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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188687/the-influence-of-sex-and-age-on-prevalence-rates-of-comorbid-conditions-in-autism
#1
Kaustubh Supekar, Tara Iyer, Vinod Menon
Individuals with ASD frequently experience one or more comorbid conditions. Here, we investigate the influence of sex and age-two important, yet understudied factors-on ten common comorbid conditions in ASD, using cross-sectional data from 4790 individuals with ASD and 1,842,575 individuals without ASD. Epilepsy, ADHD, and CNS/cranial anomalies showed exceptionally large proportions in both male (>19%) and female (>15%), children/adolescents with ASD. Notably, these prevalence rates decreased drastically with age in both males and females...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141706/attached-to-a-diagnosis-the-quandary-of-social-deficits-and-reactive-attachment-disorder
#2
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866083/neuroanatomical-differences-in-fast-and-slow-rat-strains-with-differential-vulnerability-to-kindling-and-behavioral-comorbidities
#3
Pragati Sharma, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Michael A D Vandenberg, Ke Fang, Leigh A Johnston, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological factors underlying a predisposition towards developing epilepsy and its common behavioral comorbidities are poorly understood. FAST rats are a strain that has been selectively bred for enhanced vulnerability to kindling, while the SLOW strain has been bred to be resistant to kindling. FAST rats also exhibit behavioral traits reminiscent of those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) commonly comorbid with epilepsy...
December 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818011/human-grin2b-variants-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Chun Hu, Wenjuan Chen, Scott J Myers, Hongjie Yuan, Stephen F Traynelis
The development of whole exome/genome sequencing technologies has given rise to an unprecedented volume of data linking patient genomic variability to brain disorder phenotypes. A surprising number of variants have been found in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) gene family, with the GRIN2B gene encoding the GluN2B subunit being implicated in many cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, which are psychiatric conditions originating in childhood and include language, motor, and learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental delay, epilepsy, and schizophrenia...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797585/beneficial-effects-of-everolimus-on-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-a-group-of-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#5
Ayse Kilincaslan, Burcu Ece Kok, Pinar Tekturk, Cengiz Yalcinkaya, Cigdem Ozkara, Zuhal Yapici
OBJECTIVES: Such neuropsychiatric symptoms as autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, aggression, and epilepsy are very common in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, is a recent and effective treatment for TSC patients with giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipoma, and it has been shown to have a potential to reduce tumor volume. However, there is a paucity of studies on the effects of everolimus on neuropsychiatric symptoms...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651829/a-boy-with-conduct-disorder-cd-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-borderline-intellectual-disability-and-47-xxy-syndrome-in-combination-with-a-7q11-23-duplication-11p15-5-deletion-and-20q13-33-deletion
#6
Gerasimos Kolaitis, Christian G Bouwkamp, Alexia Papakonstantinou, Ioanna Otheiti, Maria Belivanaki, Styliani Haritaki, Terpsihori Korpa, Zinovia Albani, Elena Terzioglou, Polyxeni Apostola, Aggeliki Skamnaki, Athena Xaidara, Konstantina Kosma, Sophia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
BACKGROUND: This is a case with multiple chromosomal aberrations which are likely etiological for the observed psychiatric phenotype consisting of attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on an 11 year-old boy, admitted to the pediatric hospital for behavioral difficulties and a delayed neurodevelopmental trajectory. A cytogenetic analysis and high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516006/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-neurodevelopmental-disorders-adhd-and-autism
#7
George Mihai Bădescu, Mădălina Fîlfan, Raluca Elena Sandu, Roxana Surugiu, Ovidiu Ciobanu, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism represent a significant economic burden, which justify vigorous research to uncover its genetics and developmental clinics for a diagnostic workup. The urgency of addressing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidities is seen in the chilling fact that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, substance use disorders and obesity each increase the risk for mortality. However, data about comorbidity is mainly descriptive, with mechanistic studies limited to genetic epidemiological studies that document shared genetic risk factors among these conditions...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320508/-prevalence-of-the-use-of-psychoactive-medication-to-treat-young-persons-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-province-of-antwerp-belgium
#8
E Heyde, M Dhar, H Hellemans, E Schoentjes, D Van West
BACKGROUND: Very little information is available concerning the prevalence of the use of medication for treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly in European countries. Earlier studies have shown that a large number of patients with ASD use at least one psychoactive drug and that the numbers are increasing. Even in the nineties, studies suggested that the frequent use of psychoactive medication was widespread, although at the time there were only limited grounds for this assumption...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184676/psychiatric-and-behavioural-disorders-in-children-with-epilepsy-ilae-task-force-report-behavioural-and-psychiatric-disorders-associated-with-childhood-epilepsy-syndromes
#9
Frank Besag, Giuseppe Gobbi, Albert Aldenkamp, Rochelle Caplan, David W Dunn, Matti Sillanpää
The categorisation of the childhood epilepsies into a number of different syndromes has allowed greater insight into the prognosis, not only with regard to seizure control but also in relation to cognitive and behavioural outcome. The role of genetics in determining both the syndrome and the behavioural outcome remains promising, although the promise is still largely unfulfilled. The behavioural/psychiatric outcome of a selection of the large number of childhood epilepsy syndromes is presented. The rate of autism in West syndrome, particularly in children who have tuberous sclerosis with temporal tubers, is high...
