disorders have a heterogenous phenotype, both in relation to symptoms and regarding severity. Organic problems related to the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with ASD, including dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, indigestion, malabsorption, food intolerance, and food allergies, leading to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
C J Carter
Even taking problems of diagnosis into account, a five-fold increase in the incidence of autism in recent decades, in the absence of any known changes in the human gene pool suggests a strong environmental influence. Numerous pollutants have been implicated in epidemiological studies, including pesticides, heavy metals, industrial solvents, air pollutants, particulate matter, bisphenol A, phthalates and flame retardants. Many genes have been implicated in autism, some of which are directly related to detoxification processes...
October 2016: Neurochemistry International
Elisa Santocchi, Letizia Guiducci, Francesca Fulceri, Lucia Billeci, Emma Buzzigoli, Fabio Apicella, Sara Calderoni, Enzo Grossi, Maria Aurora Morales, Filippo Muratori
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is frequently reported in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The GI disturbances in ASD might be linked to gut dysbiosis representing the observable phenotype of a "gut-brain axis" disruption. The exploitation of strategies which can restore normal gut microbiota and reduce the gut production and absorption of toxins, such as probiotics addition/supplementation in a diet, may represent a non-pharmacological option in the treatment of GI disturbances in ASD...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Peter C Konturek, Yurdagül Zopf
BACKGROUND: The concept of the brain-gut axis describes the communication between the central and enteric nervous system. The exchange of information takes place in both directions. The great advances in molecular medicine in recent years led to the discovery of an enormous number of microorganisms in the intestine (gut microbiome), which greatly affect the function of the brain-gut axis. METHOD: Overview RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Numerous studies indicate that the dysfunction of the brain-gut axis could lead to both inflammatory and functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract...
May 25, 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Gaurav Kaushik, David P Huber, Ken Aho, Bruce Finney, Shawn Bearden, Konstantinos S Zarbalis, Michael A Thomas
Psychoactive pharmaceuticals have been found as teratogens at clinical dosage during pregnancy. These pharmaceuticals have also been detected in minute (ppb) concentrations in drinking water in the US, and are environmental contaminants that may be complicit in triggering neurological disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Previous studies have determined that psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine and carbamazepine) at environmentally relevant concentrations enriched sets of genes regulating development and function of the nervous system in fathead minnows...
May 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hariom Kumar, Bhupesh Sharma
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, commonly characterized by altered social behavior, communication, biochemistry and pathological conditions. One percent of the worldwide population suffers from autism and males suffer more than females. NMDA receptors have the important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. This study has been designed to investigate the role of memantine, a NMDA receptor modulator, in prenatal valproic acid-induced autism in rats...
June 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Enie Lei, Kristina Vacy, Wah Chin Boon
There is little doubt that we are what we eat. Fatty acid supplementation and diets rich in fatty acids are being promoted as ways to a healthier brain. Short chain fatty acids are a product of intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary fibre; and their derivatives are used as an anti-convulstant. They demonstrated therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions as HDAC inhibitors; and while the mechanism is not well understood, have been shown to lower amyloid β in Alzheimer's Disease in preclinical studies...
May 2016: Neurochemistry International
Rafail I Kushak, Timothy M Buie, Katherine F Murray, David S Newburg, Ceng Chen, Eirini Nestoridi, Harland S Winter
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in intestinal function, often characterized as a "leaky gut," have been attributed to children who are on the autism spectrum. Disaccharidase activity, intestinal inflammation, and permeability were analyzed in 61 children with autism and 50 nonautistic individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: All patients had duodenal biopsies assayed for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and palatinase activity. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by rhamnose/lactulose test and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Hardiono D Pusponegoro, Sofyan Ismael, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Agus Firmansyah, Yvan Vandenplas
PURPOSE: Various gastrointestinal factors may contribute to maladaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To determine the association between maladaptive behavior in children with ASD and gastrointestinal symptoms such as severity, intestinal microbiota, inflammation, enterocyte damage, permeability and absorption of opioid peptides. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study compared children with ASD to healthy controls, aged 2-10 years...
December 2015: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Carlo Catassi
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in subjects who are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). The prevalence of NCGS is not clearly defined yet. Indirect evidence suggests that NCGS is slightly more common than CD, the latter affecting around 1% of the general population. NCGS has been mostly described in adults, particularly in females in the age group of 30-50 years; however, pediatric case series have also been reported...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Hariom Kumar, Bhupesh Sharma
Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV)...
January 1, 2016: Brain Research
Dong Ju Kim, Myoung Ki Sim, Sang Wook Lee, Tae Hee Lee
The vast majority of foreign bodies (FBs) that enter the stomach pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. When the FB enters the small bowel-beyond the reach of conventional endoscopy-daily radiographs are needed to ensure its safe passage. However, endoscopic intervention is an appropriate management strategy for a sharp-pointed FB, because sharp FBs have a higher risk of intestinal perforation. We describe here a case in which a 1.5-cm, sharp-pointed screw nail in the proximal jejunum was removed successfully by double-balloon enteroscopy from a 19-year-old-male with autism...
September 2015: Clinical Endoscopy
A Serda Kantarcioglu, Nuri Kiraz, Ahmet Aydin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a general term for a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders of brain development that limits a person's ability to function normally. Etiology has not been clearly defined up to date. However, gut microbiota and the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and brain, the so-called microbiota-gut-brain axis, are hypothesized, which may be involved in the etiology of several mental disorders. Recent reports suggest that Candida, particularly Candida albicans, growth in intestines may cause lower absorption of carbohydrates and minerals and higher toxin levels which are thought to contribute autistic behaviors...
February 2016: Mycopathologia
Stefano Gabriele, Roberto Sacco, Laura Altieri, Cristina Neri, Andrea Urbani, Carmela Bravaccio, Maria Pia Riccio, Maria Rosaria Iovene, Francesca Bombace, Laura De Magistris, Antonio M Persico
The uremic toxin p-cresol (4-methylphenol) is either of environmental origin or can be synthetized from tyrosine by cresol-producing bacteria present in the gut lumen. Elevated p-cresol amounts have been previously found in the urines of Italian and French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children up until 8 years of age, and may be associated with autism severity or with the intensity of abnormal behaviors. This study aims to investigate the mechanism producing elevated urinary p-cresol in ASD. Urinary p-cresol levels were thus measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in a sample of 53 Italian ASD children assessed for (a) presence of Clostridium spp...
July 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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