May 16, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965387/emerging-roles-of-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-h%C3%A2-%C2%BA-exchangers-in-epilepsy-and-developmental-brain-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Hanshu Zhao, Karen E Carney, Lindsay Falgoust, Jullie W Pan, Dandan Sun, Zhongling Zhang
Epilepsy is a common central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by recurrent transient neurological events occurring due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. The CNS is affected by systemic acid-base disorders, and epileptic seizures are sensitive indicators of underlying imbalances in cellular pH regulation. Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) are a family of membrane transporter proteins actively involved in regulating intracellular and organellar pH by extruding H(+) in exchange for Na(+) influx...
March 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868186/the-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-modulates-autism-like-behavioral-and-motor-abnormalities-in-pentylenetetrazol-kindled-mice
#11
Kenshi Takechi, Katsuya Suemaru, Takeshi Kiyoi, Akihiro Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
Epilepsy is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including cognitive impairment, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the psychopathology of epilepsy is frequently unrecognized and untreated in patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ABT-418, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled mice with behavioral and motor abnormalities. PTZ-kindled mice displayed impaired motor coordination (in the rotarod test), anxiety (in the elevated plus maze test) and social approach impairment (in the three-chamber social test) compared with control mice...
March 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553293/electroencephalographic-neurofeedback-level-of-evidence-in-mental-and-brain-disorders-and-suggestions-for-good-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, A McGonigal, R Lopez, C Daudet, I Kotwas, F Bartolomei
The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique...
December 2015: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366961/mood-stabilizers-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Canitano
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment...
September 2015: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26353448/-effectiveness-and-safety-of-long-term-levetiracetam-treatment-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#14
Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Akiko Fuji, Tetsuo Matsuzaka, Hiroshi Baba, Keisuke Toda, Tomonori Ono, Shigeki Tanaka, Tatsuharu Sato, Hiroyuki Moriuchi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects and tolerability of levetiracetam (LEV) in refractory epilepsy. METHODS: LEV was administered to 76 patients whose seizures were inadequately controlled by their current medications. The patients were followed for a minimum of 18 months but less than 2 years. The efficacy of LEV treatment was assessed retrospectively as the proportion of patients who experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of seizures (50% RR), and adverse events were analyzed...
July 2015: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26091860/current-controversies-in-the-relationships-between-autism-and-epilepsy
#15
EDITORIAL
Frank M C Besag
The controversies that have arisen in endeavoring to establish the nature of the relationships between autism and epilepsy might be summarized in a few simple questions, most of which do not yet have clear, complete answers. Does epilepsy cause autism? Does autism cause epilepsy? Are there underlying brain mechanisms that predispose to both conditions? What is the role of genetics in this regard? What is the importance of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors? Do any of the proposed relationships between autism and epilepsy provide insight into useful management or treatment? Is the prognosis of either autism or epilepsy different when the other condition is also present? What is the role of additional comorbidities, such as intellectual impairment or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in the relationship between the two conditions and in influencing treatment choices? From the evidence currently available, it would appear that epilepsy can rarely be the cause of autistic features but is not the cause of autism in most cases...
June 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074864/the-role-of-epigenetic-change-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Yuk Jing Loke, Anthony John Hannan, Jeffrey Mark Craig
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by problems with social communication, social interaction, and repetitive or restricted behaviors. ASD are comorbid with other disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Rett syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome. Neither the genetic nor the environmental components have been characterized well enough to aid diagnosis or treatment of non-syndromic ASD. However, genome-wide association studies have amassed evidence suggesting involvement of hundreds of genes and a variety of associated genetic pathways...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26005841/autism-and-behavior-in-adult-patients-with-dravet-syndrome-ds
#17
J J L Berkvens, I Veugen, M J B M Veendrick-Meekes, F M Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, H J Schelhaas, M H Willemsen, I Y Tan, A P Aldenkamp
INTRODUCTION: Autism and behavioral characteristics in adults with Dravet syndrome (DS) have rarely been systematically studied. METHOD: Three scales were used to assess the outcomes of DS in adulthood in terms of autism and behavior. All the adult patients with DS, nine male and four female, aged between 18 and 60 years, living at the Epilepsy Center Kempenhaeghe in The Netherlands were included in the study. In addition, the past medical history of each patient was systematically screened for diagnoses like autism, Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and self-mutilation...
June 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957927/clinical-trials-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-psychiatry-and-neurology-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25950453/efficacy-and-safety-of-acupuncture-in-children-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#19
REVIEW
Chunsong Yang, Zilong Hao, Ling-Li Zhang, Qin Guo
In recent years, acupuncture has increasingly being integrated into pediatric health care. It was used on ~150,000 children (0.2%). We aim to update the evidence for the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children and evaluate the methodological qualities of these studies to improve future research in this area. We included 24 systematic reviews, comprising 142 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 12,787 participants. Only 25% (6/24) reviews were considered to be high quality (10.00 ± 0.63). High-quality systematic reviews and Cochrane systematic reviews tend to yield neutral or negative results (P = 0...
August 2015: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25882788/features-of-developmental-coordination-disorder-in-active-childhood-epilepsy-a-population-based-study
#20
Colin Reilly, Patricia Atkinson, Krishna B Das, Richard F Chin, Sarah E Aylett, Victoria Burch, Christopher Gillberg, Rod C Scott, Brian G R Neville
AIMS: To provide data on parent-reported features of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and describe neurobehavioural comorbidity in children with epilepsy and DCD. METHOD: Eighty-five (74% of those eligible) children (44 males, 41 females; age range 5-15y) with active childhood epilepsy (an epileptic seizure in the last year and/or currently taking antiepileptic drugs) in a population-based cohort underwent comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment. The DCD Questionnaire (DCD-Q) was completed by parents (n=69) of children with an IQ>34, of whom 56 did not have cerebral palsy (CP), and were considered for a diagnosis of DCD...
September 2015: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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